Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
As political contexts change and develop, so too do identities and the symbols that represent them. This chapter examines how the concept the national struggle—funu—has been reimagined and reconceptualised in the post-independence state. With the struggle for self-determination over and in the absence of a common enemy in Indonesia, numerous social divisions have emerged in East Timorese society. In order to achieve national unity, a key objective of nation-building, it has been necessary to adapt the powerful tenet of funu to the post-independence state; the struggle continues, but it is now against the prevailing social, economic, and political challenges that remain. The chapter examines how the now figurative, reconceptualised struggle has been symbolically represented by political parties, created since the return to independence. It examines the discourse of democratisation and development that is used to redefine the struggle, and problematises its origins in the UN missions. A critique of Post-development theory enables a deeper understanding of the complex processes of appropriation, and how an initially foreign discourse has come to outline an independent, East Timorese nationalism.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Alkon, Cynthia, ‘The Cookie Cutter Syndrome: Legal Reform Assistance Under Post-communist Democratization Programs’, Journal of Dispute Resolution, 2 (2002), pp. 327–365.
Andrews, Nathan, and Sylvia Bawa, ‘A Post-development Hoax? (Re)-examining the Past, Present and Future of Development Studies’, Third World Quarterly, 35.6 (2014), pp. 922–938. CrossRef
Anghie, Antony, Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law, Vol. 37 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Bariagaber, Assefaw, ‘United Nations Peace Operations in Africa: A Cookie-Cutter Approach?’, Journal of Third World Studies, 23.2 (2006), pp. 11–29.
Beauvais, Joel C., ‘Benevolent Despotism: A Critique of UN State-Building in East Timor’, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 33 (2000), pp. 1101–1179.
Benner, Thorsten, Stephan Mergenthaler, and Philipp Rotmann, The New World of UN Peace Operations: Learning to Build Peace? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011). CrossRef
Bhabha, Homi, The Location of Culture (London: Routledge, 1994).
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, An Agenda for Democratization (New York: UN Press, 1996).
Bovensiepen, Judith, ‘Opening and Closing the Land: Land and Power in the Idaté Highlands’, in Life and Land in Timor-Leste: Ethnographic Essays, ed. by Andrew McWilliam and Elizabeth Traube (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 2011), pp. 47–60.
———, ‘Visions of Prosperity and Conspiracy in Timor-Leste’, Focaal: Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology, 75 (2016), pp. 75–88.
Call, Charles T., and Susan E. Cook, ‘Introduction: Postconflict Peacebuilding and Democratization’, Global Governance, 9 (2003), pp. 135–139.
Chawla, Shalini, ‘Shaping East Timor: A Dimension of United Nations Peacekeeping’, Strategic Analysis, 24.12 (2001), pp. 2291–2303. CrossRef
Chopra, Jarat, ‘Building State Failure in East Timor’, Development and Change, 33.5 (2002), pp. 979–1000. CrossRef
———, ‘The UN’s Kingdom of East Timor’, Survival, 42.3 (2000), pp. 27–39. CrossRef
Cohen, Abner, Two-Dimensional Man: An Essay on the Anthropology of Power and Symbolism in Complex Society (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974).
Congresso Nacional de Reconstrução de Timor-Leste (CNRT), Estatutu Partidu CNRT Nian (Dili, 29 Abril – 02 Maio 2011a).
———, Manual Polítiku Partidu CNRT ba daruak (Dili: 29–30 Abril – 02 Maio 2011b).
Cotton, James, ‘Timor-Leste and the Discourse of State Failure’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 61.4 (2007), pp. 455–470. CrossRef
———, ‘“Peace-Keeping” in East Timor: An Australian Policy Departure’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 53.3 (1999), pp. 237–246. CrossRef
Croissant, Aurel, ‘The Perils and Promises of Democratization through United Nations Transitional Authority—Lessons from Cambodia and East Timor’, Democratization, 15.3 (2008), pp. 649–668. CrossRef
DeShaw Rae, James, Peacebuilding and Transitional Justice in East Timor (London: First Forum Press, 2009).
East Timor Law and Justice Bulletin. Available at: http://easttimorlegal.blogspot.com [accessed 31/05/2018].
———, Timor-Leste Anti-corruption Commission Under Way (15 February 2010). Available at: http://easttimorlegal.blogspot.com/2010/02/timor-leste-independent-anti-corruption.html [accessed 09/04/2018].
Edelman, Marc, ‘Peasants Against Globalization’, in The Anthropology of Politics: A Reader in Ethnography, Theory and Critique, ed. by Joan Vincent (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), pp. 409–423.
Edelman, Murray, The Symbolic Uses of Politics (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974).
Escobar, Arturo, ‘Power and Visibility: Development and the Invention and Management of the Third World’, Cultural Anthropology, 3.4 (2009), pp. 428–443. CrossRef
———, ‘Imagining a Post-development Era’, in Power of Development, ed. by Jonathan Crush (London: Routledge, 1995), pp. 211–227.
———, ‘Discourse and Power in Development: Michel Foucault and the Relevance of His Work to the Third World’, Alternatives, 10.3 (1984), pp. 377–400. CrossRef
European Union, ‘Timor-Leste: Final Report—Parliamentary Election 2012, EU Election Observation Mission to Timor-Leste 2012’, Reports (2012). Available at: http://eeas.europa.eu/eueom/missions/2012/timor-leste/reports_en.htm [accessed 15/04/2018].
Fan, Hua, ‘The Missing Link Between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor’, Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, 6.1 (2007), pp. 176–195.
Foucault, Michel, ‘Governmentality’, in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, ed. by Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), pp. 87–104.
Frenti-Mudança, Frente Reconstrução Nacional de Timor-Leste (Frenti-Mudança) Manual (Dili, 2012).
Hicks, David, ‘Afterword: Glimpses of Alternatives—The Uma Lulik of East Timor’, Social Analysis, 52.1 (2008), pp. 166–180. CrossRef
Hill, Matthew Alan, ‘Exploring USAID’s Democracy Promotion in Bosnia and Afghanistan: A “Cookie-Cutter Approach”?’, Democratization, 17.1 (2010), pp. 98–124. CrossRef
Hohe, Tanja, ‘The Clash of Paradigms: International Administration and Local Political Legitimacy in East Timor’, Contemporary Southeast Asia, 24.3 (2002), pp. 569–589. CrossRef
International Crisis Group (ICG), ‘Timor-Leste’s Elections: Leaving Behind a Violent Past?’, Asia Briefing No. 134 (Dili, Jakarta, and Brussels, February 2012).
Kertzer, David, Ritual, Politics and Power (London: Yale University Press, 1988).
Kiely, Ray, ‘The Last Refuge of the Noble Savage? A Critical Assessment of Post‐development Theory’, The European Journal of Development Research, 11.1 (1999), pp. 30–55. CrossRef
Kingsbury, Damien, ‘Democracy As Lulic?’, The Dili Weekly (16 March 2012).
———, ‘Democratic Consolidation in Timor-Leste: Achievements, Problems and Prospects’, Asian Journal of Political Science, 22.2 (2014), pp. 1–25.
Kolstø, Pål, ‘National Symbols as Signs of Unity and Division’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 29.4 (2006), pp. 676–701. CrossRef
Matthews, Sally, ‘Post-development Theory and the Question of Alternatives: A View from Africa’, Third World Quarterly, 25.2 (2004), pp. 373–384. CrossRef
McWilliam, Andrew, ‘Houses of Resistance in East Timor: Structuring Sociality in the New Nation’, Anthropological Forum, 15.1 (2005), pp. 27–44. CrossRef
McWilliam, Andrew, and Angie Bexley, ‘Performing Politics: The 2007 Parliamentary Elections in Timor Leste’, The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 9.1 (2008), pp. 66–82. CrossRef
Molnar, Andrea K., ‘“Died in the Service of Portugal”: Legitimacy of Authority and Dynamics of Group Identity Among the Atsabe Kemak in East Timor’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 37.2 (2006), pp. 335–355. CrossRef
———, Timor-Leste: Politics, History and Culture (New York: Routledge, 2010).
Morison, Michael, ‘Democratisation and Timor Leste After UNTAET: Towards Participatory Intervention,’ Hatene kona ba Compreender Understanding Mengerti, 24.3 (2010), pp. 179–184.
Myrttinen, Henri, ‘Resistance, Symbolism and the Language of Stateness in Timor-Leste’, Oceania, 83.3 (2013), pp. 208–220. CrossRef
Niner, Sarah, ‘A Long Journey of Resistance: The Origins and Struggle of CNRT’, in Bitter Flowers, Sweet Flowers: East Timor, Indonesia and the World Community, ed. by Richard Tanter, Mark Selden, and Stephen R. Shalom (Sydney: Pluto Press, 2001), pp. 15–30.
Rahnema, Majid, ‘Towards Post-development: Searching for Signposts, a New Language and New Paradigms’, in Development: Identities, Representation, Alternatives, ed. by Stuart Corbridge (London: Routledge, 2000), pp. 304–331.
Rajagopal, Balakrishnan, International Law from Below: Development, Social Movements and Third World Resistance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). CrossRef
República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Timor-Leste Strategic Development Plan 2011–2030 (Dili, 2010), pp. 1–232.
República Democrática de Timor-Leste Planning Commission, East Timor National Development Programme (Dili, May 2002).
Richmond, Oliver P., Peace in International Relations (London: Routledge, 2008). CrossRef
———, ‘Resistance and the Post-liberal Peace’, Millennium—Journal of International Studies, 38.3 (2010), pp. 665–692.
———, ‘The Problem of Peace: Understanding the “Liberal Peace”,’ Conflict, Security and Development, 6.3 (2006), pp. 291–314.
Sandlund, Odd Terje, et al., Assessing Environmental Needs and Priorities in East Timor: Issues and Priorities (Trondheim: United Nations Poverty Environment Initiative, February 2001).
Shoesmith, Dennis, Political Parties and Groupings of Timor-Leste, 3rd edition (Australian Labor International, October 2011).
Skey, Michael, National Belonging and Everyday Life: The Significance of Nationhood in an Uncertain World (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).
Smith, Anthony, ‘Timor-Leste: Strong Government, Weak State’, Southeast Asian Affairs, 2004 (2004), pp. 277–294.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’, in Can the Subaltern Speak? Reflections on the History of an Idea, ed. by Rosalind C. Morris (Columbia: Columbia University Press, 2010), pp. 21–78.
Storey, Andy, ‘Post-development Theory: Romanticism and Pontius Pilate Politics’, Development, 43.3 (2000), pp. 40–46. CrossRef
Strohmeyer, Hansjörg, ‘Collapse and Reconstruction of a Judicial System: The United Nations Missions in Kosovo and East Timor’, American Journal of International Law, 95.1 (2001), pp. 46–63. CrossRef
Tanter, Richard, ‘East Timor and the Crisis of the Indonesian Intelligence State’, in Bitter Flowers, Sweet Flowers: East Timor, Indonesia and the World Community, ed. by Richard Tanter, Mark Selden, and Stephen R. Shalom (Sydney: Pluto Press, 2001), pp. 189–208.
Tempo Semanal, Kombate Korupsaun iha Timor Leste (14 December 2011). Available at: http://temposemanaltimor.blogspot.co.uk/2011/12/kombate-korupsaun-iha-timor-leste.html [accessed 09/04/2018].
Thuzar, Moe, ‘What Does It Take to Join ASEAN?’, Perspective (ISEAS), 36 (2017), pp. 1–8.
Traube, Elizabeth, ‘Planting the Flag’, in Life and Land in Timor-Leste: Ethnographic Essays, ed. by Andrew McWilliam and Elizabeth Traube (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 2011), pp. 117–140. CrossRef
United Nations Security Council, Security Council Resolution 1272 (1999). Available at: http://www.un.org/docs/scres/1999/sc99.htm [accessed 17/20/2012].
Varhola, Christopher H., and Laura R. Varhola, ‘Avoiding the Cookie-Cutter Approach to Culture: Lessons Learned from Operations in East Africa’, Military Review, 86.6 (2006), pp. 73–78.
Ziai, Aram (ed.), Exploring Post-development: Theory and Practice, Problems and Perspectives (London: Routledge, 2007).
———, ‘Post-development: Premature Burials and Haunting Ghosts’, Development and Change, 46.4 (2015), pp. 833–854. CrossRef
- The Struggle Continues: Peace and Prosperity, Democratic Values and Development in Political Party Flags
Catherine E. Arthur
- Chapter 6
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Voraussetzungen für wirtschaftliche additive Fertigung/© Marco2811 | Fotolia