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In the twenty-first century, however, the managerial superiority of modernity is no longer self-evident. In the major industrial societies of the West, increases in the value of manufacturing have effectively stalled. Modernity, therefore, now faces existential threats on two fronts. Intellectually, the legitimacy of modern management is under attack from postmodernism. Economically, its standing is challenged by the ascent of China, a society where the democratic norms and individual freedoms of the West are largely absent. If modernity is to survive these challenges, it must re-examine the foundational understandings of management; understandings that have served it well, but whose continuing relevance can no longer be assumed.
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Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, (New York, NY: Modern Library, 1937), Book V, Chap. 1, Article 1, para. 18.
Jeffrey Pfeffer, “The ambiguity of leadership”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 2, No. 1 (1977), 104.
Michel Foucault, “Governmentality”, in Michel Foucault (trans. Colin Gordon, Leo Marshall, John Mepham and Kate Soper), Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977, (New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1980), 102, 100.
Peter Miller and Ted O’Leary, “Accounting and the construction of the governable person”, Accounting, Organizations, and Society, Vol. 12, No. 3 (1987), 238.
Alun Munslow, “Managing the past”, in Patricia Genoe McLaren, Albert J. Mills and Terrance G. Weatherbee (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Management and Organizational History, (Routledge: London and New York, 2015), 316.
Charles D. Wrege and Amedeo.G. Perroni, “Taylor’s pig-iron tale: a historical analysis of Frederick Winslow Taylor’s pig-iron experiments”, The Academy of Management Journal, Vo. 17, No. 1, 6–27.
Elton May, The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization, (New York, NY: The Macmillan Company, 1933), 58–98; Charles D. Wrege, Facts and Fallacies of Hawthorne, (New York, NY: Garland, 1986).
Harry Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, (New York, NY: Monthly Review Press, 1974), 120–21.
Chris Nyland, Reduced Worktime and the Management of Production, (Melbourne, AUS: Cambridge University Press, 1989), ix.
Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007), 1–2.
Calculated from, Wold Bank, World Development Indicators, 2017, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.KD?locations [Accessed 6 October 2017].
Niall Ferguson, Civilization: The West and the Rest, (London, UK: Allen Lane, 2011), 323.
See, for example, Morgen Witzel, A History of Management Thought, (Abington, UK: Routledge, 2012), 7.
Sidney Pollard, The Genesis of Modern Management: A Study of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain, (London, UK: Edward Arnold, 1965), 215.
Dale L. Flesher, William D. Samson and Gary J. Previs, “Accounting, economic development and financial reporting: the case of three pre-Civil War U.S. railroads”, Accounting History, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2003), 75.
R.A. Byrer, “Accounting for the ‘railway mania’ of 1845 – a great railway swindle”, Accounting, Organization, and Society, Vol. 16, No. 5 / 6 (1991), 461.
Roy Jacques and Gabrielle Durepos, “A history of management histories: does the story of our past and the way we tell it matter”, in Patricia Genoe McLaren, Albert J. Mills and Terrance G. Weatherbee (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Management and Organizational History, (Routledge: London and New York, 2015), 161.
Emile Garcke and J.M. Fells, Factory Accounts: Their Principles and Prestige, (London, UK: Crosby Lockwood & Son, 1893); Arthur Mellen Wellington, The Economic Theory of the Location of Railways, second edition, (London, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 1887).
M.C. Wells, Accounting for Common Costs, (Sydney, AUS: Sydney University Press, 2006), 73–74.
Peter Drucker, The Practice of Management, (London, UK: Pan Books, 1975), 337.
Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital, 86.
Frederick Winslow Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management, (New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co., 1967), 26.
Eric Dent and Pamela Bozeman, “Discovering the foundational philosophies, practices, and influences of modern management theory”, Journal of Management History, Vol. 20, No. 2 (2014), 148. Also, Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital, 100, 120–21.
Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, 32–33.
Andrea Gabor, The Capitalist Philosophers, (New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, 2000), 187–224.
Stephen S. Cohen, “Geo-economics: lessons from America’s mistakes”, in Martin Carnoy, Manuel Castells, Stephen S. Cohen and Fernando Carsdosos (Eds.), The New Global Economy in the Information Age, (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993), 108–09, 106. Other key studies in this genre include: James P. Womack, Daniel Roos and Daniel T. Jones, The Machine that Changed the World, (New York, NY: Harper Perennial, 1991); Michael Piore and Charles Sable, The Second Industrial Divide, (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1986).
Cohen, “Geo-economics”, 112.
James Wilson, “Ford’s development and use of the assembly line, 1908–1927”, in Bradley Bowden and David Lamond (eds.), Management History: Its Global Past and Present, (Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2015), 71–92.
Taylor, Scientific Management, 26.
Lucy Taksa, “Defence not defiance: social protest and the NSW General Strike of 1917”, Labour History, No. 60 (May 1991), 16–33.
Hindy Schachter, “Labor at the Taylor Society”, Journal of Management History. Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018), 3–19.
Kyle Bruce, “Management science, planning, and demand management”, Journal of Management History, Vol. 22, No. 2 (2016), 171.
Hindy Schachter, Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Public Administration Community: A Re-evaluation, (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1989); Hindy Schachter, “Scientific management and social responsibility”, Journal of Management History, Vol. 6, No. 9 (2000), 272–82; Chris Nyland, “Taylorism and hours of work”, Journal of Management History. Vol. 1, No. 2 (1995), 8–18; Kyle Bruce, “Scientific management and the American planning experience of WWI”, History of Economics Review, Vol. 21, No. 2 (1995), 37–61.
Also significant in the debate about Taylorism and its international influence are: Chris Wright, “Taylorism reconsidered: The impact of scientific management within the Australian workplace,” Labour History, No. 64 (May 1993), 34–53; Lucy Taksa, “The cultural diffusion of scientific management: The United States and New South Wales,” Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Sep. 1995), 427–461; Lucy Taksa, “Uniting management and education in pursuit of efficiency: F.W. Taylor’s training reform legacy,” Economic and Labour Relations Review, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Apr. 2007), 129–56; Richard Dunford, “Scientific management in Australia: A discussion paper,” Labour & Industry, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Oct. 1988), 505–15.
Edwin A. Locke, “The ideas of Frederick Winslow Taylor: An evaluation”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 7, No. 1 (1982), 15.
Lillian Moller Gilbreth, The Quest of the One Best Way: A Sketch of the Life of Frank Bunker Gilbreth, (New York, NY: Society of Industrial Engineers, 1925), 40.
Notable studies of the Gilbreths include Jane Whitney Gibson, Jack Deem, Jacqueline Einstein and John H. Humphreys, “Applying a critical biography perspective to the work of Frank Gilbreth”, Journal of Management History, Vol. 22, No. 4, 413–36; Bernard Mees, “Mind, method, and motion: Frank and Lillian Gilbreth”, in Morgan Witzel and Michael Warner (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Management Theorists, (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013), 32–49.
M.P. Follett, The New State: Group Organization, the Solution of Popular Government, (New York, NY: Longmans Green & Co, 1918), 3.
Ibid., 19–22, 44–45.
M.P. Follett, “Management as a profession”, in Harwood F. Merrill (Ed.), Classics in Management, (New York, NY: American Management Association, 1960), 312–13.
Chester I. Barnard, The Functions of the Executive, (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1936), 82.
These are as follows: division of work, authority, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interest to the general interest, remuneration, centralisation, scalar chain or line of authority, order, equity, stability of personnel, initiative, and esprit de corps. Henri Fayol (trans. Constance Storrs), General and Industrial Management, (London, UK: Pitman Publishing, 1949), 19–20.
John Stuart Mill, Collected Works of John Stuart Mill: Principles of Political Economy, (Toronto, CAN: Toronto University Press, 1965), 129.
Beatrice and Sidney Webb, The History of Trade Unionism, (London, UK: Longman, Green & Co., 1902), xviii.
Gerald Ferris, Dorold Barnum, Sherman Rosen, Lawrence Holleran and James Dulebohn, “Towards business-university partnerships in human resource management”, in Gerald Ferris, Sherman Rosen and Dorold Barnum (Eds.), Handbook of Human Resource Management, (Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell, 1995), 3.
Bruce E. Kaufman, “Strategic human resource management research in the United States: a failing grade after 30 years?”, Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 2 (May 2012), 21, 16.
Drucker, The Practice of Management, 335.
Arthur H. Brayfield and Walter H. Crockett (1955), “Employee attitudes and employee performance”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 52, No. 5 (1955), 421.
Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Industrial Democracy, (London, UK: Seahams Divisional Labour Party, 1920), 279, 281, 716–17.
Ibid., 718, 716–17.
John Commons, Trade Unionism and the Labor Problem, (New York, NY: Augustus Kelley, 1905), 11.
V.I. Lenin, “What is to be done?”, in V.I. Lenin, Selected Works, Vol. 1 (Moscow, USSR: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1946), 188.
Cited, William D. Haywood, Bill Haywood’s Book: The Autobiography of William D. Haywood, (New York, NY: International Publishers, 1929), 185.
Bruce Kaufman, “John R. Commons and the Wisconsin School on Industrial Relations Strategy and Policy”, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Oct. 2003), 13.
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., “Labor and Capital – Partners”, The Atlantic Monthly, (July 1916), 12–20.
Ibid., 19, 17.
Bruce Kaufman, “Paradigms in industrial relations: original, modern and versions in-between”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 46, No. 2 (June 2008), 314–39.
John Dunlop, Industrial Relations Systems, (New York, NY: Holt, 1956), viii–ix. Also, Allan Flanders and High Clegg, The System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain, (Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell, 1954); Alan Fox and Allan Flanders, “The reform of collective bargaining: from Donovan to Durkheim”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 7, No. 2 (July 1969), 151–80.
Bradley Bowden, “The organising model in Australia: a reassessment”, Labour & Industry, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Dec. 2009), 138.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Trade Union Density, OECD Stat., https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=UN_DEN [accessed 3 October 2017].
See, in particular: Thomas A. Kochan, Harry C. Katz, Robert B. McKersie, The Transformation of American Industrial Relations, (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1986); Richard B. Freeman and James L. Medoff, What do Unions Do? (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1984).
David Peetz, Unions in a Contrary World, (Melbourne, AUS: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 14.
Barry T. Hirsch and John T. Addison, The Economic Analysis of Trade Unions: New Approaches and Evidence, (Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin, 1986), 207.
The most articulate initial advocate of the “organising model” was Kate Bronfenbrenner. See: Kate Bronfenbrenner, “The Role of Union Strategies in NLRB Certification Elections”, Industrial and Labor Relations, Vol. 50, No. 2, 195–212; Kate Bronfenbrenner, “The American Labor Movement and the Resurgence in Union Organizing”, in Peter Fairbrother and Charlotte A B Yates (Eds.), Trade Unions in Renewal: A Comparative Study, (London, UK: Continuum, 2003), 32–50.
Immanuel Ness, “Organizing Immigrant Communities: UNITE’s Workers Center Strategy”, in Mark Harcourt and Geoffrey Wood (Eds.), Trade Unions and Democracy: Strategies and Perspectives, (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1998), 87–101.
Raymond Hogler, “From Ludlow to Chattanooga: a century of employee representation plans and the future of the American labor movement”, Journal of Management History, Vol. 22, No. 2 (2016), 142. For similar views, see Lucio Baccaro and Valeria Pulignano, “Employment relations in Italy”, in Greg J. Bamber, Russell D. Lansbury and Nick Wailes (Eds), International and Comparative Employment Relations: Globalisation and Change, 5th edition (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2011), 164.
Whiting Williams, What’s on the Worker’s Mind, (New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1921), 284. Williams carried out similar undercover research in Europe.
Ibid., 293, 299.
Steven D. Levitt and John A. List, “Was There Really a Hawthorne Effect at the Hawthorne Plant? An Analysis of the Original Illumination Experiments”, American Economic Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Jan. 2011), 237. Also Wrege, Facts and Fallacies of Hawthorne.
Kyle Bruce, “Henry S. Dennison, Elton Mayo and the human relations historiography”, Management and Organizational Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2 (2006), 178–99; Dan Wren, The White Collar Hobo, (Ames, IO: Iowa State University Press, 1987).
Fritz J. Roethlisberger (ed. George F.F. Lombard), The Elusive Phenomena, (Boston, MA: Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, 1977), 50–51.
Jeffrey Muldoon, “The Hawthorne legacy: A reassessment of the impact of the Hawthorn studies on management scholarship, 1930–1958”, Journal of Management History, Vol. 18, No. 1 (2012), 113.
Mayo, Industrial Civilization, 147.
Ibid., 165, 172.
Emile Durkheim (trans. George Simpson), Suicide: A Study in Sociology, (New York, NY: Free Press, 1951), 255.
E.L. Trist and K.W. Bamforth, “Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal-getting”, Human Relations, Vol. 4, No. 1 (1951), 6.
Kurt Lewin, Field Theory in Social Science, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1975), 226.
A.K. Rice, “Productivity and social organization in an Indian weaving shed: An examination of some aspects of the socio-technical system of an experimental automatic loom shed”, Human Relations, Vol. 6, No. 4 (1953), 297–329; Eric Trist, “Introduction to volume II”, in Eric Trist and Hugh Murray (Eds.), The Social Engagement of Social Science: A Tavistok Anthology, Vol. 2, (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), 50–53.
Trist and Bamforth, “Some social and psychological consequences”, 21.
Elliott Jacques, The Changing Culture of a Factory, (London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951), 251.
Ibid., 257–72, 274.
Lewin, Field Theory, 227.
Barnard, Functions of the Executive, 88.
Art G. Bedeian and Daniel A. Wren, “The most influential management books of the twentieth century”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Winter 2001), 222. This estimation was based on a survey of management academics.
Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of the Enterprise, (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1960), 33–34, 47.
Victor H. Vroom, Work and Motivation, (New York and London: John Wiley & Sons, 1964); David C. McClelland, The Achieving Society, (Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1961).
Alfred Marshall, Principles of Economics, (London, UK: Macmillan Publishers, 1920), 291.
W. Edwards Deming, Out of Crisis, (Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 2000), 3.
Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business, (Belknap Press: Cambridge, Mass., 1977), 1, 11.
Chandler briefly discusses Williamson’s theory of transaction cost economics in: Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., Scale & Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism, (Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press, 1990), 17.
Oliver E. Williamson, Markets and Hierarchies, (New York, NY: Free Press, 1975), xi, 8.
Fernand Braudel (trans. Sian Reynolds), Civilization and Capitalism: The Wheels of Commerce, (London, UK: Collins, 1982), 22; Fernand Braudel (trans. Patricia M. Ranum), Afterthoughts on Material Civilization and Capitalism, (Baltimore, ML: John Hopkins University Press, 1977), 28, 54, 62–63.
Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, (London, UK: Penguin, 1997), Book I, Chap. X, Part II, para. 23 [The corporations that Smith spoke of were typically associations of small producers.]
Arthur Twinning Hadley, Railroad Transportation: Its History and its Laws, (New York and London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1885), 40, 70–71.
This effect was commented upon in: Thorstein Veblen, “The price of wheat since 1867”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Dec. 1892), 81–82. Also see, Bradley Bowden, “An exploration into the relationship between management and market forces: The railroads of Australia and the American West, 1880–1900”, Journal of Management History, Vol. 23, No. 3 (2017), 297–314.
Chandler, Visible Hand, 7–8, 11, 49; Chandler, Scale and Scope, 1–2, 18, 26.
International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Report, October 2017, (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2017), Figure 1.23.
Calculated from: Wold Bank, On-line Database: World Development Indicators, 2017, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.MANF.KD?view=chart [Accessed 27 December 2017].
Thomas Hobbes (Ed. A.P. Martinich), Leviathan, (Peterborough, CAN: Broadway Press, 2002), 66.
Max Weber (Ed. Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich), Economy and Society, Vol. 2 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1978), 684.
Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, 9.
Mill, Principles of Political Economy, 795; Mayo, Industrial Civilization, 146–47.
Ibid., 165, 172.
Cited, C.B.A. Behrens, The Ancient Régime, (London, UK: Thames and Hudson, 1967), 122.
Immanuel Kant (trans. Marcus Weigelt), Critique of Pure Reason, (London, UK: Penguin Classics, 2007), 348.
Friedrich Nietzsche (trans. R.J. Hollingdale), Thus Spoke Zarathustra, (London, UK: Penguin Books, 1970), 62.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (trans. Alan Bloom), Emile, or, On Education, (London, UK: Penguin Classics, 1979), 280, 194.
Thomas Hobbes (Ed. A.P. Martinich), Leviathan, (Peterborough, CAN: Broadway Press, 2002), 38.
Michel Foucault (trans. A.M. Sheridan Smith), The Archaeology of Knowledge, (New York, NY: Pantheon, 1972), 202.
F.R. Ankersmit, “Reply to Professor Zagorin”, in Brian Fay, Philip Pomper and Richard T. Van (Eds.), History and Theory: Contemporary Readings, (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1998), 217.
Foucault, Archaeology of Knowledge, 186.
Hobbes, Leviathan, 85; Jean-Jacques Rousseau, “The social contract”, in Jean-Jacques Rousseau (trans. C.D.H. Cole), The Social Contract and Discourses, (London, UK: Dent & Sons, 1950), 1–141.
Frederick Winslow Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management, (New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co., 1967), 26.
Elton May, The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization, (New York, NY: The Macmillan Company, 1933), 147, 165, 172.
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., “Labor and capital – partners”, The Atlantic Monthly, (July 1916), 12–20.
- The Legitimacy of Modern Management
- Chapter 4
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