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2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

15. The Right to the City and the Housing in Brazilian Cities

verfasst von : Arlete Moysés Rodrigues

Erschienen in: Brazilian Geography

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

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Abstract

This article will analyse the general conditions of housing in Brazilian cities and housing policies, with an emphasis on the current situation. The right to adequate housing forms part of the right to the city, but the right to the city is broader; it consists of a different way of producing the city. The lack of adequate housing for workers is inherent to the capitalist production method. Housing includes land ownership—one of the foundations of the capitalist production method—and produces income for owners, given the collective production of the city. Buildings require a construction process and produce profits for the construction sectors. In Brazil, since its beginnings, land as a form of wealth has not been permitted for all. In 1850, the Land Law characterised land as a commodity in the capitalist production method. As such, access to this commodity can only be gained through purchasing and/or leasing—something which workers must guarantee with their own (always insufficient) salaries, as confirmed by the rate of the minimum wage. State housing policies for workers in the 1930s made employment conditional on the ability to rent and/or purchase. In 1966, the income brackets were established, and working would thereafter allow the acquisition of housing through the BNH-FGTS. From then on, the world of work began to subsidise urban development. This policy came to an end in 1986 with the dissolution of the BNH. There was financing, but no housing policy. The housing policy was reintroduced in 2009, with the Minha casa, minhavida [my house, my life] housing programme, set to expire in 2020. In any event, there is no guarantee of the right to housing as expressed in the Federal Constitution—something which evidences the socio-spatial inequality.

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Fußnoten
1
Subnormal is a term used to designate precarious houses (shacks), while subnormal cluster refers to a set of these precarious houses
 
2
Favela: a group of precarious units–shacks–that occupy, in a disorderly manner, dense public or private areas, without title deeds and without access to essential public services. We use, in the text, as synonyms of favela: domicile, habitation, dwelling, shack, depending on the source used, with the meaning of house, place of residence, roof.
 
3
The data are underestimated, as the survey is carried out in clusters of more than 50 shacks and there are a large number of favelas with less than 50 households in the vast majority of cities.
 
4
We use with the same meaning: affordable housing/housing and social housing, depending on the source researched.
 
5
The 2021 Minimum Wage is R$1,100.00 per month, equivalent to US$192 dollars, as of June 6, 2021.
 
6
The Zero Eviction Campaign, articulated by housing movements and national and international entities, has acted to stop evictions during the pandemic.
 
7
See Rodrigues (2019)
 
8
See Jaramillo (2009)
 
9
See Bastos (2020)
 
10
The FipeZap index is calculated by ZIPE (Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas) based on real estate advertisements (ready apartments, rooms and commercial conjuntos up to 200 square meters) published on ZAP Imoveis and other internet portals.
 
11
See Mascaro (3013), Gramsci (1988); Poulantzas (19974); and Hirrsch (2010).
 
12
Until the edition of the FGTS, when employees were dismissed, compensation was made on the basis that for each year worked, the dismissed employer would receive one month of the last salary. With 9 and a half years of work, he would receive 20 months of the last salary, that is, double. Since the creation of the FGTS, employees deposit 8% of the employee's monthly salary so that, when he is fired, he can withdraw from his account with amounts corrected by bank fees. The layoffs became more frequent and interned by the state
 
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Metadaten
Titel
The Right to the City and the Housing in Brazilian Cities
verfasst von
Arlete Moysés Rodrigues
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Verlag
Springer Nature Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3704-0_15