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'Lee takes the oft cited belief that entrepreneurial endeavour lives and dies by the quality of the networks set in play, and subjects it to a rigorous and sustained analysis. In this he not only provides the reader with an authoritative theoretical and empirical foray into how entrepreneurs can create and sustain different forms of social capital, he does so with a strong sense of how power frames and taints its acquisition and use. Lee¹s book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of how in entrepreneurial activity, as in many walks of life, it is those with already established status who set the agenda by which opportunity and its pursuit is constituted'.

Robin Holt, Professor of Entrepreneurship, Politics and Society, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark

Robert Lee drives forward the agenda of socially-situated cognition research, moving beyond a static model of entrepreneurial cognition and offering instead a dynamic, socially embedded, communication-based perspective. He breaks from the traditional focus on either the individual entrepreneurial agent or the social and institutional context of entrepreneurship and makes a serious and skilful effort to provide an integrative understanding of the entrepreneur as placed in a complex, relational and ambiguous context. Recognising that entrepreneurship is both cognitive and relational, he plays with the idea of power within legitimacy creation and through this illustrates the ultimately distributed nature of entrepreneurial processes. This book adds to the growing domain of socially-situated entrepreneurial cognition research and will appeal to those interested in understanding the connection between cognition, communication and legitimacy in the context of entrepreneurship.

Jean Clarke, Professor of Entrepreneurship and Organization, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, UK

‘In a very welcome contribution to the literature, Robert Lee explores the social capital mobilised by entrepreneurs and develops a communicative action approach that yields important insights into how would-be entrepreneurs achieve legitimacy through navigating the complex web of power and status relations in which they are enmeshed. This book will appeal not only to those interested in entrepreneurship, but also be a valuable reference source for those interested in the workings of social capital’.

Michael Bresnen, Professor of Organisation Studies, Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, UK

This book presents a novel and intellectually stimulating account of the understudied links between entrepreneurial newcomers’ bridging ties and their networked cognition. With a paucity of research addressing cognitively specific features of networked language and conduct, The Social Capital of Entrepreneurial Newcomers explores how entrepreneurial newcomers attune their cognition when interacting with high status and powerful vertical bridges. Largely reflecting communication accommodation perspectives, the author theoretically and empirically examines entrepreneurial newcomers’ cognitive ‘convergence’ and ‘divergence’ when bridging.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
There is an extraordinary amount of research pertaining to social capital in the fields of management and entrepreneurship. This chapter explains that the features of cognitive social capital are relatively understudied compared to structural and relational social capital. In particular, it argues that how entrepreneurial newcomers negotiate status and power differentials in bridging network structures is unknown. Furthermore, this chapter explains that drawing on communication accommodation theory (CAT) might augment our understanding of cognitive social capital processes. The overview provides a brief explanation of the content of the book.
Robert Lee

Theory

Frontmatter

2. Entrepreneurial Newcomers: Resources and Social Embeddedness

Abstract
This chapter explains the linkage between resource acquisition and social embeddedness in the entrepreneurial process. It emphasises that new venture creation is complex and reflects combinations of material and immaterial things, goods and forces. Put another way, combinations of tangible resources such as premises, materials, equipment and finance, and intangible resources, including information, knowledge, intellect and human resources. Then the chapter stresses that entrepreneurial newcomers lack crucial resources, because of their smallness and newness. In addition, it emphasises how social embeddedness and social relations enable entrepreneurial newcomers to overcome resource constraints. Furthermore, the chapter illuminates how social capital permits a more complete and holistic understanding of social interaction across society and in the management and entrepreneurial process. Social capital theory extends the embeddedness concept and emphasises the multifaceted social structures, affairs and practices that promote access to resources.
Robert Lee

3. Social Capital: Its Foundations and Application in Management and Entrepreneurship

Abstract
This chapter explains the importance of social capital for society, management and entrepreneurship. It emphasises the scholarly importance of social capital in the fields of social science, economics, health, arts and humanities. There is a large and robust body of research that addresses three main views pertaining to social capital: communitarian; networks; and institutions. The communitarian view reflects social cohesion amongst and between members in a group and moral behaviours. The networks view refers to different social ties available to individuals and associated norms that promote access to resources. The institutional view represents social capital as an outcome of institutions, democracy and rule of law. Furthermore, the chapter proceeds to explain the relevance of three social capital dimensions in management and entrepreneurial social capital research-namely, structural (bonding, bridging), relational (trust, reciprocity and norms) and cognitive (communication). It also illuminates the complex linkage between bonding and bridging network structures and dynamics of relational and cognitive features.
Robert Lee

4. Bridging Structures, Linkage to Status-Power and Cognitive Social Capital

Abstract
This chapter reemphasises that bridging ties are vertical, upward, authoritative, heterogeneous and more formalised arrangements, which is actually akin to what Weber conceptualised as (Vergesellschaftung, Macht, Herrschaft, Zweckrational) and what contemporary sociologists label as status cues. Then it stresses that bridging structures correspond to high status and power configurations. Moreover, this chapter explains the idea that influential bridges exhibit status cues, derive power and influence entrepreneurial newcomers’ cognition and everyday communication. Communication accommodation theory is fused to postulate on how entrepreneurial newcomers both cognitively converge (upward) with and cognitively diverge (downward) from high status and powerful bridges. Thus, I suggest that entrepreneurial newcomers’ successfully negotiating status and power differentials in bridging structures depends on two features of communication accommodation: cognitive convergence and cognitive divergence.
Robert Lee

Results

Frontmatter

5. Entrepreneurial Newcomers: Bridging Structures and Issues of Status and Power

Abstract
This chapter presents research findings from in-depth interview data in the form of narrative analysis, illustrative quotations, undirected triadic network graphs and signed status graphs. The data demonstrates that technical-professional entrepreneurial newcomers depend on direct interaction with bridging ties to overcome the liabilities of newness and lack of resources. This is because bridging ties reflect high worth and status cues such as esteemed reputation, authority, titles, expertise, experience and resource ownership. In addition, the data shows that bridging ties are ideal brokers and span structural holes, because of their reputation advantages and social standing. Structural holes and brokerage are a more complex and divergent bridging behaviour that gives rise to power benefits for the broker. Furthermore, the data demonstrates that influential and powerful bridges can coerce and constrain.
Robert Lee

6. Entrepreneurial Newcomers and Cognitive Convergence in Bridging Structures

Abstract
This chapter presents research findings from in-depth interview data in the form of narrative analysis and illustrative quotations. The data demonstrates how technical-professional entrepreneurial newcomers in the pursuit of high-potential start-up converge with influential and powerful bridges and align their communication styles to blend in. In particular, the data shows that technical-professional entrepreneurial newcomers attune their cognition and cognitively converge with influential and powerful bridges through in-group approximation, formal-functional language and concise-accurate communication.
Robert Lee

7. Entrepreneurial Newcomers and Cognitive Divergence in Bridging Structures

Abstract
This chapter presents research findings from in-depth interview data in the form of narrative analysis and illustrative quotations. The data demonstrates how technical-professional entrepreneurial newcomers cognitively diverge from influential and powerful bridges and reflect on their lack of experience, inferiority and low status. In particular, the data demonstrates that technical-professional entrepreneurial newcomers attune their cognition and cognitively diverge from influential and authoritative bridges through out-group approximation, conflict avoidance and face-threat tolerance.
Robert Lee

8. Conclusion

Abstract
The first part of this book provides a literature review pertaining to entrepreneurial newcomers’ resource acquisition and their cognitive social capital when negotiating status and power differentials in bridging structures, but from a communication accommodation theory (CAT) perspective. By and large, the links between status and power and cognitive social capital are understudied. The second part of this book presents research findings to determine how entrepreneurial newcomers attune their cognition in bridging structures through communication accommodation. This chapter brings together the respective parts of the book and illuminates theoretical contributions. In addition, it addresses implications for policy and practice and identifies future research challenges.
Robert Lee

Backmatter

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