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Über dieses Buch

This book is useful to those in water resources management and policy formulations, hydrologists, environmentalists, engineers and researchers. Exploiting advanced statistical techniques and the latest state-of-the-art multi-mission satellites, surface models and reanalysis products, this book provides the first comprehensive weighing of the changes in the Nile River Basin’s (NRB: ~ 3,400,000 km2 ) stored waters' compartments, surface, soil moisture and groundwater, and their association to climate variability/change and anthropogenic impacts on the one hand. On the other hand, it argues on the need for equitable use of the NRB’s waters by all 11 countries within its basin, and doing away with obsolete Nile treaties that were signed by Britain, Egypt and Sudan, which prohibit the use of the Nile by 8 upstream countries. With Ethiopia’s construction of Africa’s largest dam (GERD; Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) along the Blue Nile, which is expected to take several years to fill, the Nile is back on the news. Combined with Uganda’s Nalubaale, Kiira and Bujagali dams on the White Nile, these human-induced impacts (i.e., damming), coupled with those of climate variability/change, are expected to exacerbate tension with the low stream countries (Egypt and Sudan) fearing the cut in theNile’s total volume. Furthermore, the Nile river, arguably the world’s longest river (6800 km), impacts on the livelihood of over 300 million people of 11 countries within its basin. This population is expected to double in the next twenty-five years, thereby putting extreme pressure on its water resources. An in-depth analysis of changes in the Nile’s stored waters, therefore, is essential to inform its management and sustainable equitable use. Owing to its sheer size, however, obtaining in-situ data from “boots on the ground” is practically impossible, paving way to the space-based weighing of the Nile River Basin using a suite of high spatio-temporal remotely sensed and reanalysis products, as well as those of hydrological models.

“Arguably, the Nile River is the most unique river in the world. It spans extremes of rainfall from being measured by meters to being measured by centimeters, from the humid tropics to the driest of deserts. Yet, thirsty people live throughout this basin and therefore the demands on its water resources are uneven. Knowing the water amounts throughout the entire Nile Basin is a critical step for governments and international treaties to avoid the “Tragedy of the Commons”. Africa can embrace this future through the leadership of Prof. Awange and others like him who have devoted their careers to Africa’s waters”

—Doug Alsdorf, Ph.D., Professor of Geophysics at the Ohio State University (USA).

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Water Resources, Challenges and Space Sensing

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Global Freshwater Resources

Abstract
Freshwater, influenced globally by climate variability/change [49], human use [1012] and knowledge deficiency resulting from inadequate hydrometeorological observation stations [1316], is one of the basic necessities without which human beings cannot survive since it is key to the sustainability of all kinds of life forms.
Joseph Awange

Chapter 2. Nile River Basin and Its Challenges

Abstract
Water resources within the Nile River Basin (NRB) are under intense pressure from both humans and the changing climate. With the increasing population, and more demand for both water and electricity, the various countries within the NRB are likely to exploit the waters within their sub-basins, thus, negatively impacting on the entire Nile’s stored water.
Joseph Awange

Chapter 3. Weighing the Nile’s Waters from Space

Abstract
Nile River Basin (NRB)’s overall water movement expressed through the hydrological cycle is characterised by a simple water balance equation: \(\bigtriangleup S =P-E-Q\), where \(\bigtriangleup S\) is the basin’s total water storage (TWS representing the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, vegetation, and surface water), P the basin’s precipitation, E its evapotranspiration, and Q its runoff. Due to its sheer size of area of 3,400,000 km\(^{2}\) (see Section 2.​3), monitoring changes in \(\bigtriangleup S, P, E, Q\) through “boots on the ground” ground-based (in-situ) observations is practically impossible and a daunting task indeed. On the one hand, the in-situ (ground-based products, e.g., [89]) data may be inaccessible while on the other hand, the mearger accessible data where available, might be inconsistent or suffer from missing data.
Joseph Awange

The Headwaters: The White and Blue Niles

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. Lake Victoria: The Mother of the Nile

Abstract
Lake Victoria (Fig. 4.1a), the world’s third largest lake and the largest in the developing world, is ideally the “mother of the Nile” given the seasonality characteristics of the Blue Nile. It is the source of the White Nile (see Fig. 2.​4), which flows from Jinja in Uganda (Fig. 4.1b) to join the Blue Nile (see Chap. 2) in Khartoum (Sudan) to form one Nile and provides water for irrigation, transport, domestic and livestock uses, and supports the livelihood of more than 76 million people who live around it [6, 12, 17].
Joseph Awange

Chapter 5. Ethiopian Highlands: The Water Tower of Nile

Abstract
Water towers are areas that generate high stream flow compared with other areas [89]. For the Nile River Basin (NRB), Ethiopian Highlands stand tall amongst its competitors and as such, understanding the spatio-temporal characteristics of its water storage changes is crucial for not only Ethiopia, a country that is facing a range of challenges in water management caused by anthropogenic impacts as well as climate variability but also for the overall management of the entire NRB’s water resource.
Joseph Awange

The Nile: Weighed from Space

Frontmatter

Chapter 6. Water Storage Changes: Dominant Patterns

Abstract
Water resources within the Nile basin are under intense pressure from both human use and the changing climate. With the increasing human population and growing demand for both water and electricity, the various countries within the basin are likely to further exploit the waters within their sub-basins, thus negatively impacting upon the entire Nile system.
Joseph Awange

Chapter 7. Exploitation of the Nile’s Waters: Space View

Abstract
Understanding water storage changes within the Nile’s main sub-basins and the related impacts of climate variability is an essential step in managing its water resources. The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE; Sect. 3.3.3) satellite mission provides a unique opportunity to monitor changes in total water storage (TWS) of large river basins such as the Nile.
Joseph Awange

Chapter 8. Compartmental Changes: Climate Variability

Abstract
With the construction of the largest dam in Africa, the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) along the Blue Nile, the Nile is back in the news. This, combined with Bujagali dam on the White Nile are expected to bring ramification to the downstream countries. A comprehensive analysis of the Nile’s waters (surface, soil moisture and groundwater) is, therefore, essential to inform its management. Owing to its shear size, however, obtaining in-situ data from “boots on the ground” is practically impossible, paving way to the use of satellite remotely sensed and models’ products.
Joseph Awange

Chapter 9. Modelling the Nile’s Waters: Assimilation

Abstract
Global hydrological models facilitate studying of water resources and their variations over time. The accuracies of these models are enhanced when combined with ever-increasing satellite remotely sensed data. Traditionally, these combinations are done via data assimilation approach, which permits the use of improved hydrological outputs to study regions with limited in-situ measurements such as the Nile Basin.
Joseph Awange

Chapter 10. Hydrometeorological Drought: Impact on Nile

Abstract
Spatio-temporal patterns of hydrological droughts over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) are explored based on total water storage (TWS) changes derived from time-variable gravity field solutions of Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE, 2002–2014), together with those simulated by Modern Retrospective Analysis for Research Application (MERRA, 1980–2014).
Joseph Awange

Backmatter

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