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Über dieses Buch

The book provides a review of experimental methods and presents the worldwide newest literature regarding chemical substances fluxes via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Thus, the book characterizes both the distribution of chemicals in groundwater impacted areas in the Baltic Sea and their fluxes via SGD to the Baltic Sea. This book presents the state of art regarding the SGD and detailed studies on SGD characterization in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is an example of a region highly influenced by a variety of human activities that affect the ecosystem. It is shown that SGD has been proven to be one of the important sources introducing dissolved substances into the Baltic Sea. The loads of chemical substances delivered to the Baltic sea with SGD have not been quantified so far.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
A significant part of the flux of dissolved substances from land to the sea occurs through river transport via the drainage basins network (Turner et al. 1999). The input from major rivers is gauged and well analyzed with relatively precise estimates of the quantities of freshwater and chemical constituents entering the marine environment. Recently, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important factor influencing coastal zones (Burnett et al. 2006; McCoy and Corbett 2009; Moore 2010). It has been indicated that subterranean non-point pathways of material transport may be of considerable importance in some coastal areas (Beck et al. 2010; Lee et al. 2011; Kim and Kim 2014). SGD is an essential component of the water cycle and can be, in selected areas, comparable in volume to the riverine flux (e.g. Atlantic Ocean, Moore 2010).
Beata Szymczycha, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 2. State of Art and Theory of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) Submarine Groundwater Discharge

Abstract
The water discharge is the most important pathway connecting land and ocean. Surface water inputs (e.g., rivers and streams) are usually easily visible and are typically large point material sources to the coastal ocean (Mulligan and Charette 2009). Hence, the contribution of surface water discharge to the ocean geochemical budgets has been well studied. The hydrodynamics and impact of terrestrial water on geochemical cycles of elements and its influence on the ocean ecosystem has been well recognised.
Beata Szymczycha, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 3. Characteristic of the Baltic SeaBaltic Sea

Abstract
The Baltic Sea is a land locked sea located in the Northern Europe. To this south the Baltic Sea border with the European mainland (Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark), while to the north—the Scandinavian Peninsula (Finland and Sweden). The only connection to the North Sea is through the shallow and nerrow Danish Straits and further through the Kattegat and the Skagerrak. The Belt Sea, including the Danish Straits, is the transition zone between the Baltic Sea with the North Sea.
Beata Szymczycha, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 4. Research on Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Baltic Sea

Abstract
SGD has been recognized as an important pathway of material transport from land to the marine environment. Despite numerous studies as regards hydraulic fluxes and chemical composition of groundwater seeping to the coastal ocean much remains to be done to characterize SGD impact on the coastal marine environment. The Baltic Sea is an example of a region highly influenced by a variety of human activities that affect the ecosystem. SGD is a source introducing dissolved substances into the Baltic Sea that has not been quantified so far. Little is known regarding the concentrations and fluxes of chemical substances in groundwater discharged to the Baltic Sea and chemical reactions that control their flux into the coastal ecosystem.
Beata Szymczycha, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 5. Conclusions

Abstract
Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) is a worldwide phenomenon. In this book SGD defined as fresh groundwater flux to the Bay of Puck, Baltic Sea has been described. SGD, defined as fresh groundwater flux to the coastal zone, is part of a wider understanding assuming any flux of water from sediments to the overlying seawater to be a submarine groundwater discharge. The advantage of the approach taken in this study is that load of chemical substances (also heat, freshwater etc.) via SGD can be established in order to compare to loads originated from other sources and budgets studies.
Beata Szymczycha, Janusz Pempkowiak

Backmatter

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