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This open access book discusses how the involvement of citizens into scientific endeavors is expected to contribute to solve the big challenges of our time, such as climate change and the loss of biodiversity, growing inequalities within and between societies, and the sustainability turn. The field of citizen science has been growing in recent decades. Many different stakeholders from scientists to citizens and from policy makers to environmental organisations have been involved in its practice. In addition, many scientists also study citizen science as a research approach and as a way for science and society to interact and collaborate. This book provides a representation of the practices as well as scientific and societal outcomes in different disciplines. It reflects the contribution of citizen science to societal development, education, or innovation and provides and overview of the field of actors as well as on tools and guidelines. It serves as an introduction for anyone who wants to get involved in and learn more about the science of citizen science.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 1. Editorial: The Science of Citizen Science Evolves

Abstract
Citizen science broadly refers to the active engagement of the general public in scientific research tasks. Citizen science is a growing practice in which scientists and citizens collaborate to produce new knowledge for science and society. Although citizen science has been around for centuries, the term citizen science was coined in the 1990s and has gained popularity since then. Recognition of citizen science is growing in the fields of science, policy, and education and in wider society. It is establishing itself as a field of research and a field of practice, increasing the need for overarching insights, standards, vocabulary, and guidelines. In this editorial chapter we outline how this book is providing an overview of the field of citizen science.
Katrin Vohland, Anne Land-Zandstra, Luigi Ceccaroni, Rob Lemmens, Josep Perelló, Marisa Ponti, Roeland Samson, Katherin Wagenknecht

Open Access

Chapter 2. What Is Citizen Science? The Challenges of Definition

Abstract
In this chapter, we address the perennial question of what is citizen science? by asking the related question, why is it challenging to define citizen science? Over the past decade and a half, we have seen the emergence of typologies, definitions, and criteria for qualifying citizen science. Yet, citizen science as a field seems somewhat resistant to obeying a limited set of definitions and instead attracts discussions about what type of activities and practices should be included in it. We explore how citizen science has been defined differently, depending on the context. We do that from a particularly European perspective, where the variety of national and subnational structures has also led to a diversity of practices. Based on this background, we track trade-offs linked to the prioritisation of these different objectives and aims of citizen science. Understanding these differences and their origin is important for practitioners and policymakers. We pay attention to the need for definitions and criteria for specific contexts and how people in different roles can approach the issue of what is included in a specific interpretation of citizen science.
Mordechai (Muki) Haklay, Daniel Dörler, Florian Heigl, Marina Manzoni, Susanne Hecker, Katrin Vohland

Open Access

Chapter 3. Citizen Science in Europe

Abstract
In this chapter, we explore the landscape of citizen science across Europe, how networks have developed, and how the science of citizen science has evolved. In addition to carrying out a literature review, we analysed publicly available data from the European Commission’s Community Research and Development Information Service (Cordis). We also extracted information from a pilot survey on citizen science strategies throughout Europe, carried out within the framework of the COST Action CA15212. Our findings are complemented by case studies from COST member countries. Finally, we offer some insights, considerations, and recommendations on developing networks, utilising the COST Action and EU-Citizen.Science as capacity building platforms.
Katrin Vohland, Claudia Göbel, Bálint Balázs, Eglė Butkevičienė, Maria Daskolia, Barbora Duží, Susanne Hecker, Marina Manzoni, Sven Schade

Citizen Science as Science

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 4. Science as a Commons: Improving the Governance of Knowledge Through Citizen Science

Abstract
In recent decades, problems related to the accessibility and sustainability of science have increased, both in terms of the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge and its generation. Policymakers, academics, and, increasingly, citizens themselves have developed various approaches to this issue. Among them, citizen science is distinguished by making possible the generation of scientific knowledge by anyone with an interest in doing so. However, participation alone does not guarantee knowledge generation, which represents an epistemological challenge for citizen science. Simultaneously, economic and socio-institutional difficulties in science governance and maintenance have grown. To solve those problems, several market elements have been introduced, a solution rejected by those who consider science as a public good that states must guarantee. Alternatively, research and work on the commons are growing worldwide, the concept being extended from natural resources to knowledge resources. In this chapter, we propose science as a commons, underlining the essential role of citizen science. Difficulties also apply to citizen science itself, but the increasing development of a multitude of projects based on cooperation favours the conditions required for its sustainability and quality.
Our philosophical proposal is based on empirical knowledge about citizen science coupled with socio-economic concepts, according to a sociopolitical epistemology.
Maite Pelacho, Hannot Rodríguez, Fernando Broncano, Renata Kubus, Francisco Sanz García, Beatriz Gavete, Antonio Lafuente

Open Access

Chapter 5. Citizen Science in the Natural Sciences

Abstract
The natural sciences include the life and physical sciences and study nature through observing and understanding phenomena, testing hypotheses, and performing experiments. Key principles such as reliability, validity, objectivity, and predictability are achieved through transparent assumptions, methods, data, and interpretations as well as multidisciplinarity.
In this chapter we present insights into the genesis of citizen science in the natural sciences and reflect on the intellectual history of the natural sciences in relation to citizen science today. Further, we consider the current scientific approaches and achievements of natural science projects, which are applying citizen science to address empirical and/or theoretical research, focusing on monitoring programmes. Presenting examples and case studies, we focus on the key characteristics of the scientific inquiries being investigated in the natural sciences through citizen science. Finally, we discuss the consequences of engagement in scientific processes in relation to the future of natural scientists in a complex world.
Didone Frigerio, Anett Richter, Esra Per, Baiba Pruse, Katrin Vohland

Open Access

Chapter 6. Citizen Humanities

Abstract
Citizen humanities is the term for citizen ‘science’ in the humanities. It has a long tradition and, since the object of investigation is human culture, raises questions about values, cultural significance, and deeper meaning of phenomena related to human culture.
The development of digital technologies not only led to the emergence of digital humanities but also to new ways of involving citizens in the activities of cultural heritage institutions and academic research. Participants’ contributions to academic research and to the preservation of cultural heritage range from uncovering treasures hidden in archives and digital environments to tapping local knowledge. Their tasks have included tagging, transcribing, or cataloguing artefacts, through which they acquire specialist knowledge and competences, while assisting scholars and researchers to gain new insights. Challenges in the citizen humanities include biases, participant training and retention, as well as the advancement of digital technologies, such as artificial intelligence.
Citizen humanities can combine topical issues in society with academic knowledge, demonstrate the relevance of the humanities for society, and establish a direct link to its members. In addition to the advancement of knowledge, the citizen humanities can unlock the potential of embedded, diverse, and culturally sensitive knowledge and play a crucial role in preserving and enriching cultural heritage.
Barbara Heinisch, Kristin Oswald, Maike Weißpflug, Sally Shuttleworth, Geoffrey Belknap

Open Access

Chapter 7. Citizen Social Science: New and Established Approaches to Participation in Social Research

Abstract
This chapter explores the ways in which the roles of citizens and researchers play out in the social sciences. This is expressed by numerous overlapping and related terms, such as co-production and participatory action research, to name but two, and by the different social topics that citizen social science draws attention to. The key question this chapter seeks to explore is what does naming citizen social science as such bring to the fields of citizen science and the social sciences? The chapter explores the different epistemic foundations of citizen social science and outlines the development and provenance of citizen social science in its broadest sense, reflecting on how it is currently practised. It draws on different examples from the experiences and work of the authors and notes the boundaries and overlaps with citizen science. The chapter also highlights some of the key issues that citizen social science gives rise to, emphasising that while citizen social science is a relatively new term, its underlying approaches and epistemic foundations are at least partially established in the social sciences.
Alexandra Albert, Bálint Balázs, Eglė Butkevičienė, Katja Mayer, Josep Perelló

Open Access

Chapter 8. Data Quality in Citizen Science

Abstract
This chapter discusses the broad and complex topic of data quality in citizen science – a contested arena because different projects and stakeholders aspire to different levels of data accuracy. In this chapter, we consider how we ensure the validity and reliability of data generated by citizen scientists and citizen science projects. We show that this is an essential methodological question that has emerged within a highly contested field in recent years. Data quality means different things to different stakeholders. This is no surprise as quality is always a broad spectrum, and nearly 200 terms are in use to describe it, regardless of the approach. We seek to deliver a high-level overview of the main themes and issues in data quality in citizen science, mechanisms to ensure and improve quality, and some conclusions on best practice and ways forwards. We encourage citizen science projects to share insights on their data practice failures. Finally, we show how data quality assurance gives credibility, reputation, and sustainability to citizen science projects.
Bálint Balázs, Peter Mooney, Eva Nováková, Lucy Bastin, Jamal Jokar Arsanjani

Open Access

Chapter 9. A Conceptual Model for Participants and Activities in Citizen Science Projects

