1. In 1861 Italy was united under the House of Savoy as a result of the war which had been fought against Austria in 1859 in alliance with Napoleon III and of the expedition of Garibaldi and his Thousand volunteers to the South. This was the event which realised the hopes of the small groupings of the urban and intellectual petty bourgeoisie, who had at the end been drawn into the dispassionate but highly effective political and military operation energetically carried through by the firm and victorious alliance created and led by Cavour, in which the land-owning classes had assumed a hegemonic position. Their interests were expressed, however, in a great variety of ways, and they were in particular increasingly drawn towards commercial and financial activities.
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