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Über dieses Buch

This book is an attempt to provide a comprehensive and coherent description of three widely separated aspects of clays: the science of clays; the industrial uses of clays; and the role of clays in the environment. Most of the existing literature lacks such an integrated study and this work endeavours to fill that gap.
An exhaustive account of the science of clays is presented in Part I of the book, which includes the classification, origin and evolution, composition and internal structure, chemical and physical properties of clays; soil mechanics; and analytical techniques for determining clay constituents. Part II provides a comprehensive description of the applications of clays and their derivatives in various industries, while Part III describes the role of clays in the environment; the pollution caused by clay minerals; and the application of clays in order to prevent environmental hazards.
A principal feature of the book is its explanation of how the structure and composition of particular clay types facilitate their specific industrial or environmental applications, thus describing the interrelationship between three widely varying aspects of clay. A number of thought-provoking questions are raised at the end of the work in order to leave readers with a better insight in this regard.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Clays: Their Formation, Constituents and Properties

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Clays and their Constituents – Definitions and a Brief Overview

Abstract
Clay is the object of study of this book. To have a comprehensive idea of any natural abiotic object, we first need to know what it actually is and how does it differ from other objects; so an unambiguous definition of it must be given first. Then we can proceed to study different aspects of that object like its composition, its classification, its physical and chemical properties, its formation and occurrence in nature, and its socio-economic importance (including its uses in industry and environmental protection etc.).
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 2. Classification and Composition of Clay Constituents

Abstract
Most of the solid components of the Earth’s crust, i.e. rocks, sediments, clays etc. are largely made up of various mineral species. A mineral species is defined as: A naturally occurring, inorganic, homogeneous solid, having a definite (but not necessarily fixed) chemical composition and a fixed, ordered internal structure, i.e. crystalline. This ordered internal structure is reflected in the external morphology when the mineral has a well crystalline form. When the crystalline form is not perceptible externally called cryptocrystalline, its crystalline nature can be detected by scientific analytical techniques like X-Ray Diffraction. Amorphous natural solids like coal, volcanic glasses etc. do not qualify as minerals. The abundance of any mineral in the Earth is decided by the availability of the constituent elements of the mineral in the earth’s crust and also the stability of that mineral in the surface or near-surface environment.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 3. Internal Structures of Clay Minerals

Abstract
In geological terms, the term “clay” is ambiguous and has multiple meanings: a group of fine grained minerals i.e., the clay minerals; a particle size (smaller than silt); and a type of rock i.e., a sedimentary deposit of fine-grained material usually composed largely of clay minerals (Patterson and Murray, 1983; Bates and Jackson, 1987). Clay, one of the leading minerals, is a widely distributed, abundant mineral resource of major industrial importance for an enormous variety of uses (Ampian, 1985).
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 4. Chemical Properties of Clay and Thermodynamic Aspects

Abstract
Chemical properties of clays are very important to the understanding of their behaviour. The electrical charge and colloidal size of clay mineral particles make them hydrate and interact so that their hydraulic conductivity and stress/ strain properties are quite different from those of sandy soil. Thermodynamics describes how systems change when they interact with each other and also with their surroundings. During the above mentioned interactions, how the energy transfer is controlled by the thermodynamic parameters, is to be studied here.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 5. Physical Properties of Clay and Soil Mechanics

Abstract
Clay mineral particles are commonly too small for measuring precise optical properties. Specific gravity of most clay minerals are within the range from 2 to 3.3. Their hardness generally falls below 2.5. Refractive indices of clay minerals generally fall within a relatively narrow range from 1.47 to 1.68. Generally the size and shape, the two properties, are determined by electron micrographs.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 6. Analytical Techniques for Clay Studies

Abstract
To identify a material under study, its various properties are analyzed using different techniques. Analytical techniques utilize the interaction of incident entity (in the form of electromagnetic waves of different frequencies or particles like electrons etc.) with the sample to get the relevant information through detailed analysis of the output data.
Swapna Mukherjee

Industrial Uses of Clays and Argilloids

Frontmatter

Chapter 7. Clays: Industrial Applications and Their Determinants

Abstract
The easy availability of clays in almost all inhabitable places on earth and its certain characteristic properties facilitate its diverse use in the human civilisation since prehistoric time. The clays were widely used in building muddy huts or in the production of bricks, potteries etc. even in the most primitive forms of cultures. In the present age, the uses of clays and clay minerals are increasing day by day, and they are gradually replacing metals in various fields as cheaper, better and environment-friendly alternatives.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 8. Traditional and Modern Uses of Ceramics, Glass and Refractories

Abstract
The word “ceramic” comes from the Greek word “keramikos”, “of pottery” or “for pottery.” A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic often crystalline oxide, nitride or carbide material made by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. During the heating and cooling non-crystalline ceramics also can be formed.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 9. Clays for Medicines and Fillers

Abstract
Clay plays an important role in medical science to prepare various medicines. This special aspect of clay is known as clay therapy. It is based on the ability of clays and clay minerals to adsorb and retain harmful and toxic substances. The beneficial effects of these materials to human health, notably in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, have been recognized. Among the variety of clays and clay minerals that were used by primitive tribes are bentonite, kaolinite, montmorillonite and smectite.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 10. Soil Conditioner and Fertilizer Industry

Abstract
A soil conditioner is a material added to soil to improve its overall condition, especially plant growth and health and simultaneously it corrects the soil’s deficiencies in structure and/or nutrients. It is also called a soil amendment. Physical conditions of soil such as porosity and permeability will be improved by using the materials for agriculture purpose, known as fertilizer.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 11. Use of Clays as Drilling Fluids and Filters

Abstract
In geotechnical engineering, drilling fluid is a fluid used to drill boreholes into the earth. In drilling rigs, drilling fluids help to do drill for exploration of oil and natural gas. Liquid drilling fluid is often called drilling mud.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 12. Clays and Associated Materials in Surface Coatings and Pigments

Abstract
Coating indicates a covering applied to the surface of an object. In many cases, coatings are applied to improve surface properties of the substrate, such as appearance, adhesion and resistance against any type of corrosion or weathering. In other cases, coating forms an essential part of the finished product.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 13. Clays and Associated Minerals in Cement and Plasters

Abstract
In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word “cement” traces modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick additives that were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum, cimentum and cement.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 14. Clay and Associated Minerals in Battery Industry

Abstract
Manganese is found in combination with iron and in many minerals in nature. Some manganese minerals are pyrolusite (MnO2), braunite (3Mn2O3.MnSiO3), rhodochrosite (MnCO3), rhodonite (MnSiO3), manganite (Mn2O3.H2O) etc. Manganese ore is produced in huge quantity in India.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 15. Insulators Using Clays

Abstract
A true insulator is a material that does not respond to an electric field and completely resists the flow of electric charge. However, perfect insulators do not exist. Therefore, dielectric materials with high dielectric constants are considered insulators. In insulating materials valence electrons are tightly bonded to their atoms. These materials are used in electrical equipment as insulators or insulation.
Swapna Mukherjee

Clays in the Environment

Frontmatter

Chapter 16. Beneficial and Hazardous Aspects of Clays in Nature: A Brief Overview

Abstract
Environment is the sum total of all the surroundings of a living organism, and it essentially consists of all the physical, chemical and biotic factors acting upon that organism. The environment in which we live includes other living organisms (different types of plants and animals), inorganic matters (air, water, soil etc.) and natural processes, which provide conditions for our survival, development and growth. The study of the environment is a multidisciplinary approach; and numerous scientists of various disciplines throughout the world are actively engaged in studying the different aspects of the environment, especially the human impacts on its integrity.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 17. Clays as Neutralizers against Environmental Protection

Abstract
To understand the role of clays in nature and their beneficial effects, it is important to have the preliminary knowledge about origin of clays and their transformation in nature.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 18. Environmental Degradations during Clay Mining and Beneficiation

Abstract
Clay is defined as a natural, earthy, fine-grained material, largely of a group of crystalline hydrous silicate minerals known as clay minerals. The usual types of mines are open pit but underground mining is also done for clay, associated with coal deposits and more profitable, particularly for fire clays.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 19. Environmental Impacts of Clay-related Industries

Abstract
Clays, which are often associated with mineral deposits, can be the source of significant problems in mineral processing operations. Their presence as impurities in low grade ores can lead to issues such as high pumping energy, high water consumption and large volume of tailings. Current strategies for dealing with clay-related issues in mineral processing are all end-of-pipe in nature, in the sense that they all attempt to solve the problems well after they have been created through clay dispersion.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 20. Recycling of Industrial Waste Products

Abstract
Environmental pollution is the major problem associated with rapid industrialization, urbanization and rise in living standards of people. For developing countries, industrialization was must and still this activity very much demands to build self reliance and in uplifting nation’s economy. However, industrialization on the other hand has also caused serious problems relating to environmental pollution. Therefore, wastes seem to be a by-product of growth. The country like India can ill-afford to lose them as sheer waste.
Swapna Mukherjee

Chapter 21. Uses of Clays in Waste Managements: Toxic and Non-toxic

Abstract
Solid waste is the unwanted or useless solid materials generated from combined residential, industrial and commercial activities in a given area. It may be categorised according to its origin (domestic, industrial, commercial, construction or institutional); according to its contents (organic material, glass, metal, plastic paper etc.); or according to hazard potential (toxic, non-toxin, flammable, radioactive, infectious etc.). Management of solid waste reduces or eliminates adverse impacts on the environment and human health and supports economic development and improved quality of life.
Swapna Mukherjee

Backmatter

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