The past thirty years of Amazonian deforestation is only a minor part of the 500 years long history of Brazilian deforestation. This process in turn is a part of the globalization of European colonial praxis. Hence the constructed Euro-Brazilian deforestation process, i.e., socio-economic structures and activities, which impede sustainable forestry, have always been marked by a) a lack of knowledge of local ecological conditions, b) the powerful advance of large estates, c) the dire role of state subsidies, d) multinational joint ventures, and e) land speculation and violence. This brutal social complex of extractive and productive economies has wiped out three great closed forest areas: the Atlantic rain forest, the subtropical forest of the interior, and the Araucaria forest, before its recent entrance into the Amazon. Coffee connected the four mam deforestation processes in twentieth century Brazil. The depletion of the forests of Brazil is one of the most dramatic environmental changes in the world.
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- The Roasted Forests
- Springer Netherlands