Numerous investigators have alluded to the potential importance of upper tropospheric clouds on a great variety of meteorological problems. Manabe and Strickler (1964) studied the response of a thermal equilibrium model which included radiation and a convective adjustment to the presence of cirrus clouds. Atmospheric radiative variations were shown to depend upon cloud height and infrared emissivity. Manabe and Strickler (1964), Möller (1943), Cox (1969) and Reynolds et al. (1975) show that clouds may be warmed by radiative convergence. Reynolds et al. show that direct absorption of solar radiation by clouds is an important tropospheric heat source.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- The Solar Radiative Properties of Ice Clouds
Ronald M. Welch
Stephen K. Cox
- American Meteorological Society
- Chapter 4
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen