Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-018-9461-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
This paper explores the effect that municipal policing can exert on politics, and specifically investigates the effect that Stop, Question, and Frisk (SQF) policing has had on voter turnout and candidate choice in New York City. While extant studies of the American criminal justice system have found that mass incarceration and felon disenfranchisement negatively impact political participation and engagement, few have explicitly explored policing’s relationship with politics and fewer still consider its mobilizing potential. Mobilizing data from over 2.7 million geo-coded police stops and data from a series of national and municipal elections this paper uncovers a pattern of voter demobilization, voter mobilization, and candidate choice that cannot be anticipated from extant studies in the literature. Specifically, it finds that while concentrated policing was associated with reductions in voter turnout in the 2006 and 2010 midterm elections, it was associated with higher rates of turnout in the 2008 presidential election and 2013 Democratic primary and general mayor. Further analysis demonstrates that stopping intensity was strongly associated with candidate choice in the 2013 Democratic mayoral primary, such that higher rates of policing were positively associated with support for the candidate (John Liu) who advocated for eliminating SQF and less support for the candidate (William Thompson) who supported SQF. Together, these findings highlight the impact that policing can exert on political behavior, characterize the impact that harmful policing policies can play in instigating policing participation and engagement, and foreground the importance of considering local criminal justice policy and political action.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 506 kb)11109_2018_9461_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Alcindor, Y. (2015). Ferguson voters make history and increase turnout. USA TODAY. http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2015/04/07/ferguson-voters-head-to-polls/25401037/.
Alexander, M. (2012). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: The New Press.
Ansolabehere, S., Palmer, M., & Lee, A. (2014). Precinct-level election data. https://www.dataverse.harvard.edu/dataset.xhtml?persistentId=hdl:1902.1/21919.
Baer, A. (2015). From law and order to torture: Race and policing in de-industrial chicago. Evanston: Northwestern University.
Baicker, K., & Jacobson, M. (2007). Finders keepers: Forfeiture laws, policing incentives, and local budgets. Journal of Public Economics, 91(11), 2113–2136. CrossRef
Barbaro, M. (2013, May 29). William C. Thompson Jr. Takes moderate stand on police stops. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/30/nyregion/william-c-thompson-jr-takes-moderate-stand-on-police-stops.html.
Barreto, M. A., Villarreal, M., & Woods, N. D. (2005). Metropolitan latino political behavior: Voter turnout and candidate preference in Los Angeles. Journal of Urban Affairs, 27(1), 71–91. CrossRef
Barreto, M. A., Manzano, S., Ramirez, R., & Rim, K. (2009). Mobilization, participation, and solidaridad Latino participation in the 2006 immigration protest rallies. Urban Affairs Review, 44(5), 736–764. CrossRef
Baumgartner, F. R., Epp, D. A., Shoub, K., & Love, B. (2017). Targeting young men of color for search and arrest during traffic stops: Evidence from North Carolina, 2002–2013. Politics, Groups, and Identities, 5(1), 107–131. CrossRef
Bloom, J., & Martin, W. E. (2013). Black against empire: The history and politics of the black panther party. Oakland: University of California Press.
Bobo, L., & Gilliam, F. D. (1990). Race, sociopolitical participation, and black empowerment. The American Political Science Review, 84(2), 377–393. CrossRef
Brady, H. E., Verba, S., & Schlozman, K. L. (1995). Beyond SES: A resource model of political participation. American Political Science Review, 89(02), 271–294. CrossRef
Bratton, W., & Knobler, P. (1998). Turnaround: How America’s top cop reversed the crime epidemic. New York: Random House Incorporated.
Brayne, S. (2014). Surveillance and system avoidance: Criminal justice contact and institutional attachment. American Sociological Review, 79(3), 367–391. CrossRef
Burch, T. (2012). Did disfranchisement laws help elect president bush? New evidence on the turnout rates and candidate preferences of Florida’s Ex-Felons. Political Behavior, 34(1), 1–26. CrossRef
Burch, T. (2013). Trading democracy for justice: Criminal convictions and the decline of neighborhood political participation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Campbell, A. L. (2003). Participatory reactions to policy threats: Senior citizens and the defense of social security and medicare. Political Behavior, 25(1), 29–49. CrossRef
Carbado, D.W. (2016). Predatory policing. UMKC L. Rev. 85, 545–566.
Carr, P. J., Napolitano, L., & Keating, J. (2007). We never call the cops and here is why: A qualitative examination of legal cynicism in three Philadelphia neighborhoods. Criminology, 45(2), 445–480. CrossRef
Center for Urban Research. (2013). NYC election atlas—maps. http://www.nycelectionatlas.com/maps.html#!interactive.
Cho, W. K. T., Gimpel, J. G., & Wu, T. (2006). Clarifying the role of SES in political participation: Policy threat and Arab American mobilization. Journal of Politics, 68(4), 977–991. CrossRef
Chong, D. & Rogers, R. (2005). Racial solidarity and political participation. Political Behavior, 27(4), 47–374. CrossRef
Dawson, M. C. (1994). Behind the mule-race and class in African-American politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Eisinger, P. K. (1973). The conditions of protest behavior in American cities. American Political Science Review, 67(1), 11–28. CrossRef
Eith, C., & Durose, M. R. (2011). Contacts between police and the public, 2008. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureua of Justice Statistics. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9532/21446c50f250ba96e76d38253d22a3c24c35.pdf.
Epp, C. R., Maynard-Moody, S., & Haider-Markel, D. P. (2014). Pulled over: How police stops define race and citizenship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Escobar, E. J. (1993). The dialectics of repression: The Los Angeles police department and the chicano movement, 1968-1971. The Journal of American History, 79(4), 1483–1514. CrossRef
Fagan, J., Tyler, T. R., & Meares, T. L. (2016). Street stops and police legitimacy in New York. In Comparing the democratic governance of police intelligence: New models of participation and expertise in the United States and Europe, p. 203.
Fairdosi, A. S., & Rogowski, J. C. (2015). Candidate race, partisanship, and political participation. Political Research Quarterly, 68(2), 337–349. CrossRef
Fassin, D. (2013). Enforcing order: An ethnography of urban policing. Cambridge: Polity.
Felker-Kantor, M. (2014). Managing Marginalization from watts to rodney king: The struggle over policing and social control in Los Angeles, 1965-1992. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.
Fine, M., Freudenberg, N., Payne, Y., Perkins, T., Smith, K., & Wanzer, K. (2003). `Anything Can Happen with Police Around’: Urban youth evaluate strategies of surveillance in public places. Journal of Social Issues, 59(1), 141–158. CrossRef
Freedlander, D. (2013). Dante de Blasio’s killer ad may have won NYC primary for his dad. The Daily Beast. https://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/09/14/dante-de-blasio-s-killer-ad-may-have-won-nyc-primary-for-his-dad.
Gau, J. M., & Brunson, R. K. (2010). Procedural justice and order maintenance policing: A study of inner-city young men’s perceptions of police legitimacy. Justice Quarterly, 27(2), 255–279. CrossRef
Gelman, A., & Hill, J. (2006). Data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Gelman, A., Fagan, J., & Kiss, A. (2007). An analysis of the new york city police department’s “Stop-and-Frisk” policy in the context of claims of racial bias. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 102(479), 813–823. CrossRef
Geys, B. (2006). Explaining voter turnout: A review of aggregate-level research. Electoral Studies, 25(4), 637–663. CrossRef
Goel, S., Rao, J.M., & Shroff, R. (2016). Precinct or prejudice? Understanding racial disparities in New York city’s stop-and-frisk policy. The Annals of Applied Statistics, 10(1), 365–394. CrossRef
Goffman, A. (2015). On the run: Fugitive life in an American city. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Goldman, S. K. (2012). Effects of the 2008 Obama presidential campaign on White racial prejudice. Public Opinion Quarterly, 76(4), 663–687. CrossRef
Goodman, J. D., & Baker, A. (2014). Wave of protests after grand jury doesn’t indict officer in Eric Garner chokehold case. The New York Times. http://1percent.info/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/2014-Wave_of_Protests_After_Grand_Jury_Doesn%E2%80%99t_Indict_Officer_in_pdf.
Gottschalk, M. (2008). Hiding in plain sight: American politics and the carceral state. Annual Review of Political Science, 11, 235–260. CrossRef
Gould, J. (2013). The democratic mayoral candidates on stop-and-frisk and healthcare. WNYC. http://www.wnyc.org/story/313861-democratic-mayoral-candidates-stop-and-frisk-and-healthcare/?utmsource=sharedUrl&utm_medium=metatag&utm_campaign=sharedUrl.
Hughes, K. A. (2006). Justice expenditure and employment in the United States, 2003. Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ212260. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.
Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Hough, M., Myhill, A., Quinton, P., & Tyler, T. R. (2012). Why do people comply with the law? Legitimacy and the influence of legal institutions. British Journal of Criminology, 52(6), 1051–1071. CrossRef
Kaplan, T. (2013). Bristling Republican rivals discuss issues, and kittens, at debate - The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/09/nyregion/at-debate-bristling-republican-rivals-discuss-issues-and-kittens.html.
Kirk, D. S., Papachristos, A. V., Fagan, J., & Tyler, T. R. (2012). The paradox of law enforcement in immigrant communities. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 641(1), 79–98. CrossRef
Kriesi, H. (Ed). (1995). New social movements in Western Europe: A comparative analysis. University of Minnesota Press.
Laniyonu, A. (2017). Coffee shops and street stops: Policing Practices in gentrifying neighborhoods. Urban Affairs Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087416689728.
Leland, J., & Moynihan, C. (2012, June 17). Thousands March silently down fifth avenue to protest stop-and-frisk policies. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/18/nyregion/thousands-march-silently-to-protest-stop-and-frisk-policies.html.
Lerman, A. E., & Weaver, V. M. (2014a). Arresting citizenship: The democratic consequences of american crime control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Lerman, A. E., & Weaver, V. (2014b). Staying out of sight? Concentrated policing and local political action. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 651(1), 202–219. CrossRef
Logan, J. R., Xu, Z., & Stults, B. J. (2014). Interpolating US decennial census tract data from as early as 1970 to 2010: A longitudinal tract database. The Professional Geographer, 66(3), 412–420. CrossRef
Lotke, E., & Wagner, P. (2003). Prisoners of the census: Electoral and financial consequences of counting prisoners where they go, not where they come from. Pace Law Review, 24, 587.
Lulay. (2016). ‘Bye Anita’: How Chicago’s young black activists fought for Alvarez’s loss. DNAinfo Chicago. https://www.dnainfo.com/chicago/20160316/river-north/bye-anita-activists-celebrate-anita-alvarez-ouster-with-song-hashtag.
Lundman, R. J., & Kaufman, R. L. (2003). Driving while black: Effects of race, ethnicity, and gender on citizen self-reports of traffic stops and police actions. Criminology, 41(1), 195–220. CrossRef
Maciag, M. (2014). Skyrocketing court fines are major revenue generator for Ferguson. Governing. http://www.governing.com/topics/public-justice-safety/gov-ferguson-missouri-court-fines-budget.html.
Manza, J., & Uggen, C. (2006). Locked out: Felon disenfranchisement and American democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Antrobus, E., & Eggins, E. (2012). Procedural justice, routine encounters and citizen perceptions of police: Main findings from the queensland community engagement trial (QCET). Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8(4), 343–367. CrossRef
MacDonald, J., Fagan, J., & Geller, A. (2016). The effects of local police surges on crime and arrests in New York city. PLos One, 11(6), e0157223. CrossRef
McDonald, M. P., & Popkin, S. L. (2001). The myth of the vanishing voter. American Political Science Review, 95(4), 963–974.
Meredith, M., & Morse, M. (2017). Discretionary disenfranchisement: The case of legal financial obligations. Working Paper.
Merolla, J. L., Sellers, A. H., & Fowler, D. J. (2013). Descriptive representation, political efficacy, and African Americans in the 2008 presidential election. Political Psychology, 34(6), 863–875. CrossRef
Mettler, S. (2007). Soldiers to citizens: The GI bill and the making of the greatest generation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mettler, S., & Soss, J. (2004). The consequences of public policy for democratic citizenship: Bridging policy studies and mass politics. Perspectives on Politics, 2(01), 55–73. CrossRef
Meyer, D. S. (2004). Protest and political opportunities. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 125–145. CrossRef
Michener, J. (2013). Neighborhood disorder and local participation: Examining the political relevance of “Broken Windows”. Political Behavior, 35(4), 777–806. CrossRef
Minkoff, S. L. (2016). NYC 311 a tract-level analysis of citizen-government contacting in New York city. Urban Affairs Review, 52(2), 211–246. CrossRef
Mummolo, J. (2018). Modern police tactics, police-citizen interactions, and the prospects for reform. The Journal of Politics, 80(1), 1–15. CrossRef
National Advisory Commission on Health. (1968). A report to the president. US Printing Office.
New York City Primary Results. (2013). The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/projects/elections/2013/nyc-primary/mayor/exit-polls.html.
NYCLU. (2017). Stop-and-frisk data. http://www.nyclu.org/content/stop-and-frisk-data.
NYPD. (2016). NYPD patrol guide. New York City Police Department. https://www1.nyc.gov/site/ccrb/investigations/nypd-patrol-guide.page.
Owens, E. G. (2017). Testing the school-to-prison pipeline. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 36(1), 11–37. CrossRef
Pantoja, A. D., & Segura, G. M. (2003). Fear and loathing in California: Contextual threat and political sophistication among Latino voters. Political Behavior, 25(3), 265–286. CrossRef
Park, S. (2017). Local revenue structure under economic hardship: Reliance on alternative revenue sources in California counties. Local Government Studies, 43(4), 645–667. CrossRef
Peffley, M., & Hurwitz, J. (2010). Justice in America: The separate realities of blacks and whites. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Predergast, J. (2011). 2001 Riots led to top-down change for cincinnati police. USATODAY.COM. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2011-04-03-cincinnati-riots-anniversary_N.htm.
Reisig, M. D., & Kane, R. J (Eds). (2014). The Oxford handbook of police and policing. Oxford University Press.
Ridgeway, G. (2007). Analysis of racial disparities in the New York police department’s stop, question, and frisk practices. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.
Rios, V. M. (2011). Punished: Policing the lives of black and Latino boys. New York: NYU Press.
Rosenbaum, D. P., Schuck, A. M., Costello, S. K., Hawkins, D. F. & Ring, M. K. (2005). Attitudes toward the police: The effects of direct and vicarious experience. Police Quarterly, 8(3), 343–365. CrossRef
Ruback, R. B., & Clark, V. (2011). Economic sanctions in Pennsylvania: Complex and inconsistent. Duquesne Law Review, 49, 751.
Sharp, E. B. (2014). Minority representation and order maintenance policing: Toward a contingent view. Social Science Quarterly, 95(4), 1155–1171.
Smiley, D. (2015, May 16). McDuffie riots: Revisiting, retelling story—35 years later. The Miami Herald. http://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/community/miami-dade/article21178995.html.
Soss, J. (1999). Lessons of welfare: Policy design, political learning, and political action. American Political Science Review, 93(02), 363–380. CrossRef
Stoudt, B. G., Fine, M., & Fox, M. (2011). Growing up policed in the age of aggressive policing policies. New York Law School Law Review, 56, 1331–1635.
Sunshine, J., & Tyler, T. R. (2003). The role of procedural justice and legitimacy in shaping public support for policing. Law & Society Review, 37(3), 513–548. CrossRef
Tyler, T. R., & Huo, Y. (2002). Trust in the law: Encouraging public cooperation with the police and courts through. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Tyler, T. R., Fagan, J., & Geller, A. (2014). Street stops and police legitimacy: Teachable moments in young urban men’s legal socialization. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 11(4), 751–785. CrossRef
Uggen, C., Larson, R., & Shannon, S. (2016). 6 million lost voters: State-level estimates of felony disenfranchisement. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.
United States Department of Justice. (2015). The Ferguson report: Department of justice investigation of the Ferguson police department.
Vitale, A. S. (2008). City of disorder: How the quality of life campaign transformed New York politics. New York: NYU Press.
Walker, H. L. (2014). Extending the effects of the carceral state proximal contact, political participation, and race. Political Research Quarterly, 67(4), 809–822. CrossRef
Walker, H. L. (2016). Mobilized by injustice: Criminal justice contact, political participation and race. Seattle: University of Washington.
Weaver, V. M., & Lerman, A. E. (2010). Political consequences of the carceral state. American Political Science Review, 104(04), 817–833. CrossRef
Weitzer, R., & Brunson, R. K. (2009). Strategic responses to the police among inner-city youth. The Sociological Quarterly, 50(2), 235–256. CrossRef
West, E. A. (2017). Descriptive representation and political efficacy: Evidence from Obama and Clinton. The Journal of Politics, 79(1), 351–355. CrossRef
White, A. (2016). When threat mobilizes: Immigration enforcement and Latino voter turnout. Political Behavior, 38(2), 355–382. CrossRef
White, A., & Trump, K.-S. (2016). The promises and pitfalls of 311 data. Urban Affairs Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087416673202.
Williams, R. G. (1993). Reading rodney king/reading urban uprising. New York: Routledge.
Willis, J. J. (2014). A recent history of the police. In M. D. Reisig & R. J. Kane (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of police and policing (pp. 3–33). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia