Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Jiayuan Li is a Doctoral Researcher and John W Raine is his supervisor in the Institute of Local Government Studies, University of Birmingham, UK. This research was conducted as part of Jiayuan Li’s doctoral thesis. The authors would like to thank Professor Tony Bovaird, John Knight and Andrew Oswald and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this article.
The overtime changes of life satisfaction have been recognized as an important topic in happiness studies. Unfortunately, most of prior research is confined to Western industrialized countries. A few studies focused on the case of China yet fail to reach a general agreement. This research aims to synthesize multiple national representative samples implemented in China by standardizing the happiness scores. The transformation of datasets yields more observation points and grounds the analysis in much larger samples, which helps to represent a country as vast as China. The analysis shows that in the past two decades, Chinese people has been experiencing a marked decline of life satisfaction, in spite of tremendous economic and societal progress.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Appleton, S., & Song, L. (2008). Life satisfaction in urban China: Components and determinants. World Development, 36, 2325–2340. CrossRef
Bjørnskov, C., Gupta, N., & Pedersen, P. (2008). Analysing trends in subjective well-being in 15 European countries, 1973–2002. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 317–330. CrossRef
Blanchflower, D. G., & Oswald, A. J. (2004). Well-being over time in Britain and the USA. Journal of Public Economics, 88, 1359–1386. CrossRef
Brockmann, H., Delhey, J., Welzel, C., & Yuan, H. (2009). The China puzzle: Falling happiness in a rising economy. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10, 387–405. CrossRef
Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations, and satisfactions. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Chamberlain, K., & Zika, S. (1992). Stability and change in subjective well-being over short time periods. Social Indicators Research, 26, 101–117. CrossRef
China, National Bureau of Statistics of. (2011). Per capita annual income and engel’s coefficient of urban and rural households. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2011/indexch.htm 2012/06/15.
Costa, P. T., McCrae, R. R., & Zonderman, A. B. (1987). Environmental and dispositional influences on well-being: Longitudinal follow-up of an American national sample. British Journal of Psychology, 78, 299–306. CrossRef
Cummins, R. A. (1995). On the trail of the gold standard for subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 35, 179–200. CrossRef
Davey, G., & Rato, R. (2012). Subjective wellbeing in China: A review. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13, 333–346. CrossRef
Davidson, R. J. (2000). Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: Brain mechanisms and plasticity. The American psychologist, 55, 1196–1214. CrossRef
Di Tella, R., & MacCulloch, R. (2008). Gross national happiness as an answer to the Easterlin Paradox? Journal of Development Economics, 86, 22–42. CrossRef
Di Tella, R., MacCulloch, R. J., & Oswald, A. J. (2003). The macroeconomics of happiness. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 85, 809–827. CrossRef
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575. CrossRef
Diener, E., & Diener, C. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological Science, 7, 181–185. CrossRef
Diener, E., Diener, M., & Diener, C. (1995). Factors predicting the subjective well-being of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 851–864. CrossRef
Diener, E., Sandvik, E., Seidlitz, L., & Diener, M. (1993). The relationship between income and subjective well-being: Relative or absolute? Social Indicators Research, 28, 195–223. CrossRef
Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1997). Measuring quality of life: Economic, social, and subjective indicators. Social Indicators Research, 40, 189–216. CrossRef
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302. CrossRef
Dolan, P., Layard, R., Metcalfe, R., & ONS. (2011). Measuring subjective well-being for public policy: Recommnendations on measures.
Dolan, P., Peasgood, T., & White, M. (2008). Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being. Journal of Economic Psychology, 29, 94–122. CrossRef
Easterlin, R. (1974). Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence. In P. A. David & M. W. Reder (Eds.), Nations and household in economic growth: Essays in honour of moses: New York and London: Academic Press.
Easterlin, R. (1995). Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 27, 35–47. CrossRef
Easterlin, R. (2009). Lost in transition: Life satisfaction on the road to capitalism. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 71, 130–145. CrossRef
Easterlin, R., McVey, L. A., Switek, M., Sawangfa, O., & Zweig, J. S. (2010). The happiness–income paradox revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 22463–22468. CrossRef
Easterlin, R., Morgan, R., Switek, M., & Wang, F. (2012). China’s life satisfaction, 1990–2010. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(25), 1–6. CrossRef
Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A., & Frijters, P. (2004). How important is methodology for the estimates of the determinants of happiness? The Economic Journal, 114, 641–659. CrossRef
Frey, B. S., & Stutzer, A. (2002). Happiness and economics: How the economy and institutions affect human well-being. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hagerty, M. R., & Veenhoven, R. (2003). Wealth and happiness revisited—Growing national income does go with greater happiness. Social Indicators Research, 64, 1–27. CrossRef
Helliwell, J. F., & Huang, H. (2008). How’s your government? International evidence linking good government and well-being. British Journal of Political Science, 38, 595–619. CrossRef
Helliwell, J., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. (2012). World happiness report. Earth Institute.
Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic, and political change in 43 societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Inglehart, R., Foa, R., Peterson, C., & Welzel, C. (2008a). Development, freedom, and rising happiness: A global perspective (1981–2007). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 264–285. CrossRef
Inglehart, R., Foa, R., & Welzel, C. (2008a). Happiness trends in 24 countries, 1946–2006. In World values survey, vol. 2012.
Inglehart, R., & Klingemann, H.-D. (2000). Genes, culture, democracy, and happiness. In E. Diener & E. Suh (Eds.), Culture and subjective well-being (pp. 165–184). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Kahneman, D., & Krueger, A. B. (2006). Developments in the measurement of subjective well-being. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20, 3–24. CrossRef
Knight, J., & Gunatilaka, R. (2010). Great expectations? The subjective well-being of rural–urban migrants in China. World Development, 38, 113–124. CrossRef
Knight, J., & Gunatilaka, R. (2011). Does economic growth raise happiness in China? Oxford Development Studies, 39, 1–24. CrossRef
Lane, R. (2001). The loss of happiness in market democracies. New Haven, London: Yale University Press.
Layard, R. (2005). Happiness: Lessons from a new science. New York: Penguin Books.
Li, L., Liu, M., & O’Brien, K. J. (2012). Petitioning Beijing: The high tide of 2003–2006. The China Quarterly FirstView: 1–22.
Miller, T. I., & Miller, M. A. (1991). Standards of excellence: US residents’ evaluations of local government services. Public Administration Review, 51, 503–514. CrossRef
Ng, Y.-K. (1996). Happiness surveys: Some comparability issues and an exploratory survey based on just perceivable increments. Social Indicators Research, 38, 1–27. CrossRef
Ng, Y.-K. (1997). A case for happiness, cardinalism, and interpersonal comparability. The Economic Journal, 107, 1848–1858. CrossRef
Oswald, A. J. (1997). Happiness and economic performance. The Economic Journal, 107, 1815–1831. CrossRef
Pouwels, B., Siegers, J., & Vlasblom, J. D. (2008). Income, working hours, and happiness. Economics Letters, 99, 72–74. CrossRef
Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, J. (2008). Economic growth and subjective well-being: Reassessing the Easterlin paradox. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1,1–87.
Stiglitz, J. E., Sen, A., & Fitoussi, J-P. (2009). Report by the commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. Paris.
UNDP. (2011). International human development indicators. vol. 2012.
Urry, H. L., Nitschke, J. B., Dolski, I., Jackson, D. C., Dalton, K. M., Mueller, C. J., et al. (2004). Making a life worth living: Neural correlates of well-being. Psychological Science, 15, 367–372. CrossRef
Veenhoven, R. (1991). Is happiness relative? Social Indicators Research, 24, 1–34. CrossRef
Veenhoven, R. (1993). Happiness in nations: Subjective appreciation of life in 56 nations 1946–1992. http://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1990s/93b-con.html 2012/05/28.
Veenhoven, R. (2009). The international scale interval study: Improving the comparability of responses to survey questions about happiness. Quality of life and the millennium challenge. In V. Møller & D. Huschkapp (Eds.), Social indicators research series (Vol. 35, pp. 45–58). Netherlands: Springer.
Veenhoven, R., & Hagerty, M. (2006). Rising happiness in nations 1946–2004: A reply to easterlin. Social Indicators Research, 79, 421–436. CrossRef
- The Time Trend of Life Satisfaction in China
John W. Raine
- Springer Netherlands
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta