Infrastructure is seen as playing a key role in the process of integration. Since infrastructure has typically been seen as a public sector responsibility, in its planning if not also in its finance, it has tended to reflect the priorities of the state. In a Europe of separate nation states this has implied the absence of a Europe wide set of infrastructure plans which has often been argued to lie at the heart of Europe’s increasing lack of competitiveness in world markets. This arises in two ways. First there is the lack of physical connections at an international level, such that the equivalent of the US Interstate Highway network was not conceived until the 1990s. Secondly the management of the infrastructure often causes even more difficult problems: the lack of consistency in electrification and loading gauges in the railways and the problems of diverse air traffic control authorities are good examples.
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- The Role of Infrastructure for Expansion and Integration
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen