The article is devoted to the consideration of the initial stage of history of the Cimmerians, who were the first historically known nomadic people in Eastern Europe. The early 1st millennium B.C. was characterized by the formative development of nomad pastoralism throughout the Eurasian steppes. During this time specialised nomadic economies developed based on the horse, so that most of the steppe regions were occupied by groups of nomads with their mobile way of life.It is proposed that the appearance of the first nomadic horse-riding groups on the historical arena coincided with considerable changes of the environment in the Final Bronze Age. Worsening of climatic conditions had a negative effect on the Pontic steppes archaeological cultures with a mixed pastoral-agricultural economy. Steppe populations adjusted to the new conditions by adopting a new nomadic way of life as well as by developing new lands. The migrations of nomadic tribes from the steppe zone were not single events but rather a continuous process. Depopulation of the Pontic steppes was accompanied by intensive cultural and economic development of other territories, for example, the area north of the Caucasus Mountains, the Krim Peninsula, the regions of the middle Dnieper and also the Great Hungarian Plain. These new centers were located in areas of wetter climate and their situations allowed them to play an important role. Cimmerians played a vital part in the transmission of horse riding and in the development of a new bridle technique. Both innovations were to have a major impact on European history.
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