Abstract
Interest in the formal representation of citizen science comes from portals, platforms, and catalogues of citizen science projects; scientists using citizen science data for their research; and funding agencies and governments interested in the impact of citizen science initiatives. Having a common understanding and representation of citizen science projects, their participants, and their outcomes is key to enabling seamless knowledge and data sharing. In this chapter, we provide a conceptual model comprised of the core citizen science concepts with which projects and data can be described in a standardised manner, focusing on the description of the participants and their activities. The conceptual model is the outcome of a working group from the COST Action CA15212 Citizen Science to Promote Creativity, Scientific Literacy, and Innovation throughout Europe, established to improve data standardisation and interoperability in citizen science activities. It utilises past models and contributes to current standardisation efforts, such as the Public Participation in Scientific Research (PPSR) Common Conceptual Model and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Its design is intended to fulfil the needs of different stakeholders, as illustrated by several case studies which demonstrate the model’s applicability.
Rob Lemmens, Gilles Falquet, Chrisa Tsinaraki, Friederike Klan, Sven Schade, Lucy Bastin, Jaume Piera, Vyron Antoniou, Jakub Trojan, Frank Ostermann, Luigi Ceccaroni

Open Access

Chapter 10. Machine Learning in Citizen Science: Promises and Implications

Abstract
The chapter gives an account of both opportunities and challenges of human–machine collaboration in citizen science. In the age of big data, scientists are facing the overwhelming task of analysing massive amounts of data, and machine learning techniques are becoming a possible solution. Human and artificial intelligence can be recombined in citizen science in numerous ways. For example, citizen scientists can be involved in training machine learning algorithms in such a way that they perform certain tasks such as image recognition. To illustrate the possible applications in different areas, we discuss example projects of human–machine cooperation with regard to their underlying concepts of learning. The use of machine learning techniques creates lots of opportunities, such as reducing the time of classification and scaling expert decision-making to large data sets. However, algorithms often remain black boxes and data biases are not visible at first glance. Addressing the lack of transparency both in terms of machine action and in handling user-generated data, the chapter discusses how machine learning is actually compatible with the idea of active citizenship and what conditions need to be met in order to move forward – both in citizen science and beyond.
Martina Franzen, Laure Kloetzer, Marisa Ponti, Jakub Trojan, Julián Vicens

Open Access

Chapter 11. Participation and Co-creation in Citizen Science

Abstract
Citizen science practices have different frames to general scientific research – the adoption of participatory methods in research design has long been pursued in citizen science projects. The citizen science research design process should be inclusive, flexible, and adaptive in all its stages, from research question formulation to evidence-based collective results. Some citizen science initiatives adopt strategies that include co-creation techniques and methodologies from a wide variety of disciplines and practices. In this sense, the will to collaborate between researchers and other stakeholders is not new. It is traditionally found in public participation in science, including participatory action research (PAR) and the involvement of civil society organisations (CSOs) in research, as well as in mediatory structures, such as science shops. This chapter critically reviews methodologies, techniques, skills, and participation based on experiences of civic involvement and co-creation in research and discusses their limitations and potential improvements. Our focus is on the reflexivity approach and infrastructure needed to design citizen science projects, as well as associated key roles. Existing tools that can be used to enhance and improve citizen participation at each stage of the research process will also be explored. We conclude with a series of reflections on participatory practices.
Enric Senabre Hidalgo, Josep Perelló, Frank Becker, Isabelle Bonhoure, Martine Legris, Anna Cigarini

Open Access

Chapter 12. Citizen Science, Health, and Environmental Justice

Abstract
This chapter considers the interface of citizen science, health, and environmental justice. We review citizen science research undertaken by civic educators, scientists, and communities that aims to broaden scientific knowledge and encourage democratic engagement and, more specifically, to address complex problems related to public health and the environment. We provide a review of the current state of existing citizen science projects and examine how citizen science, health, and environmental justice impact each other, both positively and negatively. Specific challenges that relate to these projects are discussed, especially those that are not obvious or applicable to more traditional citizen science projects.
Luigi Ceccaroni, Sasha M. Woods, James Sprinks, Sacoby Wilson, Elaine M. Faustman, Aletta Bonn, Bastian Greshake Tzovaras, Laia Subirats, Aya H. Kimura

Citizen Science in Society

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 13. Participants in Citizen Science

