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The author analyses the implementation of the agricultural and industrial parts of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. Following a sectoral approach to assess the implementation of the ENP, he investigates which interest groups win and which lose from the policy.




The main aim of this book is to evaluate the implementation of the agricultural and industrial aspects of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco from 2004 until 2014. The book amends Putnam’s two level game analysis to assess the ENP before and after the Arab revolts and it identifies the winners and the losers of the related reforms. The research argues that after the Arab Spring the announcements of policymakers for a new ENP were not followed by considerable changes in the agricultural and industrial aspects of the policy.
Christos Kourtelis

1. The Positive Integration of the Partner Countries through the ENP

This chapter illustrates the operational design of the European Neighbourhood Policy. Due to the fact that the EMP Association Agreements (AAs) work as an umbrella of the ENP, the first part of the chapter is a comparative analysis between the ENP Action Plans and the AAs. This part explains the added value of the policy in the political economy of Euro-Mediterranean relations and the logic of positive integration that informs the ENP. It is argued that by deepening the trade cooperation between the EU and North Africa, the policy alters the distribution of costs and benefits for social actors. Under these circumstances, the identification of winners and losers cannot be done only on regional lines. Through the examination of the ENP country reports and the commitments of the partner countries, the second part argues that the North African states should be added to the other social actors that are influenced by the policy, as they have strong vested interests in the economic part of the ENP.
Christos Kourtelis

2. The ENP as a Three-Level Game

This chapter presents the theoretical approach of the book. It analyses Putnam’s two-level game framework, and it argues that previous works have misinterpreted Putnam’s approach and made wrong conclusions about the state of Euro-Mediterranean relations. These works see the relations between the Euro-Mediterranean policies as an intra-EU game and fail to assess the role of the partner countries in the agreements. The chapter attempts to correct these theoretical shortcomings by adding another level to Putnam’s framework. The analysis of the domestic, the intra-EU and the international levels helps to identify the nature of win-sets, the role of the low politicisation of the policy and the ways in which the EU exerted its pressures to the North African governments.
Christos Kourtelis

3. Level I: The Domestic Interests in the EU and North Africa

Following the three level-game framework, Chapter 3 explains the configuration of power in the agricultural and industrial sectors within the EU member states and the three North African countries. The first part of the chapter analyses the complicated reality within the agricultural sector in the two regions and explains the preferences of the winning coalitions in both the EU and in North Africa. The second part of the chapter delves deeper into the nature of the European and North African industrial groups. This part highlights the role that competition from third countries plays to the preferences of the European industrial winning coalitions and the minimal input of North African small companies to the industrial aspects of the policy.
Christos Kourtelis

4. Negotiating the ENP at Level II: A Three-Stage Process

This chapter analyses the negotiations of the ENP at the intra-EU level and it is divided into three periods. The first period (2002–2006) was marked by negotiations for the tools that the EU would use to promote the preferences of its winning coalitions to the ENP partners. During the second period (2006–2009) the big member states, especially France and Germany, attempted to promote their own initiatives for benefiting particular interests in the East and South neighbouring countries. The last period (2010–2014) is marked by the Arab Spring and it shows that despite the entrepreneurial role of the Commission, the unchanged configuration of power within the EU does not allow significant changes to the EU initiatives.
Christos Kourtelis

5. Negotiations at the International Level: Are the ENP Countries Decision Takers or Implementation Partners?

This chapter covers the implementation of the agricultural and industrial aspects of the ENP. Its first part shows the pattern of continuity between the pro-Arab Spring reforms of the North African agricultural sector and post-Arab Spring EU initiatives, which benefit the large producers of the North African countries and the European export-oriented food companies and farmers. This approach contributes to the creation of a dual agricultural market, which further marginalises the subsistence North African farmers. Similar patterns of continuity inform the implementation of the industrial part of the ENP. Emphasis is given to the standardisation process of industrial products and the promotion of the Agadir Agreement, which benefit primarily the European companies that manage to share the costs of standardisation with the North African firms.
Christos Kourtelis


The ENP was created in 2004 and it offered a new privileged relationship to the EU neighbouring countries through a larger stake of the EU market. Towards the South partners the ENP complemented the Barcelona Process and the creation of the APs that were signed between the EU and each partner swung the pendulum of Euro-Mediterranean relations from multilateralism towards bilateralism.
Christos Kourtelis


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