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Über dieses Buch

This book provides a complete review of the role of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere and reveals detailed information about the subject of climate change. Many different science disciplines are visited and discussed and each area is introduced with a brief summary written to appeal to a broader audience. The logic of CO2 involvement in changing the climate is investigated from every perspective: reviewing the historical data record of Ice Ages with vast ice sheets, noting the interglacial periods of little or no ice, examining in further detail the 20th century data record and evaluating the radiation role of CO2 in the atmosphere. The radiation calculations, using the appropriate equations and data are reviewed in great detail. The results of this review and examination reveal no role of CO2 in any change of the Earth’s climate.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Chapter 1. Introduction

This book will take the reader on a historical journey through time that begins with the creation of the universe, through to the creation of the Earth. This history is directly related to why “weather” in the atmosphere of planet Earth is so tremendously diverse. The history of the CO2 believed to be the cause of climate-change is revealed. The actual story implied in the title begins around 1900 and ends some 120 years later.

Chapter 2. Creation of the Universe

There are many fascinating things one could discuss about the universe, but it is the stars and galaxies that are most relevant to our subject matter. Our interest is in cosmic rays which come from exploding stars. One must delve more deeply into stars – their lives and their deaths.

Chapter 3. CO2 and Climate Change in the Early Atmosphere

A Table shows various Ice Ages and the concentration of CO2 in each – there is no correlation of CO2 within these Ice Age periods – nor in the intermediate warm periods between the Ice Ages with temperatures about 6° above the current warming.CO2 Ice cores with sufficient time resolution have provided 420,000 years of data from Antarctica indicating that the temperature changes preceded the corresponding CO 2 changes.

Chapter 4. Atmospheric Weather Variability

The atmosphere is proven to be a chaotic system. Two classes of solutions from a simple model of baroclinic instability are examined – one is chaotic. The power of the chaos is determined with Monte Carlo samples. The results for the 40,000 deterministic chaotic solutions were all different. This weather diversity would expand with the seasons due to different heating characteristics – and would exist in any climate regime (warm or cold). This model actually underestimates atmospheric variability – and can be extreme, but it is not climate-change.

Chapter 5. CO2 and Climate Change: 250 BC Through to 1850 AD

Cosmic rays (primarily protons from exploding stars) create isotopes within the Earth’s atmosphere when the magnetic field of the Sun is not strong enough to deflect them from entering Earth’s atmosphere. These isotope values of Berylillum-10 and Carbon −14 are strong (the Sun’s magnetic field weak) – during the solar minima associated with the cold climate regimes of this period, like the important Maunder Minimum of the Little Ice Age (1645–1715).These same two isotopes, Be-10 and C-14, are quite weak (when the Sun’s magnetic field is strong) – keeping cosmic rays from entering the atmosphere. These isotopes clearly show past warm periods, the Medieval Warming (900 AD–1300 AD) and also the Modern Warming (1850 to the present).

Chapter 6. Arrhenius, Angström and Planck

Svante Arrhenius (1859–1927), Swedish scientist was the first to suggest (in 1896) that a doubling of the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere would lead to an increase of 5–6 °C.This theory of CO2 climate warming caught on briefly, but then came to a quick end in 1900 when Knut Angström published his 1900 paper. This pretty much ended the discussion of CO2 warming over the next 70 + years.Max Planck (1858–1947), German scientist was the first to prove the relationship between radiation intensity and wavelength in his paper published in 1900. This Planck function will be the key to showing why CO2 has no role in climate-change.

Chapter 7. Modern Warming and the 35-Year Cool Period Within

The World War II and post war period was a time of tremendous industrial growth from 1940 to 1975. However this 35-year period turned colder during the Modern Warming. The benchmark CO2 record of the Mauna Loa Laboratory continued its annual rise in CO2 – failing to record the cool period.Five different observational records did record this cool period. Two different solar records do match the cooling! Figures are provided for this proof.

Chapter 8. The Debate Builds Despite the Evidence

This long Chapter covers 3-phases of the debate: the build –up, intense political motivation, and actions which turned the tide. Only a partial list of important events are listed. One action was the magazine quote of the late Stephen Schneider in promoting the CO2 issue and his book: “Each of us has to decide what the right balance is between being effective and being honest.”Other examples of important events are discussed in chronological order in the 2nd and 3rd phases.

Chapter 9. The Irrigation System of Planet Earth

The Earth’s irrigation system is one great gift to our planet and has preserved life on Earth.It is also important in this book as it part of one of the three processes that create the Earth’s thermal blanket and maintain energy balance for the planet. It is also important in every climate-change regime.

Chapter 10. The Source of the Earth’s Thermal Blanket and Energy Balance

The Sun’s output has been steady for the last 1 billion years. Three processes have maintained the energy balance over time: radiation, latent heat release from condensation, and atmospheric convection. These all work together to heat the lower atmosphere, transfer heat upward, cool the upper atmosphere and achieve radiative balance.

Chapter 11. H2O and CO2 in the Radiation Package

The only way to really understand radiation, how it works and the contribution of CO2 to the actual heating of the atmosphere, is to perform the complex integration of the Schwarzschild equation with many thousands of lines and coefficients, and over the complete troposphere. These Schwarzschild integrations were performed over different CO2 bands, over the range of 1–30 μm, and with different temperature profiles.All the results prove that the radiation intensity achieved by CO2 is depleted to an insignificant amount at 16 km and the CO2 has no impact on the climate – as all the historical data and modern data have shown!

Chapter 12. Why the Climate Does Change

Three reasons are shown why the Earth‘s climate does change:(1) The strength of the Sun’s magnetic field (a function differential rotation and spin angular momentum and their effects on the solar dynamo. (2) The interaction of that magnetic field to divert or allow passage to Earth the cosmic rays from space (a weak field allows rays to strike Earth, form many more clouds and cool the Earth). (3) The additional orbital angular momentum (which adds to the Sun’s spin angular momentum) due to the motion of the Sun about the center of mass of the solar system (the SSB – the solar system barycenter) which changes due to the position of the Sun and the position of the four major planets.There is an additional factor for the coming and going of the Ice Ages due to our solar system traveling around the Milky Way Galaxy and intercepting the spiral arms of that Galaxy.Each of these facts are explained in detail and are due to the work of Svensmark and associates.

Chapter 13. The Important Value of CO2

Plants use sunlight, chlorophyll, CO2 and water to provide the basis of everything we eat to sustain life. The miracle of CO2 working with oxygen provides the breadth of life for every animal and human. Over a 1000 peer-reviewed articles exist on the subject of biological enhancement due to CO2 enrichment. Doubling CO2 raises the net productivity of herbaceous plants by 30–50%, and of trees and woody plants by 50–80%. A study of the effects of chilling stress under conditions of higher CO2 over a controlled 3-month period showed that the higher concentration led to less stress.Three-way catalytic converters and similar equipment remove air pollution from autos and power plants. CO2 is not toxic and no longer pollutes. It is easily proven that CO2 will not make the oceans acidic – they are alkaline (opposite of acidic).

Chapter 14. Future Research on Climate and Energy Issues

Other space/time scenarios of climate-change that need to be better understood are provided.There needs to be a fresh discussion on the degree that renewables are combined in the power production sequence with fossil fuels. Previous decisions were based upon a false premise and not on hard facts. These decisions will impact several generations of Earth’s inhabitants over the next several hundred years.

Chapter 15. Summary and Concern About the Future?

CO2 has no role in climate change. The radiative gases of H2O and CO2 respond to the daily changes in weather. These gases radiate the required response to blend with the other two atmospheric forces of convection and latent heat release to redistribute that surface heat upward to produce a balanced energy exchange.The center of the 70 – year Maunder Minimum occurred in 1680 of the Little Ice Age. If one adds the 350 year cycle suggested by McCracken to 1680, the center of the next solar minimum is in 2030.There were serious famines during the Little Ice Age when there were 1 billion people on the planet. In 2030, the population will exceed 8 billion. The world needs to work together and form contingency plans over a range of possible outcomes. International plans at the global level are required for food, water, energy and social concerns.

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