Abstract
The most important factor that defines citizen science is that non-professional scientists contribute to scientific research. Therefore, it is important to recognise the perspectives and experiences of these participants. Projects may provide ways for participants to contribute to scientific research at different stages of the scientific process according to different levels of engagement. Understanding what motivates citizen scientists to engage in a project, and subsequently matching the project to these motivations, will help project leaders to recruit and retain participants. In addition, it is important to understand what benefits participants gain from engagement in citizen science projects. For individual projects, this will help ensure that scientists as well as participants benefit. For the wider field of citizen science, this will provide evidence of the potential impact of citizen science on participants. However, participants may also encounter challenges during their engagement with citizen science projects. Project leaders and scientists should plan in advance to address these challenges and ensure that relevant expertise is present in the project team.
Anne Land-Zandstra, Gaia Agnello, Yaşar Selman Gültekin

Open Access

Chapter 14. Inclusiveness and Diversity in Citizen Science

Abstract
An ‘inclusive citizen science’ practice encourages engagement from all members of society, whatever their social status, sociocultural origin, gender, religious affiliation, literacy level, or age. In this chapter we will first address the question of inclusiveness in citizen science and how this is tackled. We will analyse the current situation of a number of projects and initiatives within the Citizen Science COST Action CA15212 and the Horizon 2020 SwafS programme, examine the data, and discuss the main factors that encourage or hinder inclusiveness. We will offer recommendations for a possible plural participation in citizen science activities and reflect on how research is improved when diverse citizens are used as in-the-field experts. We will demonstrate how research questions can be fine-tuned and how research impacts are enhanced through citizen participation, with a focus on gender representation. Bottlenecks can occur when considering inclusiveness in citizen science, including in data interpretation, tasks that require long-term participation, and tasks that have specific language and intermediation requirements.
Carole Paleco, Sabina García Peter, Nora Salas Seoane, Julia Kaufmann, Panagiota Argyri

Open Access

Chapter 15. Learning in Citizen Science

Abstract
Citizen science is a promising field for educational practices and research. However, it is also highly heterogeneous, and learning happens in diverse ways, according to project tasks and participants’ activities. Therefore, we adopt a sociocultural view of learning, in which understanding learning requires a close analysis of the situation created both by the project tasks and the dynamics of engagement of the participants (volunteers, scientists, and others). To tackle the complexity of the field, this chapter maps learning in citizen science into six territories, according to where learning might take place: formal education (schools and universities); out-of-school education (science and nature clubs, summer camps, outdoor education, etc.); local and global communities (neighbourhood associations, activist associations, online communities, etc.); families; museums (science museums, art museums, zoos, and botanic gardens); and online citizen science. For each territory, we present key findings from the literature. The chapter also introduces our six personal journeys into the field of learning and citizen science, displaying their variety and the common lessons, challenges, and opportunities. Finally, we present four key tensions arising from citizen science projects in educational settings and look at training different stakeholders as a strategy to overcome some of these tensions.
Laure Kloetzer, Julia Lorke, Joseph Roche, Yaela Golumbic, Silvia Winter, Aiki Jõgeva

Open Access

Chapter 16. Citizen Science Case Studies and Their Impacts on Social Innovation

Abstract
Social innovation brings social change and aims to address societal challenges and social needs in a novel way. We therefore consider citizen science as both (1) social innovation in research and (2) an innovative way to develop and foster social innovation. In this chapter, we discuss how citizen science contributes to society’s goals and the development of social innovation, and we conceptualise citizen science as a process that creates social innovation. We argue that both citizen science and social innovation can be analysed using three dimensions – content, process, and empowerment (impact). Using these three dimensions as a framework for our analysis, we present five citizen science cases to demonstrate how citizen science leads to social innovation. As a result of our case study analysis, we identify the major challenges for citizen science in stimulating social innovation.
Eglė Butkevičienė, Artemis Skarlatidou, Bálint Balázs, Barbora Duží, Luciano Massetti, Ioannis Tsampoulatidis, Loreta Tauginienė

Open Access

Chapter 17. Science as a Lever: The Roles and Power of Civil Society Organisations in Citizen Science

Abstract
Citizen science has become an umbrella term that encompasses a growing range of activities, actors, and issues. This chapter examines the potential of citizen science to generate transformative knowledge and argues that civil society organisations (CSOs) are key actors in this regard. However, the roles of CSOs are neglected in the literature on citizen science. We turn to the traditions of community-based research and participatory action research to learn more. With two case studies on health and safety, we show how transformative knowledge enables concerned communities to claim their rights and enriches scientific knowledge generation. Through a socio-historical analysis, we find three main roles grassroots CSOs take on in participatory research: (1) a technical role in the production of data and knowledge; (2) a governance role in the deliberation on research activities and risk assessment; and (3) an advocacy role by campaigning for transformative knowledge. These roles determine the ability of grassroots CSOs to generate legitimacy and rely on CSO members belonging to different spheres of society, scientific skills, and access to marginalised communities. Finally, we discuss the conceptual and practical challenges of accounting for CSOs’ roles in order to build a more just and transformative future through citizen science.
Claudia Göbel, Lucile Ottolini, Annett Schulze

Open Access

Chapter 18. Citizen Science and Policy

Abstract
Citizen science has manifold relationships to policy, which is understood as sets of ideas or plans for action followed by a government, business, political party, or group of people. In this chapter, we focus on the relationship between citizen science, government policies, and the related notions of politics and polity. We discuss two core areas of interaction between citizen science and policy. Firstly, government policies can support citizen science to flourish, for example, through legitimisation or funding. Secondly, citizen science can contribute to policymaking at various stages of the policy cycle, including policy preparation, formulation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Since both of these perspectives are intertwined, the policy landscape related to citizen science is complex, and it is continuously evolving. This chapter disentangles some of the complexities, with a particular focus on the European landscape, its geographic diversity, and key players (stakeholders and beneficiaries). It presents a brief history and the current context and also includes recommendations for the future with respect to governance, policy impact, sustainability of citizen science initiatives, and the role of digital transformations. We showcase the pathways of leading examples but also highlight currently unanswered questions.
Sven Schade, Maite Pelacho, Toos (C. G. E.) van Noordwijk, Katrin Vohland, Susanne Hecker, Marina Manzoni

Open Access

Chapter 19. Creating Positive Environmental Impact Through Citizen Science

Abstract
Interest in citizen science is growing, including from governments and research funders. This interest is often driven by a desire for positive environmental impact, and the expectation that citizen science can deliver it by engaging the public and simultaneously collecting environmental data. Yet, in practice, there is often a gap between expected and realised impact. To close this gap, we need to better understand pathways to impact and what it takes to realise them. We articulate six key pathways through which citizen science can create positive environmental change: (1) environmental management; (2) evidence for policy; (3) behaviour change; (4) social network championing; (5) political advocacy; and (6) community action. We explore the project attributes likely to create impact through each of these pathways and show that there is an interplay between these project attributes and the needs and motivations of target participant groups. Exploring this interplay, we create a framework that articulates four citizen science approaches that create environmental impact in different ways: place-based community action; interest group investigation; captive learning research; and mass participation census.
Toos (C. G. E.) van Noordwijk, Isabel Bishop, Sarah Staunton-Lamb, Alice Oldfield, Steven Loiselle, Hilary Geoghegan, Luigi Ceccaroni

Open Access

Chapter 20. Ethical Challenges and Dynamic Informed Consent

Abstract
This chapter uses informed consent as a point of departure for the description of multiple ethical facets in citizen science. It sets out an overview of general ethical challenges in citizen science, from conceptual issues around social imbalances and power relations, to practical issues, such as how to deal with privacy for participants as well as data protection, intellectual property rights and other emergent issues. The chapter goes on to describe the different types of informed consent, particularly focusing on dynamic informed consent as the solution to the challenges described. Finally, practice-oriented recommendations about how to tackle some of the ethical issues raised in the chapter are set out.
Loreta Tauginienė, Philipp Hummer, Alexandra Albert, Anna Cigarini, Katrin Vohland

Citizen Science in Practice

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 21. Finding What You Need: A Guide to Citizen Science Guidelines

Abstract
In line with the growth in citizen science projects and participants, there are an increasing number of guidelines on different aspects of citizen science (e.g. specific concepts and methodologies; data management; and project implementation) pitched at different levels of experience and expertise. However, it is not always easy for practitioners to know which is the most suitable guideline for their needs. This chapter presents a general classification of guidelines, illustrating and analysing examples of each type. Drawing on the EU-Citizen.Science project, we outline criteria for categorising guidelines to enable users to find the right one and to ensure that guidelines reach their intended audience. We discuss challenges and weaknesses around the use and creation of guidelines and, as a practical conclusion, provide a set of recommendations to consider when creating guidelines.
Francisco Sanz García, Maite Pelacho, Tim Woods, Dilek Fraisl, Linda See, Mordechai (Muki) Haklay, Rosa Arias

Open Access

Chapter 22. Citizen Science Platforms

Abstract
Adequate infrastructure for citizen science is constantly growing and has become increasingly important in providing support to citizen science activities, both nationally and internationally. Many types of citizen science infrastructures exist, with different functionalities. This chapter focuses on current citizen science platforms. The platforms addressed in this chapter are those which display citizen science data and information, provide good practical examples and toolkits, collect relevant scientific outcomes, and are accessible to different stakeholders, ranging from interested citizens to scientific institutions to authorities, politicians, and public media. We present current citizen science platforms in Europe and associated (inter)national citizen science networks and discuss how these platforms have become increasingly vital within citizen science. Based on these examples, we elaborate on challenges for citizen science platforms, such as establishing and financing platforms, designing user interfaces, maintaining platforms, promoting the usage of platforms, etc. We conclude with an outlook into potential development needs of citizen science platforms in the future.
Hai-Ying Liu, Daniel Dörler, Florian Heigl, Sonja Grossberndt

Open Access

Chapter 23. Citizen Science in the Digital World of Apps

Abstract
In this chapter, we highlight the added value of mobile and web apps to the field of citizen science. We provide an overview of app types and their functionalities to facilitate appropriate app selection for citizen science projects. We identify different app types according to methodology, data specifics, and data collection format.
The chapter outlines good practices for creating apps. Citizen science apps need to ensure high levels of performance and usability. Social features for citizen science projects with a focus on mobile apps are helpful for user motivation and immersion and, also, can improve data quality via community feedback. The design, look and feel, and project identity are essential features of citizen science apps.
We provide recommendations aimed at establishing good practice in citizen science app development. We also highlight future developments in technology and, in particular, how artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) can impact citizen science projects.
Rob Lemmens, Vyron Antoniou, Philipp Hummer, Chryssy Potsiou

Open Access

Chapter 24. Communication and Dissemination in Citizen Science

Abstract
Citizen science projects rely on public involvement, making a communication and dissemination strategy essential to their success and impact. This needs to include many aspects, such as identifying the audience, selecting the communication channel(s), and establishing the right language to use. Importantly, citizen science projects must expand beyond traditional top-down monologue interactions and embrace two-way dialogue approaches, especially when communicating with project participants. Further, to be effective, communication activities require good planning and dedicated resources. This chapter highlights the importance of communication and dissemination in citizen science; provides examples of successful strategies and identifies the factors that determine success; and describes some of the challenges that can arise and how to overcome these.
Simone Rüfenacht, Tim Woods, Gaia Agnello, Margaret Gold, Philipp Hummer, Anne Land-Zandstra, Andrea Sieber

Open Access

Chapter 25. Evaluation in Citizen Science: The Art of Tracing a Moving Target

Abstract
Evaluation is a core management instrument and part of many scientific projects. Evaluation can be approached from several different angles, with distinct objectives in mind. In any project, we can evaluate the project process and the scientific outcomes, but with citizen science this does not go far enough. We need to additionally evaluate the effects of projects on the participants themselves and on society at large. While citizen science itself is still in evolution, we should aim to capture and understand the multiple traces it leaves in its direct and broader environment. Considering that projects often have limited resources for evaluation, we need to bundle existing knowledge and experiences on how to best assess citizen science initiatives and continually learn from this assessment. What should we concentrate on when we evaluate citizen science projects and programmes? What are current practices and what are we lacking? Are we really targeting the most relevant aspects of citizen science with our current evaluation approaches?
Teresa Schaefer, Barbara Kieslinger, Miriam Brandt, Vanessa van den Bogaert

Conclusions/Lessons Learnt

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 26. The Recent Past and Possible Futures of Citizen Science: Final Remarks

Abstract
This book is the culmination of the COST Action CA15212 Citizen Science to Promote Creativity, Scientific Literacy, and Innovation throughout Europe. It represents the final stage of a shared journey taken over the last 4 years. During this relatively short period, our citizen science practices and perspectives have rapidly evolved. In this chapter we discuss what we have learnt about the recent past of citizen science and what we expect and hope for the future. 
Josep Perelló, Andrzej Klimczuk, Anne Land-Zandstra, Katrin Vohland, Katherin Wagenknecht, Claire Narraway, Rob Lemmens, Marisa Ponti
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