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2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

16. The Long March of the Brazilian Peasantry: Socioterritorial Movements, Conflicts and Agrarian Reform

verfasst von : Ariovaldo Umbelino de Oliveira

Erschienen in: Brazilian Geography

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

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Abstract

The history which marks the long march of Brazilian peasants is written in the almost always bloody struggles of this social class. On covering it, I make clear that my understanding of the logic of capitalist development is based on the understanding that said development is performed in an unequal and contradictory manner. That is to say, I assume that the development of capitalism—and its subsequent expansion to the countryside—is produced unevenly, complexly and, therefore, plurally. This theoretical reference framework, therefore, is the opposite of that which views the uniform, total and absolute expansion of salaried work in the countryside with the founding characteristic of capitalism. Therefore, I believe that capital works with the contradictory movement of inequality in the process of its development. In the case of Brazil, capitalism is acting by simultaneously developing—in the sense of implementing salaried work—the production of several crops in different areas of the country. This is also the case, for example, with sugar cane crops, reforestation and oranges, partially in Sao Paulo, soy in Mato Grosso, etc. On the other hand, this same capital develops peasant production in an articulated and contradictory manner. This means that I also assume that peasants are not social subjects outside of the scope of capitalism, but rather social subjects within it and, therefore, a social class of it. As such, I have broken capitalism down into four social classes: bourgeoise, proletariat, landowners and peasants, as well as, of course, indigenous people and the descendants of Quilombos.

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Fußnoten
1
J.S. Martins, in his works O cativeiro da terra e o Poder do atraso, both edited in São Paulo, by Editora Hucitec, develops this conception that I take as a reference.
 
2
Body directly linked to the National Security Council.
 
3
Atlas Fundiário Brasileiro, Brasília, Incra, 1996.
 
4
Lessees: individuals who take something on lease.Partners: the contract by which one of the parties (owner) transfers land to another, so that it can cultivate it, dividing the profits in the proportion stipulated, the average, a third, a quarter, a percentage, etc.Squatters: who occupies an abandoned or returned land to cultivate it.
 
5
A.U. Oliveira, A geografia das lutas no campo, 10 ed., São Paulo, Contexto, 2001.
 
6
Occupation: taking or being in possession of land without authorization from the landowner;Camps: land where there are tents or tents for temporary accommodation of people; Settlement: is a set of agricultural units, installed by Incra in a rural property. Each of these units, called parcels or lots, is intended for a family of a farmer or rural worker without the economic conditions to acquire a rural property.
 
7
Verse by Geraldo Vandré in the song Caminhando ou Para não dizer que não falei de flores.
 
8
MST: terra, sobrevivência e inclusão social, em Milton Santos, Cidadania e globalização, São Paulo, Saraiva, 2000.
 
9
Jornal dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra, ano XIX, n. 213, p. 14, ago. 2001.
 
10
Music “Order and Progress”, Zé Pinto, CD Arte em movimento – MST, São Paulo.
 
Metadaten
Titel
The Long March of the Brazilian Peasantry: Socioterritorial Movements, Conflicts and Agrarian Reform
verfasst von
Ariovaldo Umbelino de Oliveira
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Verlag
Springer Nature Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3704-0_16