Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13524-017-0550-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
We examine the relationship between birth-to-birth intervals and a variety of mid- and long-term cognitive and socioeconomic outcomes, including high school GPA, cognitive ability, educational attainment, earnings, unemployment status, and receiving government welfare support. Using contemporary Swedish population register data and a within-family sibling comparison design, we find that neither the birth interval preceding the index person nor the birth interval following the index person are associated with any substantively meaningful changes in mid- or long-term outcomes. This is true even for individuals born before or after birth-to-birth intervals of less than 12 months. We conclude that in a contemporary high-income welfare state, there appears to be no relationship between unusually short or long birth intervals and adverse long-term outcomes.
ESM 1 (PDF 246 kb)13524_2017_550_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Adler, N. E., & Ostrove, J. M. (1999). Socioeconomic status and health: What we know and what we don’t. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 3–15. CrossRef
Andersson, G. (2002). Fertility developments in Norway and Sweden since the early 1960s. Demographic Research, 6(article 4), 67–86. doi: 10.4054/DemRes.2002.6.4
Barclay, K. J. (2015a). Birth order and educational attainment: Evidence from fully adopted sibling groups. Intelligence, 48, 109–122. CrossRef
Barclay, K. J. (2015b). A within-family analysis of birth order and intelligence using population conscription data on Swedish men. Intelligence, 49, 134–143. CrossRef
Berkey, C. S., Gardner, J. D., Frazier, A. L., & Colditz, G. A. (2000). Relation of childhood diet and body size to menarche and adolescent growth in girls. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152, 446–452. CrossRef
Bhalotra, S., & van Soest, A. (2008). Birth-spacing, fertility and neonatal mortality in India: Dynamics, frailty, and fecundity. Journal of Econometrics, 143, 274–290. CrossRef
Björklund, A., & Jäntti, M. (2012). How important is family background for labor-economic outcomes? Labour Economics, 19, 465–474. CrossRef
Black, S. E., Devereux, P. J., & Salvanes, K. G. (2005). The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth order on children’s education. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120, 669–700.
Black, S. E., Devereux, P. J., & Salvanes, K. G. (2007). From the cradle to the labor market? The effect of birth weight on adult outcomes. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122, 409–439. CrossRef
Blake, J. (1989). Family size and achievement. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bratti, M., & Mendola, M. (2014). Parental health and child schooling. Journal of Health Economics, 35, 94–108. CrossRef
Breen, R. (2010). Educational expansion and social mobility in the twentieth century. Social Forces, 89, 365–388. CrossRef
Brier, N. (2004). Anxiety after miscarriage: A review of the empirical literature and implications for clinical practice. Birth, 31, 138–142. CrossRef
Buckles, K. S., & Munnich, E. L. (2012). Birth spacing and sibling outcomes. Journal of Human Resources, 47, 613–642. CrossRef
Chandra, A., Copen, C. E., & Stephen, E. H. (2013). Infertility and impaired fecundity in the United States, 1982–2010: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth (National Health Statistics Reports, No. 67). Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.
Chatenoud, L., Parazzini, F., Di Cintio, E., Zanconato, G., Benzi, G., Bortolus, R., & La Vecchia, C. (1998). Paternal and maternal smoking habits before conception and during the first trimester: Relation to spontaneous abortion. Annals of Epidemiology, 8, 520–526. CrossRef
Colen, C. G., & Ramey, D. M. (2014). Is breast truly best? Estimating the effects of breast-feeding on long-term child health and wellbeing in the United States using sibling comparisons. Social Science & Medicine, 109, 55–65. CrossRef
Conde-Agudelo, A., Rosas-Bermúdez, A., & Kafury-Goeta, A. C. (2006). Birth spacing and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 1809–1823. CrossRef
Conde-Agudelo, A., Rosas-Bermúdez, A., & Kafury-Goeta, A. C. (2007). Effects of birth spacing on maternal health: A systematic review. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 196, 297–308. CrossRef
Conley, D., & Bennett, N. G. (2000). Is biology destiny? Birth weight and life chances. American Sociological Review, 65, 458–467. CrossRef
Curtis, S. L., Diamond, I., & McDonald, J. W. (1993). Birth interval and family effects on postneonatal mortality in Brazil. Demography, 30, 33–43. CrossRef
Cutright, P., & Shorter, E. (1979). The effects of health of the completed fertility of nonwhite and white US women born between 1867 and 1935. Journal of Social History, 13, 191–217. CrossRef
Dandes, H. M., & Dow, D. (1969). Relation of intelligence to family size and density. Child Development, 40, 641–645. CrossRef
Dewey, K. G. (2004). Impact of breastfeeding on maternal nutritional status. In L. K. Pickering, A. L. Morrow, G. M. Ruiz-Palacios, & R. J. Schanler (Eds.), Protecting infants through human milk: Advancing the scientific evidence (pp. 91–100). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Dewey, K. G., & Cohen, R. J. (2007). Does birth spacing affect maternal or child nutritional status? A systematic literature review. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 3, 151–173. CrossRef
Evenhouse, E., & Reilly, S. (2005). Improved estimates of the benefits of breastfeeding using sibling comparisons to reduce selection bias. Health Services Research, 40, 1781–1802. CrossRef
Finer, L. B., & Henshaw, S. K. (2006). Disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, 1994 and 2001. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 38, 90–96. CrossRef
Flynn, J. R. (1987). Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 171–191. CrossRef
Galbraith, R. C. (1982). Sibling spacing and intellectual development: A closer look at the confluence models. Developmental Psychology, 18, 151–173. CrossRef
Gold, E. B., Crawford, S. L., Avis, N. E., Crandall, C. J., Matthews, K. A., Waetjen, L. E., E., . . . Harlow, S. D. (2013). Factors related to age at natural menopause: Longitudinal analyses from SWAN. American Journal of Epidemiology, 178, 79–83.
King, J. C. (2003). The risk of maternal nutritional depletion and poor outcomes increases in early or closely spaced pregnancies. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 1732S–1736S.
Kramer, M. S. (1987). Determinants of low birth weight: Methodological assessment and meta-analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 65, 663–737.
Lee, C., & Slade, P. (1996). Miscarriage as a traumatic event: A review of the literature and new implications for intervention. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 40, 235–244. CrossRef
McNair, T., & Altman, K. (2014). Miscarriage and recurrent pregnancy loss. In J. K. Hurt, M. W. Guile, J. L. Bienstock, H. E. Fox, & E. E. Wallach (Eds.), The Johns Hopkins manual of gynecology and obstetrics (Vol. 4, pp. 438–447). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Modin, B., Koupil, I., & Vågerö, D. (2009). The impact of early twentieth century illegitimacy across three generations. Longevity and intergenerational health correlates. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 1633–1640. CrossRef
Myrskylä, M., Silventoinen, K., Tynelius, P., & Rasmussen, F. (2013). Is later better or worse? Association of advanced parental age with offspring cognitive ability among half a million young Swedish men. American Journal of Epidemiology, 177, 649–655. CrossRef
Nguyen, N. (2014). Family structure and outcomes in adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Department of Economics, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Retrieved from doi: 10.7282/T3WD3ZTS
Petterson-Lidbom, P., & Skogman Thoursie, P. (2009). Does child spacing affect children’s outcomes? Evidence from a Swedish reform (IFAU Working Paper No. 2009:7). Uppsala, Sweden: Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
Pfouts, J. H. (1980). Birth order, age-spacing, IQ differences, and family relations. Journal of Marriage and Family, 42, 517–531. CrossRef
Powell, B., & Steelman, L. C. (1990). Beyond sibship size: Sibling density, sex composition, and educational outcomes. Social Forces, 69, 181–206. CrossRef
Powell, B., & Steelman, L. C. (1993). The educational benefits of being spaced out: Sibship density and educational progress. American Sociological Review, 58, 367–381. CrossRef
Powell, B., & Steelman, L. C. (1995). Feeling the pinch: Child spacing and constraints on parental economic investments in children. Social Forces, 73, 1465–1486. CrossRef
Powell, B., Steelman, L. C., & Carini, R. M. (2006). Advancing age, advantaged youth: Parental age and the transmission of resources to children. Social Forces, 84, 1359–1390. CrossRef
Rai, R., & Regan, L. (2006). Recurrent miscarriage. Lancet, 368, 601–611. CrossRef
Reiss, D., Neiderhiser, J. M., Hetherington, E. M., & Plomin, R. (2009). The relationship code: Deciphering genetic and social influences on adolescent development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rosenzweig, M. R., & Wolpin, K. I. (1980). Testing the quantity-quality fertility model: The use of twins as a natural experiment. Econometrica, 48, 227–240. CrossRef
Rutstein, S. O. (2005). Effects of preceding birth intervals on neonatal, infant and under-five years mortality and nutritional status in developing countries: Evidence from the demographic and health surveys. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 89(Suppl. 1) , S7–S24. CrossRef
Skolverket. (2010). Facts and figures about pre-school activities, school-age childcare, schools and adult education in Sweden 2010 (Summary of Report 349). Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish National Agency for Education.
Smits, L. J., & Essed, G. G. (2001). Short interpregnancy intervals and unfavourable pregnancy outcome: Role of folate depletion. Lancet, 358, 2074–2077. CrossRef
Stafford, F. P. (1987). Women’s work, sibling competition, and children’s school performance. American Economic Review, 77, 972–980.
Stark, O., Peckham, C. S., & Moynihan, C. (1989). Weight and age at menarche. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 64, 383–387. CrossRef
Steegers, E. A., von Dadelszen, P., Duvekot, J. J., & Pijnenborg, R. (2010). Pre-eclampsia. Lancet, 376, 631–644. CrossRef
Steelman, L. C., Powell, B., Werum, R., & Carter, S. (2002). Reconsidering the effects of sibling configuration: Recent advances and challenges. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 243–269. CrossRef
Strøm, M. (2012). Double income households: 4 essays on children, votes and parents’ labor supply (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Department of Economics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. (2014). Amning och föräldrars rökvanor [Breastfeeding and parents smoking habits]. Stockholm, Sweden: Socialstyrelsen.
Trussell, J. (2004). Contraceptive failure in the United States. Contraception, 70, 89–96. CrossRef
Turunen, J. (2014). Adolescent educational outcomes in blended families: Evidence from Swedish register data. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 55, 568–589. CrossRef
van Noord, P.-A., Dubas, J. S., Dorland, M., Boersma, H., & te Velde, E. (1997). Age at natural menopause in a population-based screening cohort: The role of menarche, fecundity, and lifestyle factors. Fertility and Sterility, 68, 95–102. CrossRef
Victora, C. G., Horta, B. L., de Mola, C. L., Quevedo, L., Pinheiro, R. T., Gigante, D. P., . . . Barros, F. C. (2015). Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: A prospective birth cohort study from Brazil. Lancet Global Health, 3, e199–e205. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(15)70002-1
Whitworth, A., & Stephenson, R. (2002). Birth spacing, sibling rivalry and child mortality in India. Social Science & Medicine, 55, 2107–2119. CrossRef
WHO. (2005a). Report of a WHO technical consultation on birth spacing. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/69855/1/WHO_RHR_07.1_eng.pdf
WHO. (2005b). The World Health Report, 2005: Make every mother and child count. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Zajonc, R. B. (1976). Family configuration and intelligence. Science, 192, 227–236. doi: 10.1126/ science.192.4236.227
Zajonc, R. B., & Markus, G. B. (1975). Birth order and intellectual development. Psychological Review, 82, 74–88. CrossRef
Zhu, B.-P., Rolfs, R. T., Nangle, B. E., & Horan, J. M. (1999). Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. New England Journal of Medicine, 340, 589–594. CrossRef
- The Long-Term Cognitive and Socioeconomic Consequences of Birth Intervals: A Within-Family Sibling Comparison Using Swedish Register Data
Kieron J. Barclay
- Springer US
Best Practices für Web-Exzellenz im Online-Handel/© venimo | Fotolia