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Über dieses Buch

The selected papers included in this proceedings on Malaysia-Japan Academic Scholar Conference (MJASC) 2013, are related to nano-science engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, computer science, information technology etc. This proceedings will be a source of research findings for Malaysia and Japan specifically, and other countries in general, especially among researchers, industry sectors and government policy makers. It will be served as a resourceful reference and platform to reflect the significant of the Look East Policy outcomes and products.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Science and Technology

Frontmatter

The Investigation of Zinc-Rich Paint (ZRP) Behavior in NaCl Solution by Electrochemical Methods

Zinc-rich paints are coating materials designed to improve corrosion especially in marine and saline environments. Two types of zinc-rich paints (ZRPs) were employed in this research: 74 % ZRP and 96 % ZRP. The effectiveness of zinc coating systems has been analyzed in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Corrosion protections of coated metallic substrates were investigated using polarization measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical test showed that metallic substrates coated with 96 % ZRP have better corrosion resistance (galvanic protection) while those coated with 74 % ZRP have better barrier effect.

Azizul Helmi Bin Sofian, Kazuhiko Noda

An Investigation on Performance of 2D Simulated Fuel Cells Using Taguchi Method

Clean and high efficient energy development has long been hunted to solve energy and environmental crisis. Fuel cells, which convert the chemical energy in fuel straight into electrical energy, are the key empowering technology of this era with an outstanding long-term performance. The future energy source is concerned with two of the most advanced fuel cells—direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The motivation of this work is to develop mathematical models for investigating the best operating conditions and comparing the performance of PEMFC and DMFC. Two-dimensional fuel cell models were simulated based on physical laws to foresee the performance of the cell under several operating conditions. Taguchi method has been used to design experiments to study the effect of fuel and oxidant concentration, reactants’ flow direction, and membrane properties. Validating and running case studies of these models have been completed to present a comprehensive viewpoint of modeling. Lastly, comparing performance in term of current and power density between PEMFC and DMFC has been achieved. PEMFC has better performance compared to DMFC. A significant outcome of 2D simulations conducted was expected to maximize the fuel cells’ performance to be used in the transportation sector and portable applications.

Teck-Ming Ng, Nooryusmiza Yusoff

Application of Correction Line in Floated Particle Size Distribution Measurement Using the Buoyancy Weighing-Pan Method

This study demonstrates that the buoyancy weighing-pan method is suitable for measuring the particle-size distribution of floating particle after correction line is applied to the obtained results. After the correction line is applied to the buoyancy weighing-pan method results, then these results agree with the laser diffraction/scattering method.

M. P. Khairunnisa, Y. Ohira, M. Shimadzu, S. Yamanaka

Fine Pitch Wire Bonding with Insulated Cu Wire: Free Air Ball and Ball Bond

As the semiconductor industry pushes for fine pitch and high-density application, there is a growing interest in insulated Cu wire bonding. Insulated Cu wire has flexible wire bond design rules as the insulation layer can prevent wire-to-wire shorts. Previous research works focused mainly on the insulated Au wire stitch bonding. This paper presents the finding of the work performed on 0.8 mil insulated Cu wire bonding on high-density thermally enhanced BGA package with 29 × 29 mm body size. The bonding parameters were optimized and characterized via the existing available wire bonder in the market and compared with the Cu wire bonding. This study investigates the wire bond process in terms of free air ball (FAB) and ball formation. Spherical and residue-free FAB of insulated Cu was achieved with forming gas. This study shows that insulated Cu wire requires less demanding ball bond parameters than Cu wire, indicating softer ball which could be favorable for the sensitive bond structures. Bonding strength in terms of ball shear and wire pull strength for both insulated Cu wire and Cu wire is very similar. Insulated Cu wire has lesser Al splash compared to Cu wire. Other key responses such as Al remnant, pad cratering, and intermetallic compound have been studied and will be discussed in detail in the paper.

Leong HungYang, Yap BoonKar, Navas Khan, Mohd Rusli Ibrahim, L. C. Tan

Effect of Red and Blue Lights on Photomorphogenesis in Brassica chinensis

An experiment was conducted to investigate the photomorphogenesis response of the combination of red (R) and blue (B) light in different photoperiod.

Brassica chinensis

were hydroponically cultured at 22/20 °C (day/night), 65 % relative humidity, 400 ppm CO

2

level, and 100 μmol m

−2

s

−1

photon flux density under RB treatment T1 (12 h light, 12 h dark) and T2 (1 h lights, 15 min dark in a day) inside the control environment room for 30 days (14 days after sowing). The fresh weights (FW) and dry weights (DW) of the plants treated with T2 were higher than plants treated with T1. Blue and red LEDs induced relatively higher growth under pulse photoperiod (1 h light, 15 min dark in a day) than normal photoperiod (12 h light, 12 h dark). More importantly, it induces high growth and photomorphogenesis in control environment

Nurul Najwa Ani, Ahmad Nizar Harun, Saiful Farhan M. Samsuri, Robiah Ahmad

Quiet Standing of Time-Delay Stability with Derivative Feedback Control

The published literature for stability analysis of linear time-delay systems has attracted much interest among the researchers over the last five decades. In general, the stability for linear time-delay systems can be checked exactly only by eigenvalue considerations. Two types of stability conditions are delay-independent type, mainly used for arbitrarily large delays, and delay-dependent type, which is mostly useful in applications that consider maximum delay. In this paper, we consider a linear time-invariant system with delay differential equation form for quiet-standing case study as a derivative feedback control. When it is reasonably chosen with intentional delays, the effects of time delay for ankle torque can be used to improve and stabilize the response of the close-loop systems.

Fitri Yakub, Ahmad Zahran Md. Khudzari, Yasuchika Mori

Social Determinants of Psychiatric Morbidity Among Malaysian Children

Psychiatric morbidity is one of the important causes of disease burden worldwide with overall prevalence of 20.3 % in children population of Malaysia (3rd National Health & Morbidity Survey, 2006). Social influences are known to impart great effects on the outcome of individual health, resulting in health disparities. This study was conducted to review the prevalence and to identify the social determinants of psychiatric morbidity among children in Malaysia. Two hundred forty school children and adolescents between 5 and 16 years of age answered the Reported Questionnaire for Children (RQC) to assess the children’s mental health. There were 102 children (42.5 %) with childhood psychiatric morbidity, with higher prevalence among females (25.8 % vs. 15.7 %). The prevalence rate was twofold higher when compared to the previous prevalence of 20.3 %. In their association with social determinants, the respondents’ ethnicity, Indians were found to be afflicted the most (

p

= <0.01), followed by Bajaus and Dusuns. There was also a significant association between the caretakers’ marital status to caseness (

p

= <0.05). The financial status of caretakers (

p

= <0.05) and sound pollution (

p

= <0.05) have significant roles in contributing to the prevalence of childhood psychiatric morbidity. Health behaviour (

p

= <0.05) and number of children per household (

p

= <0.05) were also significantly associated with children suffering from psychiatric morbidity. Multilevelled approaches are to be taken which include plans on elevating the socio-economic status of high-risk population and improve access and use of psychiatric management, screening programmes and community intervention programmes.

Ali Adli, YT Ooi, YL Tan Isaac, WY Ho Katrina, HM Chai, Seet Ruijia, KW Teh, KH Wong

Modelling Community Response for Ecological Significance Based on Laboratory Simulations of Variable Copper Exposure

Communities in aquatic ecosystems receiving runoff contaminants from urban catchments are often preconditioned to a background contamination level during dry periods. This pre-exposure may affect the community response to subsequent storm runoff contaminants. This work presents a model to describe the response of an assemblage of estuarine periphyton to such variable copper exposure, i.e. long term at a baseline concentration, followed by short-term at higher runoff concentration. The model allows for differentiation of effects between the long-term and short-term exposures, with quantification of the enhancing and suppressing effects of copper on the community. The model was evaluated based on the response curve of a periphyton community under laboratory-simulated exposure to variable copper concentrations, with PSII quantum yield as the response measure. Model predictions are close to observed values. The model shows improved goodness of fit for positive response compared to the traditional logistic model. Diagnosis of the model identified new effect concentration points which are of ecological relevance. They include the Pivotal-Effect Concentration (PC) at maximum yield (

Y

max

) and the effect concentration at 50 % yield (

E

0.5Y

). Therefore, the model described can be a useful tool for better understanding and managing ecological impacts of runoff on receiving aquatic ecosystems.

Khun C. Tan, Carolyn Oldham

Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Frontmatter

Application of Integrated Fuzzy-AHP for Design Concept Evaluation: A Case Study on Mold Design Selection

Design concept evaluation plays a critical role in the early phases of product development as it has significant impact on the downstream development processes as well as on the success of the product developed. In this chapter, a novel methodology using the integration of Fuzzy-AHP with House of Quality (HOQ) and Rough-Grey Analysis has been developed to obtain the weight and rank of alternatives. This method will give the designers better-informed decision before making the final decision. A real case example from industry is presented to demonstrate efficacy of the proposed methodology. The result of the example shows that the integration of Fuzzy-AHP with HOQ and Rough-Grey Analysis approach provided a novel alternative of existing methods to perform design concept evaluation.

Faiz Mohd Turan, Badrul Omar

Numerical Modelling of Dry and Wet Steam Flows in Converging-Diverging Nozzles

Problem of water erosion in low pressure steam turbine stage is serious due to the formation of water droplets which travel at supersonic speed within the blade channel. The impact of these droplets could cause damage to turbine blade, and effort to understand the underlying mechanism of this type of flow has been devoted many years ago. This chapter describes the modelling of dry superheated and wet steam flows in two converging-diverging nozzles. The modelling is carried out using both in-house developed and commercial CFD code FLUENT. In this work, emphasis is given on understanding the capability of commercial CFD code to accurately predict the behaviour of dry and wet steam flow through the nozzles. The pressure and Mach number prediction using the commercial as well as in-house code show good agreement with one-dimensional analytical solution and experimental data. Quantitatively, further refinement to the geometrical mesh and mathematical model through user-defined function is desirable to increase the accuracy of the prediction using commercial CFD code.

Hasril Hasini, Norhazwani Abd Malek, Mohd. Zamri Yusoff

How Quality Engineering in Japan Affects Global Product Performance

Quality Engineering (QE) is the most significant essence in Japan for product and process development. There is not much to argue about how Japan has become a world-leading country in various sectors, from automotive to semiconductor, from medicine to agriculture, and from macro to nano device fabrication. The most prominent reason that the rival would chase after is how Japan sustains its quality to zero defects. That is called Quality Engineering that the Japanese industry culture inherited since the birth of world-quality guru, the late Dr. Genichi Taguchi. This paper presents how QE is being practiced to design quality into products that provides the ability to produce high-quality, low-cost products that fully satisfy customer needs. The findings are useful for disseminating and improving quality practically by learning from Japan to achieve world-class quality product. The benefit from QE implementation is described from variation improvement that certainly increases the product and process performance. QE implementation is presented in two ways. Firstly, from an industrial environment in which a company has successfully implemented QE and become one of the world’s QE benchmarks. Secondly, QE implementation is explained practically by a case study of an optimization for T-peel adhesion test. Optimum condition achieved from QE method is tensile weight 4 g, peel angle 60°, peel speed 12 mm/s, data region 30 %, spring thickness 0.4 mm, module of spur gear 1.0, and drum diameter 40 mm. Good reproducibility is achieved which is less than 30 % difference between estimation and confirmation value. Finally, QE methodology framework is established through QE implementation practically in a company and laboratories. The similarities and linkage between these conditions are integrated in QE framework.

Rozzeta Dolah, Zenichi Miyagi

Developing a Heuristic Robotics Integrated Production Model for Economic Production Quantity in Mass Customization Manufacturing

In this study, a heuristic model for robotics integrated production (RIP) is developed for determining economic production quantity (EPQ) based on triple risk-return characteristics of maintenance, safety, and training. Total risk-return index (TRRI) is then proposed to compare the optimal production quantity of a traditional MCM with robotics integrated counterpart. TRRI is introduced as an index independent of the production parameters that is theoretically based on two sub-functions known as the ideal risk function (IRiF) and ideal return function (IReF). EPQ is then determined by simply calculating the absolute value of the difference between these two sub-functions. The findings of a real case study in plastic injection molding industry reveal that, depending on the mass production volume and product cycle times, production mode should be switched between the traditional MCM (T-MCM) and robotics integrated system to optimize the risk-return characteristics of the ideal function. Robotics integrated production model is also proved to be a more economical and reliable alternative to the T-MCM for all product categories in this study except for those with a weekly production volume of less than 8 K units and a respective cycle time of more than 75 s as compared to the other two product families.

S. E. S. Bariran, K. S. M. Sahari, A. H. Mahlouji

Systematic Way for Problem Identification of Car Braking System by Using TRIZ

The passenger car is one of the most popular types of transportation for people to travel from one place to another. The improvement of vehicle safety has become one of the most meaningful targets in the vehicle industry. Indeed, a braking system plays an important role to enhance the active vehicle safety. This research is an actual case study of an automotive manufacturer, where the problem was provided by and decided from the industry which focuses on improving the braking system of the passenger car by using the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) methodology. This paper outlines the steps involved in problem identification by using this methodology.

N. F. Mesbah, S. M. Yusof

Social Sciences and Humanities

Frontmatter

High-Performance Work System and Safety Performance

The purpose of conducting this study was to determine the relationship between high-performance work system (HPWS) determinants and safety performance among employees at the Carsem (M) Sdn. Bhd., Ipoh, Perak. One hundred and seventy respondents participated in this study, and they were chosen using simple random sampling technique. A survey questionnaire was used as a main instrument for data collection. From the Pearson correlation analysis, the findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between the studied variables, namely, safety training, self-managed teams, high-quality work, and safety performance. It was also revealed that the safety training was found to be the dominant factor of this study. As a conclusion, the diffusion of HPWS enables a clearer delineation of how these principles are translated into practice. Therefore, HPWS can be integrated in an organization, in order to bring great improvements in employees’ job performance as well as safety performance.

Dayang Nailul Munna Abg Abdullah, Vanissa Karupaiah

Determinant Factors of Insurance Demand by SMEs in Malaysia

Malaysian SMEs dominate the market by 90 %. Realising the power of business among SMEs, entrepreneurs need to ensure business continuity by protecting businesses from any occurrence of risk. This research aims to investigate the determinant factors of insurance demand by SME entrepreneurs putting insurance not only as coverage but also as readiness for any disaster faced by businesses in the future. This initiative has led to insurance being considered as a prudent financial risk management for entrepreneurs. A good approach to Look East Policy with respect to SMEs in Japan realises the importance of insurance to protect the business; SMEs in Malaysia should emulate this good practice to secure their business. Some variables identified in this study are premium flexibility, level of income, education and gender of the respondents. Statistical analysis was used in validating the findings and therefore leads to the identification of determinant factors that urge employers to purchase insurance. Appropriate recommendations based on the findings are thrown out to insurance companies, which should be considered for the betterment of offering insurance to micro business entrepreneurs in the future.

Junainah Junid, Siti Zahrah Buyong, Khuzaimah Akasah

The Perceptions of Malaysians in a Japanese Company: A Case Study in Shimano Components (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.

The aim of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of Malaysian employees of Shimano Components (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. in order to recommend changes in management practices. Fieldwork was conducted using participant observation and interviews. Participant observation was conducted to investigate the flow of information, the implementation of decisions made by the top Japanese managers, problem resolution and the reaction of the local staff to management practices. The interviews highlighted communication problems which have existed between the Japanese CEO and the local employees since the company started operations in 1992.

Nor Fyadzillah Mohd Taha

A Conceptual Model Towards Information Security Culture in Health Informatics

Despite the widely recognized importance of information security as vital assets in organization, there is a little understanding of how organizations actually promote information security culture among the employees in a particular environment. The diversity of problems facing the public-service organization is paramount than before because of competitive growth of services and rapid changes in technology. As information technology is widely adopted, the health organization must undergo boundless transformation to fulfil the nation’s demand yet provide a good information security. This research looks into the social aspects of information security. It further identifies key factors influencing the information security culture in health informatics. A review based on multiple definitions and descriptions of security culture from a previous study was conducted. This study proposes a conceptual model taking into consideration the influencing factors in information security culture that is developed based on Detert organizational culture model and health belief model (HBM). This in-progress study suggests organization in promoting information security culture particularly for health informatics. The proposed conceptual model will be further evaluated with selected healthcare organization.

Noor Hafizah Hassan, Zuraini Ismail

Media Conversion of Paralinguistic and Nonlinguistic Speech Information into Animated Texts for Foreign Language Learning

The use of visualization in speech utterances is very efficient for the study of foreign language learning or welfare application in the hearing impairment field. In this paper, we propose a media conversion interface of speech sounds into rich animated texts. As a confirmation method, it will help nonnative speakers who are learning foreign languages to check their pronunciations. In the system, user’s speech attribute information that includes paralinguistic and nonlinguistic information is converted into text attribute information. In this research, the easier representation format of texts is designed. As for speech information, we examine accent types and position of pauses in mora units contained in Japanese speech sentences. The extracted data are visualized into animated texts; then, the texts are evaluated by 13 Japanese language learners from Malaysia.

Nur Syafikah Binti Samsudin, Kazunori Mano

Analysis of Pancreatic Tissue Injury Caused by Ultrasonically Activated Devices

Pancreatic fistula has been reported to occur more frequently in laparoscopic surgery than conventional open surgery. An ultrasonically activated device (USAD) has been raised as one of the cause of that, because of its frequent usage in laparoscopic surgeries and allegedly harmful side effect such as cavitation and/or lateral thermal effect. This research has been conducted to determine whether USAD could be the direct cause of pancreatic fistula using an animal model. The pancreas of a 3-month-old domestic pig weighing 30 kg was exposed under general anesthesia. USADs were activated in contact with the pancreas with various activation times and locations of the blades, and histopathological analyses of the specimens were performed. As a result, coagulation necrosis was observed at activation sites in all specimens. However, much less protein clotting covering the damaged sites was observed with USADs compared with electric scalpels. These data suggest that USADs are more likely to cause pancreatic tissue damage which leads to pancreatic fistula compared with conventional electric scalpels.

Bik Ee Lau, Tao Gao, Hideki Hayashi

The Integration of the Kano Model and SERVQUAL into the House of Quality for Developing Occupational Safety and Health Training Program

Knowledge on occupational safety and health (OSH) management system is very important to any industrial organization in order for them to make sure that the safety and health elements in their organization are well maintained and according to the law. It is very important for the industrial management and workers to know and understand the correct OSH knowledge and concept. Because of that it is very important for them to attend sufficient and relevant OSH training in order for them to attain the OSH knowledge. These trainings must be effective and have sufficient impact. For that purpose a new method is used in this research. The Kano model and SERVQUAL have been integrated into the house of quality (HOQ) for the purpose of developing an OSH training course that would satisfy not only the requirement and needs of the industry but also unexpected factors towards the trainee who attends the course. By using this method we can see that the level of understanding for the training participant using this new model is higher compared to the level of understanding for the participant from the conventional OSH training program that has been conducted by the training provider. With the increment in the level of understanding, the level of effectiveness for doing OSH-related job for the training participant would also be different. We can prove this by using Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Model, whereby we would evaluate the trainee from the conventional OSH training program against the newly developed OSH training program. The evaluation would be based on their level of understanding and the level of effectiveness of doing OSH-related jobs in their respective workplace.

Mohd Saiful Izwaan Saadon, Zainol Mustafa, Khairul Za’im Kamarulzaman

An Urgent Need for Policy Change: Reform in Curriculum and Practice Through Values-Based Pedagogies and Cooperative Learning in the Curriculum in Malaysia, Japan and Thailand

The definition for sustainable development is still complex and multifaceted and varies to certain degrees in plural societies such as in the Asian regions. Issues such as lack of basic necessities such as nutrition, rise of poverty and problems related to carbon emissions have doubled, and these issues, although reflected in the curriculum, do not provide exercises or experiential learning for students as it remains theoretical. There are more alarming reports predicted for the future, but such important issues are not discussed in the curriculum in secondary schools. These existing issues will not be solved unless there is a policy change specifically to eradicate social issues. Students need more direct, experiential lessons and problem-solving examples to understand more about sustainability issues occurring in society. However, these experiences do not become a reality because the curriculum does not integrate much opportunities for this kind of learning to occur.

The alternative chosen for solving problems related to sustainable education is to include community engagement, but such funded projects by NGOs and external agencies have been short-lived and do not last long for lifelong learning which calls for changes in the government policies where the curriculum is concerned.

This review addresses three important changes that have to be made in the curriculum and provides a compelling case for policy change for an integrated curriculum which is multidisciplinary and ensures a holistic perspective for solving social issues.

Suma Parahakaran

Electronic and Computer Engineering

Frontmatter

The Effects of Doping Bismuth on the Thermoelectric Properties of Zn4Sb3

Thermoelectric devices have gained importance in recent years as variable solutions for application such as spot cooling of electronic components, remote power generation in space stations and satellites, etc. Research in recent years in thermoelectricity has been focused in developing both thermoelectric structures and materials that have high efficiency. In my experiments, I would like to focus on developing new materials and enhance thermoelectric performances; thermoelectric properties of bismuth-doped compounds Zn

4

(Sb

3 −

x

Bi

x

) (

x

= 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) have been studied at temperatures from 323 to 573 K. In this study, the Zn

4

Sb

3

element showed high generation efficiency at a temperature domain of 323–573 K of the exhaust gas which appeared at the time of iron manufacture with the standard element of the study in a semiconductor used for thermoelectric power generation. In these experiments, it is a trial in a performance gained by replacing Sb with Bi. In this paper, we present a review of the theoretical models that were developed since thermoelectricity was first observed in 1821 by Seebeck and how these models have guided experiment’s material search for improved thermoelectric devices.

Afiqa Binti Mohamad, Atsumi Hisao

Study of Transmission and Reflection Characteristics of Microstrip Line During Application of Noise Suppression Sheet by Adhesive

Noise suppression sheets (NSS) have been widely used to reduce high-frequency electromagnetic interference. Adhesive is necessary during application of noise suppression sheets to integrated circuit or transmission line. In this paper, transmission and reflection characteristics of microstrip line (MSL) are studied when varying thickness of adhesive is used for NSS application. Both simulations and experimental results show that at frequency higher than cutoff frequency, the greater thickness or dielectric constant of adhesive tape increased the power transmission. At the same time, power reflection is decreased. We also observed that adhesive with higher dielectric constant showed small increase of transmission relatively at high frequency.

Lim Yang Wei, Kyota Otsuka, Takanobu Ohno

An Improved VEPSO Algorithm for Multi-objective Optimisation Problems

Multi-objective optimisation problem is the problem which contains more than one objective that needs to be solved simultaneously. The vector evaluated particle swarm optimisation algorithm is widely used for such purpose, where this algorithm optimised one objective using one swarm of particles by the guidance from the best solution found by another swarm. However, this best solution is only updated when a solution is better with respect to the optimised objective and results in poor performance. Therefore, the vector evaluated particle swarm optimisation algorithm is improved by incorporating the non-dominated solutions for guiding the particle movement during optimisation. The performance of the improved algorithm is analysed with several performance measures and simulated on various test functions. The results suggest that the improved algorithm outperformed the performance of the original algorithm.

Kian Sheng Lim, Salinda Buyamin, Anita Ahmad, Sophan Wahyudi Nawawi, Zuwairie Ibrahim, Faradila Naim, Kamarul Hawari Ghazali, Norrima Mokhtar

Electrical and Photoluminescence Study of Undoped CuGaSe2 Single Crystal Thin Film

Photoluminescence (PL) characteristics have been studied on undoped CuGaSe

2

single crystal thin films grown on GaAs (001) substrate by migration-enhanced epitaxy. Room temperature PL spectrum of an undoped layer clearly shows free excitonic emission bands related to the minimum band edge and to the split-off valence band, but no discernible emission has been observed in the low-energy area. At 4.2 K, the excitonic emission due to the split-off valence band disappears. Instead, two additional emissions appear at 1.715 and 1.68 eV which are attributed to the bound exciton and band-to-acceptor transition.

Sathiabama Thiru, Miki Fujita, Atsushi Kawaharazuka, Yoshiji Horikoshi

Challenges in Adopting Cloud Computing for Automation Process Controller in Manufacturing

Today, due to delivering virtual computing services that does not require end user’s knowledge on physical implementation, location and complication of system configuration made cloud computing become one of the biggest buzzwords in the IT industry. With the benefit in scalability and elasticity from the cloud, many companies have started to invest for clouding some of their business applications. Amazon.com, Google, and eBay are some of the obvious examples of cloud services that emerged in the Internet era. For these reasons, the cloud computing has become a significant vision improvement for the automation in manufacturing computing industry. However, the challenges in cloud computing prevail as cloud grows in large scale in order to support huge numbers of high-performance process controllers; operating concurrently in manufacturing with zero downtime and no slowness, these challenges are impacting the decision to adopt cloud computing for process controller in manufacturing. This paper strives to look into every challenge in cloud computing to use for process controller from various angles, with the methodology of “cloud grid” to resolve key variables identified.

Kean Wei Tan

Face Recognition Human–Machine Comparison Under Heavy Lighting

We demonstrate the performance of the Fisherface method for face recognition compared to human eye and simple Eigenface method. These methods do not involve many adjustable parameters. Images undergo the principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The goal of the work is a detailed comparison of the rates of false recognition between the computer vision methods and human perception. We find that humans show more flexibility and perform perfectly on easy tasks, whereas on tasks that are impossible to humans, Fisherface method also fails.

Evgeny V. Mozgunov

Design of Passive Mark for Mobile Robot Navigation Purpose

This paper presents the design of a passive mark for mobile robot navigation purposes. The mobile robot used is a Pioneer P3AT. This P3AT will be able to navigate through the environment by itself by interpreting the mark using image processing. The passive marks are used to navigate the robot and are designed to be easily detected by a USB camera on board. The P3AT must be able to detect the passive mark and its orientation and follow them based on the actions set. A dedicated Graphical User Interface (GUI) is also developed to visualize the image acquired and also to show the important data regarding the navigation process such as the trajectory of the robot. Experiments have been conducted to test the functionality of the developed algorithm and also the performance of the marker detection. The outcome of the project can be applied in a lot of areas such as homes, offices, factories, towns, space, and high-risk areas and can be used by wheelchair users to obtain mobility.

Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari, Kavinthran Devarajan

Changes of Coastline: A Study Case of Carey Island-Morib Coast, Selangor, Malaysia

Coastal area is one of the very dynamic landscapes where erosion and deposition processes always occur. Therefore, a study has been conducted to detect the changes of coastline caused by both processes at Carey Island-Morib coast. Geospatial technology that involved the use of GIS and satellite imagery had been applied in this study. Data sources are topography map of 1974 and SPOT image of 2008. The results show that coastal erosion process was dominant in Carey Island, while deposition process was the case for Morib coast. The average value of eroded distance is higher than the average value of deposited distance which is 170 and 157 m, respectively. Coastal erosion process in Carey Island could be related to the movement of big ships along Malacca Strait and Port Klang that is capable of producing big waves and eroding energy. Meanwhile deposition process in Morib coast could be related to the transfer of land sediment to the estuary and along the coast by low-energy wave. These findings should be supported with fieldwork study that could verify the effectiveness of coastal geomorphologic agents and the impact of human activities on land in influencing the changes of coastline in Carey Island-Morib coast.

Nor Lita Fadilah Rameli, Mokhtar Jaafar

Assessing the Condition of Buried Pipe Using Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR)

The invention of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology has facilitated the possibility of detecting buried utilities and has been used primarily in civil engineering for detecting structural defects, such as voids and cavities in road pavements, slabs and bridge decks, but has not been used to assess the condition of buried pipes. Pipe deterioration can be defined as pipes where, for example, cracking, differential deflection, missing bricks, collapses, holes, fractures and corrosion exist. Assessing the deterioration of underground pipes is important for service efficiency and asset management. This paper describes a research project that focused on the use of GPR for assessing the condition of buried pipes. The research involved the construction of a suitable GPR test facility in the laboratory to conduct controlled testing in dry sand. Plastic pipes were chosen for the experiments. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the validity and effectiveness of standard commercially available GPR technology in assessing the condition of buried utilities with common types of damage. Several types of damage to the plastic pipe were investigated with respect to different GPR antenna frequencies. The GPR surveys were carried out in order to obtain signal signatures from damaged and undamaged pipes buried at 0.5 m depth. These surveys were organised on a grid pattern across the surface of the sand in the test facility. The results presented in this paper show that GPR can identify certain types of damage associated with a buried pipe under these controlled laboratory conditions.

S. W. Wahab, D. N. Chapman, C. D. F. Rogers, K. Y. Foo, S. W. Nawawi, K. H. Abas

Evaluation of Palm Decanter Cake as an Alternative Fish Feed

The oil palm industry is the backbone of Malaysia’s economic and social development. Palm oil mills generated considerable amount of waste or by-products that may be reutilized for other purposes. Decanter cake is one of the solid wastes produced from palm oil mills. The freshwater fish farming industry is ever expanding due to depleting sea resources. Since the cost of conventional aqua feeds amount to large portion of farmed fish cost, alternative plant-based material such as palm decanter cake may provide a financially viable solution for the industry. This study involved the compositional analysis of palm decanter cake and in vitro protein digestibility using selected freshwater fish gut crude enzymes on palm decanter cake. Decanter cake contained approximately 76 % moisture. The crude lipid, crude protein, crude fiber, and ash contents based on dried weight were 9.7, 13.9, 17, and 8.7 % respectively. Two types of local fishes: the Nile tilapia (

Oreochromis niloticus

) and the catfish (

Clarias batrachus

) were used for the in vitro protein digestibility study on palm decanter cake based on pH drop method. The fresh decanter cake showed approximately 23.5 and 54.9 % relative protein digestibility (RPD) using fish gut crude enzymes of Nile tilapia and catfish, respectively. The RPD obtained indicates that the decanter cake can be part of the protein source for both types of freshwater fish studied.

Ying Ping Chang, Jun Hoeng Chuah

Human Head Pose Estimation and Its Application in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control

This chapter proposes a fully automatic framework for real-time human head pose estimation from a monocular image based on geometric approach. Our method starts with Constraint Local Model-based (CLM-based) facial feature tracking. Combined with tracked facial feature locations and a statistical 3D human face model pre-captured from Kinect device, 3D translation and 3D orientation of head pose are estimated by Pose from Orthography and Scaling with Iterations (POSIT) algorithm. Since both CLM-based facial feature tracking and POSIT algorithm are fast, our method can achieve real-time head pose estimation with more than 15 frames/s (fps) in an Intel i5-3230 CPU 3.0 GHz processor without GPU acceleration. By using Kinect’s head pose estimation results as ground truth data, our estimation results show that head location and orientations can achieve tracking accuracy within 2 cm and 5° standard deviations, respectively.

Chun Fui Liew, Takehisa Yairi

Japan and US Smart Grid Effort? A Case Study

This paper looks closely into the concept of the Japanese government’s “go green” effort, the objective of which is to make Japan a leading nation in environmental and energy sustainability through green innovation. This paper paints a simple conceptual picture of how Japan’s smart grid effort compares with that of the USA. The structure of Japan’s energy sources is described. Through this case study, the concept of Negawatt is proposed to be another important factor in Japan and the USA when we consider the power system including the smart grid.

Amy Poh Ai Ling

Threat to Individuals’ Privacy in the Era of Social Networking: A Case Study of Facebook

The explosive growth of social networks has created a brave new world for privacy. Most of the debate about online social networking sites has thus far revolved around questions of privacy and access to personal information. This article discusses whether Facebook’s privacy policy adequately protects individuals’ privacy under current Australian privacy laws. For the purposes of this article, it is convenient to consider five broad sections of Facebook’s privacy policy that attract privacy concerns: (A) information we receive and how it is used, (B) sharing and finding you on Facebook, (C) sharing with other websites and application, (D) how advertising works and (E) some other things you need to know. Each of these sections will be dealt with separately, applying current Australian privacy laws to assess adequacy of protection. This paper will conclude that Facebook’s privacy policy does not adequately protect individuals’ privacy under current Australian privacy laws. Further, this article will investigate privacy violations on Facebook by examining two controversial features of Facebook. To this end, this article will discuss to what extent can current Australian privacy laws mitigate or remedy the shortcomings in social networks’ privacy practices.

Chai Yeun Hoe

Green Technology

Frontmatter

Modelling of the Output Power from a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Using the Artificial Neural Network

This paper presents the modelling of the output power of grid-connected photovoltaic (GCPV) system using the multilayer feedforward neural network (MLFNN). Different combinations of solar irradiance, ambient temperature and module temperature were derived for determining the best type of parameters which could be used to model the output power using the MLFNN. The MLFNN was implemented in two stages, i.e. training and testing, and all data were obtained from a retrofitted-based GCPV system. The results show that the MLFNN model with solar irradiance and ambient temperature had outperformed the model with solar irradiance and module temperature as well as the model with solar irradiance, ambient temperature and module temperature in producing higher modelling accuracy.

Shahril Irwan Sulaiman, Sulaiman Shaari, Ahmad Maliki Omar

Basic Research on the TiO2 Electrode and the Coloring Effect of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a device for the conversion of visible light into electricity which uses the photoelectrochemical system that is made up of a semiconductor that is formed between a photosensitized anode and an electrolyte. It is based on the sensitization of wide bandgap semiconductors. The DSSCs are categorized as the solar cells of the next generation for their low manufacturing costs compared with the silicon type of solar cells. In DSSC, titanium dioxide (TiO

2

) is one of the suitable material used for nano-porous thin film since it has appropriate energy levels, high dye adsorption ability, and low cost, and it is easy to prepare. Extensive research on the photochemistry and photophysics of TiO

2

-based DSSCs has shown that the light-harvesting efficiency of TiO

2

is influenced by its crystalline phase, particle size, as well as its surface area, dye affinity, and film porosity. In this research, we have focused on the dye and its effect on the light scattering of TiO

2

particles and the best condition of TiO

2

particles in order to improve solar energy conversion efficiency. The best condition for TiO

2

particles, which were sintered at 450 °C for 60 min, resulted from the use of the spin-coating method. On the other hand, the best dye is anthocyanin (blueberry), and the best condition was to keep it for 6 h, at 21 °C, in a dark environment.

Arini Nuran, Matsutake Daiki, Mohamad Norsyafiq, Akira Fujiki

An Experimental Study on Bioclimatic Design of Vertical Greenery Systems in the Tropical Climate

This paper presents the use of bioclimatic design using the vertical greenery system (VGS) for a building. The design refers to the temperature and humidity conditions that make humans comfortable and minimize energy consumption particularly in reducing the urban heat island effect. Using vertical plant in front of the building envelope decreases the surrounding temperature. It shows that lower wind speed and higher humidity on the microclimatic layer are characteristics of a VGS that reduces energy consumption for cooling and heating of buildings. This means that the VGS acts as a wind barrier and verifies the effect of evapotranspiration from plants. In this study, the focus is on living walls and green facades placed independently in front of the inner layer of a building corridor. It aims to regulate the temperature and relative humidity, thus creating a thermal comfort environment. Two vertical greenery systems consisting of a modular living wall and green cable facade were installed at the east-corridor wall along the 3rd floor of a 5-storey building wall in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Two series of experiments were carried out for temperature and humidity using a Hobo U12-006. The results showed that the cooling effect of a modular system is higher than a cable system. It implies that the modular design and lush vegetation influence the effectiveness of the VGS.

Badrulzaman Jaafar, Ismail Said, Mohd Nadzri Md Reba, Mohd Hisham Rasidi

The Adoption of Green Manufacturing Practices in Furniture Firms

The purpose of this study is to report results of a research designed to identify issues that confront firms in adopting green manufacturing practices. The study is quantitative in nature, using a survey with open-ended questions and subjected to content analysis to categorise the status of firms adopting green manufacturing practices in the Malaysian furniture industry. Responses to an open-ended question concerning steps towards green products indicate that a small percentage of firms embark in pursuing towards creating green products. However, generalisability needs to be indicated through replication of findings. This study provides an original insight into the status of firms adopting green manufacturing practices as well as offering guidance for managers in pursuing green manufacturing practices.

Puteri Fadzline Tamyez, Norzanah Mat Nor, Syed Jamal Abdul Nasir

Invited Papers

Frontmatter

Institute for Research, Development and Innovation (IRDI) of the International Medical University (IMU), Malaysia

The Institute for Research, Development and Innovation (IRDI) of the International Medical University (IMU), Malaysia, was established on 18 September 2012, as part of the strategic plans of the university to realign its research direction. The Institute consists of two major arms, namely, the Research and Development Arm and Commercialisation and Support Arm. There are four Centres of Excellence (CoE) based on the identified thrust areas, namely the Centre for Environmental and Population Health, Centre for Bioactive Molecules and Drug Discovery, Centre for Cancer and Stem Cell Research and Centre for Health Professional Education Research. The CoE have developed strategies to excel in the thrust areas and to be more competitive in bidding for external funds. The CoE will tap into the diverse expertise of our researchers and develop strategic partnerships with local and foreign institutions. In parallel with this development, the Commercialisation and Support Arm has come up with strategies to promote commercialisation of our research products and services and to provide training and services to enhance the capability of our researchers. Through the establishment of IRDI, IMU aspires to bring research to a higher level.

Wan-Loy Chu, Eng-Lai Tan, Stephen Ambu, Chee-Onn Leong, Vishna Devi Nadarajah, Patricia Kim-Chooi Lim, Shew-Fung Wong, Geok-Lin Khor, James Michael Menke, Joon-Wah Mak

The Roles of the Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), UniMAP in NCER: From Nanotechnology Perspectives

Established in August 2008 and recognized as the NanoMalaysia Centre of Excellence in June 2011, the Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE) of the Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) is now a national prominence research institution focusing on nanotechnology in Malaysia. Towards becoming a reference center, INEE’s laboratories are designed to be equipped with the state-of-the-art technology at low operational cost. INEE’s research capabilities range from basic to advanced methodologies led by expert research fellows; major fields include nanobiosensors, active/functionalized nanostructures, and passive nanostructures. The fabrication and testing capabilities have attracted users nationwide, generating income for future expansion. Strong partnership in research collaboration with local research universities and international counterparts, i.e., the University of Warwick, the University of Hull, and the Imperial College of London, has been established. INEE is all geared up to be part of the Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER) agenda, to enhance NCER’s role in establishing contribution to technology advancement. Mutually benefiting, NCER would be an excellent platform to instill public awareness, educate enthusiasts, encourage research, and inspire entrepreneurship in nanotechnology. This paper presents the current status of development of INEE, UniMAP, and its roles in NCER.

U. Hashim, E. N. Elliazir, Jasni M. Ismail, A. R. Ruslinda, M. K. Md. Arshad

OER in Action: Case Study of Wawasan Open University

With the exponential growth of open education movement in recent years, more and more institutions of higher education have shown interest in embracing the use of open educational resources (OERs) in their teaching and learning process. The significant advantage of OERs is its ability to be remixed for instructional purposes and shared among various stakeholders across different continents. However, some institutions have indicated disinclination to utilize OERs due to lack of understanding on the licenses and implications of integrating OER into teaching and learning practices. In this connection, the paper aims to examine the adoption and integration of OER in course development. The ICT in Education course offered in the Master of Education program in Wawasan Open University is exemplified as a case study for the purpose of discussion. This course was developed using various formats of OER materials with different levels of integration and is offered for adult learners engaged in open and distance learning (ODL). Perusal of this case study also addresses some issues surrounding the adoption of OER for course development and may prove to be significantly beneficial for novel course developers and relevant stakeholders with interest of exploring and utilizing OERs for teaching and learning.

Vighnarajah

Lead Initiatives on Teaching and Learning in Malaysian Higher Education Institutions

Malaysia’s education hub strategy has given the impetus for local academics to reposition their stance and recalibrate their tools. This paper reports an initiative by Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) in pursuance of learning and teaching in higher education (HE) agenda using evidence-based practices. Two concurrent studies were undertaken to examine the following two concerns: (1) academic awareness about learner diversity and (2) student engagement in learning. We surveyed 113 lectures for the former and 838 students for the latter. Focus groups were used in both studies to complement the quantitative data. The findings showed that the academics in our sample lacked diversity awareness (global-mindedness), more specifically global sensitivity, and that our students used the surface learning approach more so than the deep learning approach. Offshoots of both studies led to the conceptualization and implementation of a master trainers’ programme in learner engagement, motivation and diversity.

Rosna Awang-Hashim, Nena Padilla-Valdez, Norhafezah Yusof, Tengku Faekah Tengku Ariffin
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