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Following the 9/11 attacks, a major change occurred in Western, particularly American security policies at the global and regional levels, including policy in the area of arms control. In the United States, the George W. Bush administration declared a war on terrorism that targeted both terrorist organizations and so-called ‘rogue states’. The administration argued that it could not afford to wait until such organizations or states acquired WMDs and used them first against US interests. Accordingly, the United States had to be prepared to strike first against aspiring possessors of WMD, especially rogue states seeking nuclear weapons. This brought the war on terrorism into a war of counter-proliferation in which the United States and a number of its European allies would target non-state terrorist organizations and rogue states suspected of developing WMDs (Record 2004).
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IISS Strategic Survey 2001/2002, p. 20.
Remarks at West Point commencement ceremonies, 1 June 2002.
Secretary of Defense Les Aspin, speech to the National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C., 7 December 1993.
Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategy, Forces and Resources For a New Century. A document prepared by the Project for the New American Century, September 2000; available at: < http://www.newamericancentury.org/RebuildingAmericasDefenses.pdf>.
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The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, September 2002; available at: < http://merln.ndu.edu/whitepapers/USnss2002.pdf>.
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For a review of the legal concerns pertaining to the PSI, see Khurana 2004: 239–241.
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The estimate of more than one million violent deaths in Iraq was confirmed by Opinion Research Business (ORB), an independent British polling agency, in September 2007. The ORB poll estimated 1,220,580 violent deaths since the US invasion. In January 2008, ORB published an update based on additional work carried out in rural areas of Iraq. Some 600 additional interviews were undertaken and as a result of this the death estimate was revised to 1,033,000. This is consistent with a 2006 study conducted by the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, and published in The Lancet. The study estimated 601,000 people killed due to violence as of July 2006. If updated on the basis of deaths since the study, this estimate would also be more than a million.
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See the text of “The Final communiqué of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit,” April 2010; available at: < http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/140355.pdf>.
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- The Post-9/11 Era: Is Arms Control Still Relevant?
Gamal M. Selim
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- Chapter 4