Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

The monograph is about a meta-theory of knowledge-production process and the logical pathway that connects the epistemic possibility to the epistemic reality. It examines the general conditions of paradigms for information processing and isolates the classical and fuzzy paradigms for comparative analysis. The sets of conditions that give rise to them are defined, stated and analyzed to abstract the corresponding sets of laws of thought. The fuzzy paradigm with its corresponding logic and mathematics is related to inexact symbolism for the defective information structure where the results of the knowledge production must satisfy the epistemic conditionality, composed of fuzzy conditionality and fuzzy-stochastic conditionality under the principle of logical duality with continuum. The classical paradigm with its corresponding logic and mathematics is related to exact symbolism for exact information structure where the vagueness component of the defectiveness is assumed away, and where the results of the knowledge production must satisfy no epistemic conditionality or at the maximum only the stochastic conditionality under the principle of logical dualism with excluded middle. It is argued that the epistemic path that links ontological space to the epistemological space is information. The ontological space is taken as the primary category of reality while the epistemological space is shone to be a derivative. Such information is universally defective and together with assumptions imposed guides the development of paradigms with their laws of thought, logic of reasoning, mathematics and computational techniques. The relational structure is seen in terms of logical trinity with a given example as matter-information-energy transformational trinity which is supported by the time trinity of past-present-future relationality. The book is written for professionals, researchers and students working in philosophy of science, decision-choice theories, economies, sciences, computer science, engineering, cognitive psychology and researchers working on, or interested in fuzzy paradigm, fuzzy logic, fuzzy decisions, and phenomena of vagueness and ambiguities, fuzzy mathematics, fuzzy-stochastic processes and theory of knowledge. It is further aimed at research institutions and libraries. The subject matter belongs to extensive research and development taking place on fuzzy phenomena and the debate between the fuzzy paradigm and the classical paradigm relative to informatics, synergetic science and complexity theory. The book will have a global appeal and across disciplines. Its strength, besides the contents, is the special effort that is undertaken to make it relevant and accessible to different areas of sciences and knowledge production.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

The Theory of the Knowledge Square and the Information Structure: The Points of Entry and Departure

Abstract
In a number of my writings on philosophy of science, the theory of knowledge and foundations of fuzzy laws of thought, I view them from the vantage point of the theories of economic behavior, complexity of social dynamics, self-correcting systems, decision-choice systems and synergetic behavior of systems rather than as a philosopher or a mathematician. From this vantage point, I introduced an analytical concept of theknowledge square to allow me to deal with the problems of the relative positions of the critical concepts of exactness and inexactness in the general knowledge-production process. The problems of exactness and inexactness as seen in the exact-inexact duality are related to quantity and quality of information structures in categorial conversions and epistemic transformations of information signals into knowledge elements in the epistemological space [R2.3] [R2.10] [R11.21] [R11.22].
Kofi Kissi Dompere

The Theory of the Knowledge Square and the Concept of the Possibility Space,

Abstract
We now turn our attention to the possibility space https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-31119-2_2/302017_1_En_2_IEq2_HTML.gif as the second building block of the knowledge square. The possibility space is a cognitive connector between the potential space, https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-31119-2_2/302017_1_En_2_IEq3_HTML.gif and the space of thenatural actual. It is an element of continuity of the epistemic chain of knowing and explaining where the potential space and its contents, relative to cognition, are taken to exist but unknown to cognitive agents as true ontological elements. The potential space is the initialization of activities of cognitive agents and their knowledge production process where knowledge and awareness of the elements must be abstracted by a process. The possibility space is made up of elements which are possible candidates for knowing from the potential space. It is cognitive construct in terms of ontology and epistemology. It constitutes an initial bridge between ontology and epistemology (the words epistemic and cognitive are interchangeably used in a number of occasions). The question, therefore, is: how are the concepts of possibility and possibility space defined, how are they connected and how are they related to the uncertainties and the process of knowing?
Kofi Kissi Dompere

The Theory of the Knowledge Square and the Concepts of Probability and the Probability Space ( )

Abstract
We have discussed the potential and possibility spaces and their relationships to the knowledge-production process as viewed from the theory of the knowledge square. These conceptual relationships were connected to the possible-world space, the explanatory science, prescriptive science and the defective knowledge structure. On the basis of the defective knowledge structure, the roles of explanatory theory and the corresponding explanatory rationality were projected. Similarly, the prescriptive theory and the corresponding prescriptive rationality were discussed .We shall now turn our attention to the probability space and show how it is connected to the possibility space and then to the universal object set in a backward regressive process of the knowledge-production process. The possibility space and its construct on the basis of the fuzzy paradigm to deal with the problem of possibilistic uncertainty provide us with the analytical structure of possibilistic reasoning under conditions of defective information structure that is constrained by quality and quantity deficiencies about epistemic elements with neutrality of time.
Kofi Kissi Dompere

The Knowledge Square and the Concepts of Actual and the Space of the Epistemic Actual ( )

Abstract
We have discussed the foundational blocks of the spaces of the potential, possibility and probability and their relationships to the process of knowing in order to reduce human ignorance in all areas of knowledge. We shall now turn our attention to examine the space of the epistemic actual and discuss the connectedness of this space to the spaces of probability, possibility and the potential (the space of the universal object set) in the reduction process in the knowledge production. The space of the epistemic actual is the final destination of our knowledge journey and the results of the game of knowing. It helps to close the theory of the knowledge square as a continuum process of thought where the chain is never broken, and guarantees that the knowledge production is a never-ending process in the sense that the space of the epistemic actual is also ontologically and epistemologically connected to the potential space through logical dualities and creative tensions. It is here that the principles of corroboration, falsification, verification and acceptance of true or false propositions and knowledge claims acquire meanings. It is this analytical structure of the theory of the Knowledge square that allows scientific and philosophical assessments of meanings embodied in the potential, possible, probable and actual and the corresponding developments of logical paradigms and mathematical structures to deal with them.
Kofi Kissi Dompere

Paradigms of Thought in the Fuzzy and Classical Epistemic Systems under Knowledge Production

Abstract
We have argued from the position of either the theory of complex systems or synergetics in the conceptual system of the knowledge square, that besides the epistemic indifference of the content of the knowledge areas, all areas of knowledge production share in common, the input of defective information structure. The defective information structure is composed of fuzzy information deformity that gives rise to fuzzy uncertainty and information incompleteness deformity that gives rise to stochastic uncertainty from the possibility and probability spaces respectively. In fact, the available toolbox and the logic composed of possibilistic and probabilistic reasoning to deal with these uncertainties are not different in substance and computational structure, except perhaps in style. For the benefit of further differentiations of knowledge areas and new ones that may arise in the future, it is useful to examine the conditions of inexactness of exact science and then the exactness of inexact science. In this respect, some essential working definitions are needed.
Kofi Kissi Dompere

Fuzziness, Science, the Knowledge Square and the Problem of Exact Science

Abstract
Given the structure of the theory of the knowledge square, as presented in previous chapters, we will now reflect on the structure of science and the theory of knowledge in relation to fuzziness that covers ambiguities, vagueness and quality in the information structure as an input for knowledge production. The stage of our modern knowledge, the speed of the global technological progress, the relationship between technological progress and knowledge, the required efficiency of organizational operations to use the human and non-human resources to improve human conditions and maintain life, the required efficiency of social management of synergetic relations, the increasing need for information and the complexities of our accepted knowledge, demand an important reexamination of certain philosophical claims on modes of reasoning and methods of acceptance of epistemic items as true or false in the knowledge-production process. Our knowledge-production enterprise has been partitioned into science and non-science with more social respect and credibility given to the results of science and the enterprise of science. Let us examine the structure and form of this partition.
Kofi Kissi Dompere

Ontology, Epistemology, Explication and Exactness in Mathematics and Sciences

Abstract
All the questions raised in the previous chapters fall under either the set of questions of ontological type or the set of questions of epistemological type. Most of the questions are of epistemological type. The theory of the knowledge square is a meta-theory on epistemology and knowledge production. The point of entry of the meta-theory is that the information input for knowledge production is defective due to fuzziness and incompleteness that create qualitative and quantitative inexactness for all sciences. Fuzziness is associated with qualitative disposition of information while incompleteness is associated with quantitative disposition of information about epistemic objects with neutrality of time. The point of departure is a search for an appropriate symbolism that will incorporate fuzziness and incompleteness of information with a further search for appropriate logic of operations that will allow exact equivalences to be abstracted from inexactness. All the debates in the last analysis are about what we claim to know about what there is in the ontological space and the process of knowing. In the epistemic process of knowing, the solution to the problem of exactness forces us to choose between two principles that must be taken as intuitive assumptions. They are the ontological principle of exactness and inexactness, on one hand, and the epistemological principle of exactness and inexactness on the other. The inter-relational structures between ontology and epistemology regarding exactness and inexactness are displayed in Figure 7.0.1. In the process of the knowledge production, are we willing to assume the ontological principle of exactness about the elements in the universal object set as defined in the potential space relative to knowing? In other words, are we willing to accept the fundamental principle that ontological objects, processes and states are exact, and hence there are no vague objects and there is no defective ontological information structure associated with them as in Cohort II? Alternatively, are we to accept ontological vagueness and epistemic exactness as in Cohort III? Another choice that is to be faced is that of accepting complete exactness in both spaces where the epistemological information is the exact replica of the ontological information as in Cohort I. The final choice is to accept complete inexactness in both the spaces with vague ontological and epistemic objects as in Cohort IV. Let us examine these in a little more detail.
Kofi Kissi Dompere

Knowledge and Science in the Theory of the Knowledge Square

Abstract
Science is a sub-category of knowledge and hence it must satisfy the general conditions of the primary elements of the knowledge square and its derivatives of belief and analytical squares. As a sub-category of knowledge, what distinguishes it from other sub-categories of knowledge? This question demands us to produce a definition of science that will allow us to create its linguistic dynamic category which will offer us the conditions of a sorting algorithm for locating scientific items and non-scientific items at any point of time in duality. We have already offered a definition of knowledge. We shall now offer a definition of science as a sub-category of knowledge.
Kofi Kissi Dompere

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen

Premium Partner

    Bildnachweise