Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Virtual water is the water used or contaminated to produce a good or a service. With the large increase of export of agricultural produce during the last decades the amount of virtual water export has grown as well. Increased water contamination and water extraction for export from relative dry areas affects local ecosystems and communities. Simultaneously, the increased virtual water trade has weakened the local control over water resources by local communities, to the expense of multinational agribusiness and retailer companies. This repatterning of water control is fomented by numerous national governments, and at the same time contested by local communities. Partly as reaction to the critics on water depletion, agribusiness and retailers have created a number of water stewardship standards. Notwithstanding the possibilities for local communities to articulate their demands with these standards, until now most water stewardship standards have had little – or even negative – effects.
Achterhuis, H., Boelens, R., & Zwarteveen, M. (2010). Water property relations and modern policy regimes: Neoliberal utopia and the disempowerment of collective action. In R. Boelens, D. Getches, & A. Guevara-Gil (Eds.), Out of the mainstream. Water rights, politics and identity (pp. 27–55). London and Washington DC: Earthscan.
Allan, J. A. (1998). Virtual water: A strategic resource. Global solutions to regional deficits. Ground Water, 26(4), 545–546. CrossRef
Allan, J. A. (2003). Virtual water. The water, food, and trade nexus: Useful concept or misleading metaphor? Water International, 28(1), 106–113. CrossRef
AWS. (2011). The Alliance for Water Stewardship water roundtable process. Final draft, April 20, 2011. London: Alliance for Water Stewardship.
Bebbington, A., Humphreys, D., & Bury, J. (2010). Federating and defending: Water, territory and extraction in the Andes. In R. Boelens, D. Getches, & A. Guevara (Eds.), Out of the mainstream: Water rights, politics and identity (pp. 307–327). London: Earthscan.
Berger, M., van der Ent, R., Eisner, S., Bach, V., & Finkbeiner, M. (2014). Water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE): Considering atmospheric evaporation recycling and the risk of freshwater depletion in water footprinting. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(8), 4521–4528. CrossRef
Blowfield, M., & Dolan, C. (2008). Stewards of virtue? The ethical dilemma of CSR in African agriculture. Development and Change, 39(1), 1–23. CrossRef
Boelens, R. (2015). Water, power and identity. The cultural politics of water in the Andes. London and Washington DC: Earthscan, Routledge.
Boelens, R., Hoogesteger, J., Swyngedouw, E., Vos, J., & Wester, P. (2016). Hydrosocial territories: A political ecology perspective. Water International, 41(1), 1–14. CrossRef
Boelens, R., & Seemann, M. (2014). Forced engagements. Water security and local rights formalization in Yanque, Colca Valley, Peru. Human Organization, 73(1), 1–12. CrossRef
Boelens, R., & Vos, J. (2012). The danger of naturalizing water policy concepts. Water productivity and efficiency discourses from field irrigation to virtual water trade. Agricultural Water Management, 108, 16–26. CrossRef
Bogaert, K. (2015). The revolt of small towns: the meaning of Morocco”s history and the geography of social protests. Review of African Political Economy, 42(143), 124–140. CrossRef
Bond, P. (2008). Social movements and corporate social responsibility in South Africa. Development and Change, 39(6), 1037–1052. CrossRef
de Vos, H., Boelens, R., & Bustamante, R. (2006). Formal law and local water control in the Andean region: A fiercely contested field. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 22(1), 37–48. CrossRef
Dermody, B. J., et al. (2014). A virtual water network of the Roman world. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 18, 5025–5040. CrossRef
Fulponi, L. (2007). The globalization of private standards and the agri-food system. In J. Swinnen (Ed.), Global supply chains, standards and the poor (pp. 5–18). Wallingford: CABI Publications.
Hoekstra, A., & Chapagain, A. (2008). Globalization of water: Sharing the planet”s freshwater resources. Blackwell Publishing.
Hoogesteger, J., & Wester, P. (2015). Intensive groundwater use and (in)equity: Processes and governance challenges. Environmental Science & Policy, 51, 117–124. CrossRef
Kounina, A., Margni, M., Bayart, J., Boulay, M., Berger, Bulle, C., et al. (2013). Review of methods addressing freshwater use in life cycle inventory and impact assessment. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(3), 707–721.
Mehta, L., Veldwisch, G. J., & Franco, J. (2012). Introduction to the special issue: Water grabbing? Focus on the (re)appropriation of finite water resources. Water Alternatives, 5(2), 193–207.
Ochoa, E. (2006). Canadian mining operations in Mexico. In L. North, et al. (Eds.), Community rights and corporate responsibility: Canadian mining and oil companies in Latin America (pp. 143–160). Toronto: Between the Lines.
Oré, M. T., Del Castillo, L., Laureano, Orsel, S., & Vos, J. (2009). El agua, ante nuevos desafíos. Actores e iniciativas en Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia. Lima, Perú: IEP; Oxfam International.
Ramirez-Vallejo, J., & Rogers, P. (2010). Failure of the virtual water argument: Possible explanations using the case study of Mexico and NAFTA. In C. Ringler, A. K. Biswas, & S. A. Cline (Eds.), Global change: Impacts on water and food security (Chap. 6). Berlin: Springer.
Ridoutt, B., & Pfitser, S. (2010). A revised approach to water footprinting to make transparent the impacts of consumption and production on global freshwater scarcity. Global Environmental Change, 20, 113–120. CrossRef
Roth, D., & Warner, J. (2008). Virtual water: Virtuous virtual impact? Agriculture and Human Values, 25, 257–270. CrossRef
Smaller, C., & Mann, H. (2009). A thirst for distant lands: Foreign investment in agricultural land and water. Winnipeg: IISD.
Sojamo, S., Keulertz, M., Warner, J., & Allan, J. A. (2012). Virtual water hegemony: The role of agribusuness in global water governance. Water International, 37(2), 169–182. CrossRef
Solanes, M., & Jouravlev, A. (2007). Revisiting privatization, foreign investment, international arbitration, and water. Santiago: UN/ECLAC.
Stoltenborg, D., & Boelens, R. (2016). Disputes over land and water rights in gold mining. The case of Cerro de San Pedro, Mexico. Water International, 41(3), 447–467. CrossRef
Sultana, F., & Loftus, A. (2012). The right to water: Politics governance and social struggles. Earthscan, Routledge: London and NY.
Swyngedouw, E. (2005). Dispossessing H2O: The contested terrain of water privatization. Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 16(1), 81–98. CrossRef
Swyngedouw, E. (2013). Into the sea: Desalination as hydro-social fix in Spain. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 103(2), 261–270. CrossRef
Swyngedouw, E. (2014). “Not A Drop of Water…”: State, modernity and the production of nature in Spain, 1898–2010. Environment and History, 20, 67–92. CrossRef
Urkidi, L. (2010). A glocal environmental movement against gold mining: Pascua-Lama in Chile. Ecological Economics, 70, 219–227. CrossRef
Urteaga, P. (2013). Entre la abundancia y la escasez de agua: discursos, poder y biocombustibles en Piura, Perú (Between water abundance and scarcity: the cultural politics of biofuels in Piura, Northern Peru). Debates en Sociologia, 38, 55–80.
USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, (2014) Peru Biofuels Annual 2014. GAIN Report: Washington.
van der Ploeg, J. D. (2008). The new peasantries. Struggles for autonomy and sustainability in an era of empire and globalization. London: Earthscan.
van der Ploeg, J. D. (2010). The food crisis, industrialized farming and the imperial regime. Journal of Agrarian Change, 10(1), 98–106. CrossRef
Venot, J. P., & Clement, F. (2013). Justice in development? An analysis of water interventions in the rural South. Natural Resources Forum, 37, 19–30. CrossRef
Vos, J. (Ed). (2010). Riego campesino en los Andes. Seguridad hídrica y seguridad alimentaria en Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia, IEP, Lima.
Vos, J., & Boelens, R. (2014). Sustainability standards and the water question. Development and Change, 45(2), 1–26. CrossRef
Vos, J., & Hinojosa, L. (2016). Virtual water trade and the contestation of hydro-social territories. Water International, 41(1), 37–53. CrossRef
Woodhouse, P. (2012). New investment, old challenges. Land deals and the water constraint in African agriculture. Journal of Peasant Studies, 39(3–4), 777–794. CrossRef
Yacoub, C., Duarte, B., & Boelens, R. (Eds.). (2015). Despojo del Agua y Ecología Política. Hidroeléctricas, industrias extractivas y agro-exportación en Latino América. Quito: Abya-Yala.
Zoomers, A., & Kaag, M. (Eds.). (2013). Beyond the hype: A critical analysis of the global “land grab”. London: ZED.
Zwarteveen, M., & Boelens, R. (2014). Defining, researching and struggling for water justice: Some conceptual building blocks for research and action. Water International, 39(2), 143–158. CrossRef
- The Politics and Consequences of Virtual Water Export