Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The study was financed by Fonds d’appui à l’internationalisation received by the first author, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
Both scholars and practitioners agree that constructing a shared organizational identity is necessary for successful outcomes in mergers and acquisitions. Yet the process of constructing shared identity is not an easy path. We report findings of a longitudinal in-depth case study of merging Mexican subsidiaries—part of two European Multinational Corporations. The study took advantage of a rare opportunity that includes prior knowledge of the merger and permission to follow-up until post-merger integration concluded. Particularly, in the studied case, status differences between pre-merger organizations were removed, external boundaries were reinforced and new outgroups emerged, namely the Head Offices and Latin American divisions. Our study contributes to the M&A literature, to the stakeholder approach to organizational identity and to identity construction in nested organizations. We shed light on how intergroup dynamics change over time during interactions between internal and external stakeholders, and whose status changes in the post-merger organization. Based on these findings, we argue that considering both intragroup and intergroup dynamics can refine the concept of shared organizational identity. Intragroup dynamics refers to employees of the post-merger organization, and intergroup dynamics refers to outgroup—outside the post-merger organization. We coin a concept of an optimal shared identity, defined as the members’ shared belonging to the post-merger organization and to the Multinational Corporation (on the global or regional level) in the face of salient outgroups.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Ahammad, M. F., & Glaister, K. W. (2011). Postacquisition management and performance of cross-border acquisitions. International Studies of Management and Organization, 41(3), 59–75. CrossRef
Albert, S., & Whetten, D. A. (1985). Organizational identity. Research in Organizational Behavior, 7, 263–295.
Amiot, C. E., Terry, D. J., & Callan, V. J. (2007). Status, equity and social identification during an intergroup merger: a longitudinal study. British Journal of Social Psychology, 46(3), 557–577. CrossRef
Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20–39.
Bartels, J., Pruyn, A., & de Jong, M. (2009). Employee identification before and after an internal merger: a longitudinal analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 113. CrossRef
Blazejewski, S., & Dorow, W. (2003). Managing organizational politics for radical change: the case of Beiersdorf-Lechia S.A., Poznan. Journal of World Business, 38(3), 204–223. CrossRef
Branscombe, N. R., Ellemers, N., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (1999). The context and content of social identity threat. In N. Ellemers, R. Spears, & B. Doosje (Eds.), Social identity: context, commitment, content (pp. 35–58). Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Brewer, M. B. (1991). The social self: on being the same and different at the same time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17(5), 475–482. CrossRef
Brewer, M. B., & Kramer, R. (1985). The psychology of intergroup attitudes and behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 36(1), 219–243. CrossRef
Buono, A. F., & Bowditch, J. L. (1989). The human side of mergers and acquisitions—managing collisions between people, cultures and organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publications.
Buono, A. F., Bowditch, J. L., & Lewis, J. W. (1985). When cultures collide: the anatomy of a merger. Human Relations, 38(5), 477–500. CrossRef
Chreim, S. (2007). Social and temporal influences on interpretations of organizational identity and acquisition integration: a narrative study. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43(4), 449–457, 459–463, 465–471, 473–480. CrossRef
Clark, E., & Geppert, M. (2011). Subsidiary integration as identity construction and institution building: a political sensemaking approach. The Journal of Management Studies, 48(2), 395–416.
Clark, S. M., Gioia, D. A., Ketchen, D. J., & Thomas, J. B. (2010). Transitional identity as a facilitator of organizational identity change during a merger. Administrative Science Quarterly, 55(3), 397–438. CrossRef
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. London: Sage.
Corley, K. G., & Gioia, D. A. (2004). Identity ambiguity and change in the wake of a corporate spin-off. Administrative Science Quarterly, 49(2), 173–208.
Doty, D. H., & Glick, W. H. (1994). Typologies as a unique form of theory building: toward improved understanding and modeling. Academy of Management Review, 19(2), 230–251.
Ellemers, N. (1993). The influence of socio-structural variables on identity management strategies. European Review of Social Psychology, 4(1), 27–57. CrossRef
Fiol, C. M., Pratt, M. G., & O’Connor, E. J. (2009). Managing intractable identity conflicts. Academy of Management Review, 34(1), 32–55. CrossRef
Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. F., Anastasio, P. A., Bachman, B. A., & Rust, M. C. (1993). The common ingroup identity model: Recategorization and the reduction of intergroup bias. European Review of Social Psychology, 4(1), 1–26.
Giessner, S. R., Viki, G. T., Otten, S., Terry, D. J., & Täuber, S. (2006). The challenge of merging: merger patterns, premerger status, and merger support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(3), 339–352. CrossRef
Gioia, D. A., Price, K. N., Hamilton, A. L., & Thomas, J. B. (2010). Forging an identity: an insider-outsider study of processes involved in the formation of organizational identity. Administrative Science Quarterly, 55(1), 1–46. CrossRef
Gleibs, I. H., Mummendey, A., & Noack, P. (2008). Predictors of change in postmerger identification during a merger process: a longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1095–1112. CrossRef
Gleibs, I. H., Täuber, S., Viki, G. T., & Giessner, S. R. (2013). When what we get is not what we want: the role of implemented versus desired merger patterns in support for mergers. Social Psychology, 44(3), 177–190. CrossRef
Haslam, A. (2001). Psychology in organisations: the social identity approach. London: Sage.
Haslam, S. A., Postmes, T., & Ellemers, N. (2003). More than a metaphor: organizational identity makes organizational life possible. British Journal of Management, 14(4), 357–369. CrossRef
Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. J. (2000). Social identity and self-categorization processes in organizational contexts. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 121–140.
Iyer, A., & Jetten, J. (2011). What’s left behind: identity continuity moderates the effect of nostalgia on well-being and life choices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(1), 94–108. CrossRef
Kumar, N., Stern, L. W., & Anderson, J. C. (1993). Conducting interorganizational research using key informants. Academy of Management Journal, 36(6), 1633–1651. CrossRef
Langley, A. (1999). Strategies for theorizing from process data. Academy of Management Review, 24(4), 691–710.
Langley, A., Golden-Biddle, K., Reay, T., Denis, J.-L., Hébert, Y., Lamothe, L., & Gervais, J. (2012). Identity struggles in merging organizations renegotiating the sameness-difference dialectic. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 48(2), 135–167. CrossRef
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). TBC. Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Lupina-Wegener, A. A. (2013). Human resource integration in subsidiary mergers and acquisitions: evidence from Poland. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 26(2), 286–304. CrossRef
Lupina-Wegener, A., Drzensky, F., Ullrich, J., & van Dick, R. (2014). Focusing on the bright tomorrow? A longitudinal study of organizational identification and projected continuity in a corporate merger. British Journal of Social Psychology, 53(4), 752–772. CrossRef
Lupina-Wegener, A. A., Schneider, S. C., & van Dick, R. (2011). Different experiences of socio-cultural integration: a European merger in Mexico. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 24(1), 65–89. CrossRef
Marks, M. L., & Mirvis, P. H. (2001). Making mergers and acquisitions work: strategic and psychological preparation. The Academy of Management Executive, 15(2), 80–92. CrossRef
Maxwell, J. A., & Miller, B. A. (2008). Categorizing and connecting strategies in qualitative data analysis. In S. N. Hesse-Biber & P. Leavy (Eds.), Handbook of emergent methods (pp. 461–478). New York: The Guilford Press.
Meyer, C. B., & Altenborg, E. (2007). The disintegrating effects of equality: a study of a failed international merger. British Journal of Management, 18(3), 257–271. CrossRef
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, M. A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oakes: Sage.
Mummendey, A., & Wenzel, M. (1999). Social discrimination and tolerance in intergroup relations: reactions to intergroup difference. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 158–174. CrossRef
Nahavandi, A., & Malekzadeh, A. R. (1988). Acculturation in mergers and acquisitions. Academy of Management Review, 13(1), 79–90.
Pettigrew, A. M. (1990). Longitudinal field research on change: theory and practice. Organization Science, 1(3), 267–292. CrossRef
Pratt, M. G. (2009). From the editors: for the lack of a boilerplate: tips on writing up (and reviewing) qualitative research. Academy of Management Journal, 52(5), 856–862. CrossRef
Raukko, M. (2009). Organizational commitment during organizational changes: a longitudinal case study on acquired key employees. Baltic Journal of management, 4(3), 331–352. CrossRef
Riketta, M. (2005). Organizational identification: a meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(2), 358–384. CrossRef
Rousseau, D. (1998). Why workers still identify with organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19(3), 217–233. CrossRef
Rouzies, A. (2011). Antecedents of employees’ identification with a merger: a three-stage empirical study. International Studies of Management & Organization, 41(3), 25–41. CrossRef
Scott, S. G., & Lane, V. R. (2000). A stakeholder approach to organizational identity. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 43–62.
Soulsby, A., & Clark, E. (2011). Theorizing process through punctuated longitudinal case study research. In R. Piekkari & C. Welch (Eds.), Rethinking the case study in international business and management research (pp. 146–167). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Stahl, G. K., Larsson, R., Kremershof, I., & Sitkin, S. B. (2011). Trust dynamics in acquisitions: a case survey. Human Resource Management, 50(5), 575–603. CrossRef
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Terry, D. J., Carey, C. J., & Callan, V. J. (2001). Employee adjustment to an organizational merger: an intergroup perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(3), 267–280. CrossRef
Terry, D. J., & O’Brien, A. T. (2001). Status, legitimacy, and ingroup bias in the context of an organizational merger. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 4(3), 271–289. CrossRef
Turner, J. C. (1985). Social categorization and the self-concept: a social cognitive theory of group behavior. Advances in Group Processes: Theory and Research, 2, 77–122.
Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: a self-categorization theory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Ullrich, J., Wieseke, J., & van Dick, R. (2005). Continuity and change in mergers and acquisitions: a social identity case study of a german industrial merger. Journal of Management Studies, 42(8), 1549–1569. CrossRef
Vaara, E., Tienari, J., & Säntti, R. (2003). The international match: metaphors as vehicles of social identity building in cross-border mergers. Human Relations, 56(4), 419–451. CrossRef
van de Ven, A. H. (1992). Suggestions for studying strategy process: a research note. Strategic Management Journal, 13(5), 169–188.
van Dick, R., Ullrich, J., & Tissington, P. A. (2006). Working under a black cloud: how to sustain organizational identification after a merger. British Journal of Management, 17(Special), 69–79. CrossRef
van Dijk, R., & van Dick, R. (2009). Navigating organizational change: change leaders, employee resistance and work-based identities. Journal of Change Management, 9(2), 143–163. CrossRef
van Knippenberg, D., van Knippenberg, B., Monden, L., & Lima, F. (2002). Organizational identification after a merger: a social identity perspective. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41(2), 233–252. CrossRef
van Maanen, J. (1979). The fact of fiction in organizational ethnography. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24(4), 539–550. CrossRef
Vincze, Z. (2013). In search of generative mechanism: the grounded theory approach to process theory building. In M. E. Hassett & E. Paavilainen-Mäntymäki (Eds.), Handbook of longitudinal research methods in organisation and business studies (pp. 163–184). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. CrossRef
von Krogh, G., Rossi-Lamastra, C., & Haeliger, S. (2012). Phenomenon-based research in management and organisation science: when is it rigorous and does it matter? Long Range Planning, 45(4), 277–298. CrossRef
Vora, D., & Kostova, T. (2007). A model of dual organizational identification in the context of the multinational enterprise. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(3), 327. CrossRef
Vora, D., Kostova, T., & Roth, K. (2007). Roles of subsidiary managers in multinational corporations: the effect of dual organizational identification. Management International Review, 47(4), 595–620. CrossRef
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods. Thousand Oakes: Sage.
- The Role of Outgroups in Constructing a Shared Identity: A Longitudinal Study of a Subsidiary Merger in Mexico
Susan C. Schneider
Rolf van Dick
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia