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Über dieses Buch

This book grew out of the First Symposium on the Personal Web, co-located with CASCON 2010 in Markham, Ontario, Canada. The purpose of the symposium was to bring together prominent researchers and practitioners from a diverse range of research areas relevant to the advancement of science and practice relating to the Personal Web. Research on the Personal Web is an outgrowth of the Smart Internet initiative, which seeks to extend and transform the web to be centred on the user, with the web as a calm platform ubiquitously providing cognitive support to its user and his or her tasks. As with the preceding SITCON workshop (held at CASCON 2009), this symposium involved a multi-disciplinary effort that brought together researchers and practitioners in data integration; web services modelling and architecture; human-computer interaction; predictive analytics; cloud infrastructure; semantics and ontology; and industrial application domains such as health care and finance. The discussions during the symposium dealt with different aspects of the architecture and functionality needed to make the Personal Web a reality. After the symposium the authors reworked their presentations into draft chapters that were submitted for peer evaluation and review. Every chapter went through two rounds of reviewing by at least two independent expert reviewers, and accepted chapters were then revised and are presented in this book.



The Personal Web

The world-wide-web was originally intended to be a global distributed information space for publishing and sharing of information. The concept of the Personal Web is to extend the design of the web beyond a global information space into a global platform for personal services that provides first class support from the perspectives of users. The objectives of the Personal Web include extending its architecture to provide support for the prospective memory tasks of users; reduction of working cognitive load; facilitation of engagement in users web tasks and ubiquitous web interactions across users computing ecosystem of devices. Building on recent advances in mobile and cloud technologies, the Personal Web will set a people-centric agenda for web technology advancement that will fundamentally change users experience with web.
Joanna Ng

PWWM: A Personal Web Workflow Methodology

The personal web vision promises to give users a highly personalized experience on the web. This paper proposes and describes a Personal Web Workflow Methodology, designed to elicit, operationalize and execute a personal web user’s goals. Our approach relies heavily on our prior research in goal modeling and operationalization, model matching and merging, and web service monitoring and recovery. We integrate this research with the social networking concept of crowd-sourcing to create a novel methodology for allowing users to produce customized workflows in order to accomplish their unique goals.
Marsha Chechik, Jocelyn Simmonds, Sotirios Liaskos, Shiva Nejati, Mehrdad Sabetzadeh, Rick Salay

Service Subscription and Consumption for Personal Web Applications

Web services have played a vital role in our daily life for some time now. A wide spectrum of online applications have been developed in diverse domains such as banking, shopping, gaming, and video streaming. However, the end-user does often not have the means to tune the applications to her personal needs and interests, especially not across services from different providers. Moreover, the end-user can not take full advantage of the myriad of useful resources and services available on the Web, as interoperation among different services is often not given. Hence, the new Web application paradigm called Personal Web has emerged. The key idea behind the Personal Web is to have Web services exploit Web data that is collected and organized automatically according to the end-users’ context and preferences. This paper introduces a new concept that enables Personal Web applications, namely, service subscription and consumption. This new concept is driven by events exposed from Semantic Web resources and Web services through Padres, a distributed content-based publish/subscribe messaging substrate, and Polaris, an approach for event exposure at service interfaces. We explain service subscription and consumption based on a comprehensive scenario and design a framework and architecture that realizes the approach.
Chunyang Ye, Young Yoon, Hans-Arno Jacobsen

A Framework for Composing Personalized Web Resources

There are a large number of Web resources available on the Internet. However, only small subsets of Web resources are used to fulfill a user’s needs. Due to the heterogeneity and decentralization of Web resources, it is a time-consuming and tedious process for users to identify Web resources to fulfill their needs. For repeated activities, a user has to perform the same process over and over. To support users’ recurring online activities, we propose a framework for creating a personalized Web space to manage and orchestrate Web resources. Our framework provides helps to: 1) discover Web resources distributed in different websites despite their format; 2) provide mechanisms to allow users to share their information and resources; and 3) compose Web resources distributed in different websites. As a proof of concept, we designed and developed a prototype to demonstrate the use of our proposed framework for creating a personalized Web space.
Bipin Upadhyaya, Hua Xiao, Ying Zou, Joanna Ng, Alex Lau

A Privacy Framework for the Personal Web

User-centric privacy management is an important component of the Personal Web, and even more so in the context of personal health applications. We describe the motivations behind the development of a personal web privacy framework and outline a layered model for self-management of privacy in the context of Personal Health Record applications. In this paper we provide an overview of our framework. The privacy goals and settings mediator model addresses the understandability problem of privacy agreements and settings by supporting the users’ privacy decision-making process. This model provides privacy experts with the tool support to encode their knowledge and fill the gap between the end-users’ high-level privacy intentions and what personal health applications offer as privacy features. The second model in our framework, smart privacy model, is an ontological model that supports privacy enforcement. The model provides interoperable and computer interpretable translations of privacy settings, allowing the privacy settings selected by a user, to be translated as enforceable constraints on the data and processes of a personal workflow.
Reza Samavi, Mariano P. Consens, Thodoros Topaloglou

Intelligence for the Personal Web

The traditional paradigm for Web interactions, where the interactions are server-driven rather than user-driven, has limitations that are becoming increasingly apparent. The Personal Web proposes to provide intelligent services that support a more user-centric interaction paradigm in order to allow the user to more easily assemble and aggregate web elements to accomplish specific tasks.
In this paper we examine the role predictive analytics can play in intelligent services supporting decision-making tasks and describe the Predictive Analytics in Smart Interactions Framework (PASIF), which is a framework for incorporating predictive analytics into intelligent services. PASIF achieves effective levels of support in the dynamic real-time environment of the Personal Web by incorporating ensemble models and techniques to detect and adapt to concept drift in the data sources.
Marie Matheson, Patrick Martin, Jimmy Lo, Joanna Ng, Daisy Tan, Brian Thomson

Communities, Artifacts, Interaction and Contribution on the Web

Today, most of us are members of multiple online communities, in the context of which we engage in a multitude of personal and professional activities. These communities are supported by different web-based platforms and enable different types of collaborative interactions. Through our experience with the development of and experimentation with three different such platforms in support of collaborative communities, we recognized a few core research problems relevant across all such tools, and we developed SociQL, a language, and a corresponding software framework, to study them.
Eleni Stroulia

The SmarterContext Ontology and Its Application to the Smart Internet: A Smarter Commerce Case Study

In the smart internet interactions must be situation-aware and smart. That is, they must be realized with awareness of, and adaptation to users’ individual and collective context situations. Therefore, context management is crucial to deliver contents and services that are relevant to the user’s matters of concern. This paper presents the SmarterContext ontology, our semantic web approach to context representation and reasoning applicable to user-centric domains of the smart internet. We illustrate the application of the SmarterContext ontology using a personal web case study based on IBM’s smarter commerce initiative. This case study demonstrates how our ontology supports context representation and reasoning to improve the relevance of retailer offers with respect to shopper situations. Our ontology is the core of the SmarterContext infrastructure, our context management solution that exploits user web interactions as sources of meaningful personal context information, and empowers users to control context gathering and provisioning.
Norha M. Villegas, Hausi A. Müller

Simplifying the Task of Group Gift Giving

Gift Giving is a complex and ubiquitous task that would benefit from the simpler and more user-centred style of interaction offered by the Personal Web vision. In this paper we begin by reviewing relevant literature on gift giving, and we identify key roles and requirements of gift giving. We examine current approaches to the support of group gift giving online and review some of their deficiencies. We then discuss the role that recommender systems and social media can play in facilitating gift giving interactions. As a first step towards simpler and more effective group gift giving in the Personal Web, we review results of research studies that we have conducted showing opportunities and challenges with respect to further development of gift giving online communities, and group gift giving services. We conclude with suggestions on future directions for online group gift giving noting the contribution that the Personal Web approach can make in this domain.
Shadi Ghajar-Khosravi, Louisa Holub, David Canella, William Sharpe, Mark Chignell


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