The United States and the Western European countries control water quality using a variety of instruments and institutions. These tools range from regulatory command and control (CAC) approaches of technological, emissions and ambient standards to economic or incentive-based approaches such as charges, subsidies and transferable discharge permits (TDPs). As the economies of the CEE countries move from central planning to the free market, it is appropriate to review both the literature on and experience with economic instruments for water quality management to understand how they might be applied in that setting. The Central and Eastern European countries face serious water quality problems and the resources needed to address these problems are large (Somlyódy, 1993). The challenge of improving water quality in CEE requires finding cost-effective approaches that are appropriate to the institutional context of individual CEE countries.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- The State of the Art in Economic Instruments and Institutions for Water Quality Management
Mark Griffin Smith
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- Chapter 13