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2022 | Buch

The Transdisciplinary Reach of Design Science Research

17th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, DESRIST 2022, St Petersburg, FL, USA, June 1–3, 2022, Proceedings


Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, DESRIST 2022, held in Tampa, FL, USA, in June 2022.

The 37 revised full research papers, included in the volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 103 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: ​Transdisciplinary Research & DSR (theme Track); Blockchain Information Systems; Intelligent Systems and Human Interaction; Healthcare Systems and Quality of Life; Innovation and Entrepreneurship; Sustainability and Responsible Design (Environmental Issues, Human Values and ethical Design); Human Safety and Cybersecurity; Emerging DSR Methods and Processes; Designers and Collaborative DSR; and Education and DSR.



Transdisciplinary Research and DSR (Theme Track)

An Information Systems Design Theory for Digital Broker Platforms

Service platforms are becoming dominant drivers of daily business operations in a digitalized environment. Research focuses on technological and network effects of such platforms, while socio-technical opportunities remain limited. Guidance support in selecting appropriate digital services on a multisided market platform may help companies with low domain knowledge as it increases their benefits by reducing existing barriers in adopting emerging technologies. We adapt the concept of a broker to a digital platform, which instantiates guidance support on multisided markets as core platform element. Further, we abstract the concept of a digital broker platform as an Information Systems (IS) design theory. By providing the necessary components of an IS design theory, we offer the possibility to derive digital broker platform artifacts, which are theoretically and conceptually grounded. We provide design principles for the method artifact and describe their applicability in an exemplary instantiation of the design theory in the domain of cloud computing. Lastly, we present the artifact’s mutability as well as its testable propositions.

Katja Bley, Raoul Hentschel, Ilias Pappas
Morphological Analysis for Design Science Research: The Case of Human-Drone Collaboration in Emergencies

Drones are becoming pervasive in private and professional settings. The engineering of human-drone collaboration poses unique challenges. Specifically, drones’ distinctive capabilities yield a vast design space. Yet, the relevant guidance is scattered across literature such that an overview of various design dimensions is missing. This paper synthesizes adequate research and provides an overview of essential design dimensions in the form of a morphological box (MB) to support designers of drones for emergencies. Using this MB, practitioners and researchers become aware of design decisions they will have to make when designing drones or collaboration between drones and humans. It prevents fragmented or partial perspectives on drones design and provides a basis for structured, holistic design explorations. Using the case of drones, we discuss the potential of morphological analysis for design science research (DSR). New types of sociotechnical systems involve a vast, multidimensional design space, and singular studies frequently address domain or discipline-specific subsections of this space. We claim that morphological analysis supports a systematic exploration of the design space across disciplinary boundaries and might contribute towards a more transparent and traceable design of DSR artifacts.

Mateusz Dolata, Kiram Ben Aleya
A Personalized Conversational Agent to Treat Depression in Youth and Young Adults – A Transdisciplinary Design Science Research Project

Depression is a large-scale and consequential problem in youth and young adults. Conversational agents (CAs) can contribute to addressing current barriers to seeking treatment, such as long waiting lists, and reduce the high dropout rates reported for other digital health interventions. However, existing CAs have not considered differences between youth and adults and are primarily designed based on a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach that neglects individual symptoms and preferences. Therefore, we propose a theory-driven design for personalized CAs to treat depression in youth and young adults. Based on interviews with patients (i.e., people diagnosed with depression), we derive two design principles to personalize the character of the CA and its therapeutic content. These principles are instantiated in prototypes and evaluated in interviews with experts experienced in delivering psychotherapy and potential nondiagnosed users. Personalization was perceived as crucial for treatment success, and autonomy and transparency emerged as important themes for personalization. We contribute by providing design principles for personalized CAs for mental health that extend previous CA research in the context of mental health.

Florian Onur Kuhlmeier, Ulrich Gnewuch, Stefan Lüttke, Eva-Lotta Brakemeier, Alexander Mädche
Design Principles for Boundary Spanning in Transdisciplinary Design Science Research

Design principles capture prescriptive design knowledge to guide design science researchers and design professionals in their design works. In the context of a transdisciplinary team, design principles can also be a powerful vehicle to bridge knowledge barriers and facilitate collaboration among team members with different backgrounds and expertise. These heterogeneous actors use design principles as a boundary object which helps to mediate their diverse perspectives. The paper draws from boundary object theory to explore the goals and the mechanisms of boundary spanning through ‘design principles-in-use’ and ‘design principles-in-formulation’. We discuss the applicability of our findings using a case of formulation and application of design principles for data spaces in a transdisciplinary research consortium. Our results add the layers of transdisciplinary collaboration to the ongoing discourse on design principles and design knowledge accumulation and evolution.

Frederik Möller, Leona Chandra Kruse, Thorsten Schoormann, Boris Otto
Toward an Information Systems Ontology

We introduce the Information Systems Ontology (ISO), a new ontology for the Information Systems (IS) discipline designed to enable automated knowledge synthesis and meta-analysis of research findings in IS. We constructed ISO in a methodical manner, following known best practices for ontology construction. We also conducted a series of ontology refinement steps in which we compared and extended ISO by extracting and examining both overlapping and missing key phrases from scientific articles and existing classification schemas. To evaluate ISO, we extracted author-defined keywords from more than 7,000 articles of the senior scholars’ basket of journals and measured terminological coverage. In one experiment, we found that our ontology included 3.6 times more author-defined keywords than an established classification schema for IS. In the future, we plan to use ISO to automatically annotate important IS terms and concepts in IS articles to help synthesize and analyze knowledge in IS.

Roland M. Mueller, Sebastian Huettemann, Kai R. Larsen, Sen Yan, Abram Handler
Supporting Product Development by a Trend Analysis Tool Applying Aspect-Based Sentiment Detection

Incorporating product trends into innovation processes is imperative for companies to meet customers’ expectations and to stay competitive in fiercely opposing markets. Currently, aspect-based sentiment analysis has proven an effective approach for investigating and tracking towards products and corresponding features from social media. However, existing trend analysis tools on the market that offer aspect-based sentiment analysis capabilities, do not meet the requirements regarding the use case Product Development. Therefore, based on these requirements, we implemented an artifact by following the design science research. We applied our tool to real-world social media data (37,638 Yelp reviews) from one major fast-food restaurant in the US, and thereby demonstrated that our tool is capable of identifying remarkable and fine-grained product trends.

Janik Wörner, Daniel Konadl, Isabel Schmid, Susanne Leist

Blockchain Information Systems

Transient Random Number Seeds in Permissionless Blockchain Systems

Permissionless blockchain systems are highly dependent on probabilistic decision models, for example, the block addition process. If it were possible to use blockchain systems as pseudo-random number generators, they could be used to select, for example, new block proposers. The first step in this process is to embed random number seeds in the blockchain for use in pseudo-random number generation. This paper proposes transient random number seeds (TRNS), which produce random number seeds as part of each transaction. TRNS, belonging to each recipient in a transaction and are confidential, tamper-resistant, unpredictable, collision-resistant, and publicly verifiable. TRNS enable recipients to produce pseudo-random numbers to participate in any process where the blockchain system depends on random selection. The TRNS protocol is highly scalable with constant computational complexity and space complexity linear in the number of transactions per block.

Riaan Bezuidenhout, Wynand Nel, Jacques Maritz
Blockchain-Enabled Secure and Smart Healthcare System

Technology has developed over the years, making our lives easier. The healthcare sector has benefited from the advancement in technology, leading to an increase in the average life expectancy of human beings. However, there are several problems with the way the sector functions. There is a lack of transparency in the healthcare system, which results in inherent trust problems between patients and hospitals. There is no guarantee of getting the proper treatment from the hospital for the fee charged. Blockchain integrated with the smart contract is a well-known disruptive technology that builds trust by providing transparency to the system. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-enabled Secure and Smart HealthCare System. Fairness of the two entities, patient and hospital, involved in the system are guaranteed if they behave honestly. Privacy and security of patients’ medical data are ensured as well. We have implemented the prototype in the Ethereum platform and Ropsten test network and have included the analysis as well.

Debendranath Das, Amudhan Muthaiah, Sushmita Ruj

Intelligent Systems and Human Interaction

Can Artificial Intelligence Help Used-Car Dealers Survive in a Data-Driven Used-Car Market?

The used-car market is notoriously untrustworthy and shady. Certified data has been shown to help mitigate the information asymmetry, one of the major factors to an untrustworthy market. In recent times, more and more used-car dealers have had problems surviving in this competitive data-driven market. In this study, we conduct 12 interviews with used-car dealers and several meetings and workshops with employees and executives from the AMAG Group, one of the largest automotive companies in Switzerland. This creates insight into current problems for used-car dealers and how artificial intelligence can help. The problems can be abstracted to the problem of high transaction cost and its subcategories. In reducing transaction costs by utilizing artificial intelligence, new secondary problems arise. People need to trust the certificate, the analytics, and the predictions. Additionally, the data and analytics need to be transparent and understandable, and privacy concerns must be addressed. The implications of this study are manifold. First, we define the problems for used-car dealers on the used-car market and introduce artificial intelligence approaches to the current data-driven used-car market. Afterward, we stress that artificial intelligence needs to follow a human-centered perspective and be designed for trust.

Sven Eckhardt, Kilian Sprenkamp, Liudmila Zavolokina, Ingrid Bauer, Gerhard Schwabe
Assessing the Reusability of Design Principles in the Realm of Conversational Agents

Conversational Agents (CAs) provide the means to foster user experience design through seizing their interaction capability, knowledgeability, and human-like behavior. To support practice and academia in designing CAs, IS researchers have been creating design knowledge in the form of design principles (DPs) guided by the Design Science paradigm. However, scientific literature in this vein is dispersed and lacks an axis of cohesion and transferability to sustained practice usage. This raises the question of reusability of design principles in the realm of CAs. Therefore, in this study, we conduct a Systematic Literature Review to retrieve and assess design principles of existing design science papers dealing with CAs with regard to their reusability. Our findings indicate that the Design Science community, in our case in the domain of CAs, seems to face challenges in creating reusable design principles. We discuss this observation and provide avenues on how to move forward.

Edona Elshan, Christian Engel, Philipp Ebel, Dominic Siemon
Let’s Team Up with AI! Toward a Hybrid Intelligence System for Online Customer Service

Customers desire convenient, fast, and personalized service encounters. Hence, service companies deploy self-service technology for online customer service. However, as solutions based on Artificial Intelligence cannot reliably answer the full range of requests and the demands on service employees (SEs) in live chat interaction are high, Hybrid Intelligence Systems (HIS) provide great potential to overcome current pitfalls by combining the complementary strengths of artificial and human intelligence. To ensure optimal performance of this socio-technical ensemble, human-centered design approaches are needed to realize real-time augmentation of decision-making in chat-based service encounters. Following a Design Science Research approach, we generate theory-based design principles (DPs) and implement them in a web-based HIS prototype. We contribute to Hybrid Intelligence research with results showing that the DPs enable task mastery and decision efficiency and provide avenues for future research.

Mathis Poser, Christina Wiethof, Debayan Banerjee, Varun Shankar Subramanian, Richard Paucar, Eva A. C. Bittner
Gamified Expert Annotation Systems: Meta-Requirements and Tentative Design

Poorly annotated data is a common problem for data-intensive applications like supervised machine learning. In domains like healthcare, annotation tasks require specific domain knowledge and are thus often done manually by experts, which is error-prone, time-intensive, and tedious. In this study, we investigate gamification as a means to foster annotation quality through annotators’ increased motivation and engagement. To this end, we conducted a literature review of 70 studies as well as a series of 16 workshops with a team of six experts in medical image annotation. We derive a set of seven meta-requirements (MRs) that represent the desired instrumental and experiential outcomes of gamified expert annotation systems (e.g., high-quality annotations, a sense of challenge) as well as a tentative design that can address the derived MRs. Our results help to understand the inner workings of gamification in the context of expert annotation and lay important groundwork for designing gamified expert annotation systems that can successfully motivate annotators and increase annotation quality.

Simon Warsinsky, Manuel Schmidt-Kraepelin, Scott Thiebes, Martin Wagner, Ali Sunyaev

Healthcare Systems and Quality of Life

Guiding Refugees Through European Bureaucracy: Designing a Trustworthy Mobile App for Document Management

After being granted asylum in European countries, refugees need to go through a multitude of administrative processes before they can participate in society. However, these processes are often challenging, as refugees struggle to understand them, lack instructions for managing paperwork, and do not possess the required language skills. Prior research emphasizes the role of information and communication technologies to simplify and enable refugee-friendly administrative processes. However, recent research and existing applications mainly focus on information retrieval and do not offer assistance for understanding official letters, completing administrative forms, and managing corresponding documents. Furthermore, refugees are often reluctant to use existing applications as they do not trust their host country’s governments and public authorities. In this research, we aim to address this functional and trust gap. We follow a design science research approach to develop a design for a refugee-centric and trustworthy mobile application that assists refugees along administrative processes. In doing so, we identify three design principles that may guide the development of such applications for refugees.

Alexandre Amard, Alexandra Hoess, Tamara Roth, Gilbert Fridgen, Alexander Rieger
Just What the Doctor Ordered – Towards Design Principles for NLP-Based Systems in Healthcare

Patient data is mainly transmitted in the form of unstructured free texts in medical documentation. Natural language processing (NLP)-based systems can help to structure and extract information from these free texts to support the work of healthcare professionals. However, the healthcare sector must meet certain information quality requirements to comply with regulations and provide optimal patient care. Therefore, we argue that a design guideline is needed to tailor NLP-based systems to the unique requirements of clinical processes and to catalyze the practical application of such systems. In this paper, we report the results of a design science research study, focusing on the requirements of NLP-based systems used by healthcare professionals. In doing so, we shed light on the needs of practitioners when working with sophisticated NLP-based systems that extract and analyze text-based information from medical documentation. By providing evaluated, testable propositions and detailed design principles, we support the practical endeavor of such systems.

Marvin Braun, Aycan Aslan, Till Ole Diesterhöft, Maike Greve, Alfred Benedikt Brendel, Lutz M. Kolbe
A Digitization Pipeline for Mixed-Typed Documents Using Machine Learning and Optical Character Recognition

Although digitization is advancing rapidly, a large amount of data processed by companies is in printed format. Technologies such as Optical Character Recognition (OCR) support the transformation of printed text into machine-readable content. However, OCR struggles when data on documents is highly unstructured and includes non-text objects. This, e.g., applies to documents such as medical prescriptions. Leveraging Design Science Research (DSR), we propose a flexible processing pipeline that can deal with character recognition on the one hand and object detection on the other hand. To do so, we derive Design Requirements (DR) in cooperation with a practitioner doing prescription billing in the healthcare domain. We then developed a prototype blueprint that is applicable to similar problem formulations. Overall, we contribute to research and practice in multiple ways. First, we provide evidence for selected OCR methods provided by previous research. Second, we design a machine-learning-based digitization pipeline for printed documents containing both text and non-text objects in the context of medical prescriptions. Third, we derive a nascent design pattern for this type of document digitization. These patterns are the foundation for further research and can support the development of innovative information systems leading to more efficient decision making and thus to economic resource usage.

Tizian Matschak, Florian Rampold, Malte Hellmeier, Christoph Prinz, Simon Trang
Fathers with Postpartum Depression: A Problem Space Exploration

Postpartum depression (PPD) for men is a significant but little-understood public health concern that affects ~14% of men in the US. It has not received adequate attention from society, researchers or health practitioners. This paper describes results from problem space exploration for this concern as the first step in a design science research process. Following the double-diamond model of design thinking, we describe two iterations. The first relies on qualitative analysis of data obtained from a social media platform to extract themes that describe pain points of new fathers. The second uses a participatory design exercise to identify personas and meta-requirements. Member-checking and triangulation efforts following the two iterations validate our findings that provide a rich understanding of this public health concern. A secondary contribution of our work is a demonstration of how design thinking techniques can be used within a design science research process to enhance the relevance cycle. We conclude by pointing to next steps for developing design science solutions in response to the problem.

Pavankumar Mulgund, Sandeep Purao, Lavlin Agrawal
A Design Science Approach to Blood Donation Apps

The COVID-19 pandemic has put additional pressure on the healthcare systems worldwide. It also led to a significant shortage of blood products. Delaying surgeries resulted in an increased demand at peak times that aligned with a decrease in blood donations at the same time. While being crucial for many surgeries and also certain types of treatments, blood cannot be produced artificially, but healthcare systems rely on voluntary donations. The relatively short shelf-life of most products makes a close matching of demand and supply necessary. We argue that smartphone applications can help to motivate donors to donate blood when necessary, giving access to all relevant information and services. By applying the design science research methodology, we derived design principles for effective smartphone applications and present a conceptual model in the form of mock-ups. We performed two design cycles and evaluated the design principles and the conceptual model with regular, lapsed, first-time and non-donors from Germany in a focus group discussion.

Helena M. Müller, Melanie Reuter-Oppermann

Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Developing an Innovation Accounting System for a Professional Service Firm: A Design Science Research Project

This paper reports on a design science project developing an innovation accounting system for a professional service firm. Innovation accounting is an approach to track the progress of innovation activities. Although the subject of study has a defined product innovation process, there is a lack of measurable information on the outcomes of innovation activities. This implies a blind spot in the effective allocation of resources in innovation activities. In this paper a design science approach is used to bridge the existing concepts on innovation accounting and the needs of user groups. The output of the paper is a conceptual solution design for an innovation accounting system in the context of the product innovation process for a professional service firm. The learnings from the study are transferred into design propositions by using the CIMO-logic. This paper contributes to the body of design knowledge on innovation accounting in professional service firms.

Simon David Arsenidis, Christoph Seckler
Market of Makers – How to Promote Corporate Entrepreneurship with an Effectuation Intervention

Corporate entrepreneurship is a challenge for organizations and their employees, for example because of structural rigidities or inertia. A promising approach of how to spark corporate entrepreneurship lies in effectuation research. Effectuation is a mode of action or decision-making logic that is based on empirical evidence from expert entrepreneurs. Following a Design Science Research (DSR) methodology, we develop and implement an effectuation intervention at a German multinational corporation. The intervention consists of two basic parts: The Market of Makers, an event that leads participants through the effectual process, and the Speedboat Regatta, a 3-months long project development phase. The intervention successfully generated 23 projects that identified opportunities for process innovation. This study contributes to design knowledge, theory and practice. First, we designed a blueprint for similar effectuation interventions and are able to formulate four design principles, which show how voluntariness, playfulness, and constraints enable effectuation and promote corporate entrepreneurship. Second, we contribute to corporate entrepreneurship theory by showing that effectuation is promising for approaching corporate entrepreneurship’s theoretical and empirical problems. Third, we contribute to practice by demonstrating that interventions based on effectuation may shift employees towards leading and engaging with innovative projects.

Sophia Marie Braun, René Mauer
How to Make Smart Collaboration Work in Multidisciplinary Teams

A key capability to work in multidisciplinary teams is smart collaboration. While previous research has elaborated on starting smart collaboration in firms, less is known about how to move smart collaboration from initial starting projects towards excellent implementation. In this design science project, we address this question and develop design knowledge on how to move smart collaboration from good to great in a firm working with multidisciplinary teams. We outline a situated artifact for the collaborating firm (i.e., The Firm) and infer more general design principles based on this study. This study contributes in three ways. First, it develops a situated artifact for improving smart collaboration in a firm relying on multidisciplinary teams. Second, it develops more general design principles on improving smart collaboration in professional service firms. Third, it provides initial empirical evidence for the quality of the proposed design object.

Jolanda Burgers-Pas, Christoph Seckler
The Chimera of the Simple Organization: What is the Relevant Design Knowledge Needed to Guide Small Business Digital Transformation?

The digital transformation of small businesses is different from larger businesses. Applying large business management approaches on a smaller scale may lead to missed opportunities to achieve meaningful digital transformation. In this paper, we explore what is the relevant design knowledge needed to guide small business digital transformation. To answer this question, we systematically reviewed small business and IS literature to identify seven key characteristics relevant to digital transformation. Based on these characteristics, we propose 20 mechanisms for small business digital transformation that are justified and illustrated using retrospective analysis of nine different cases across three continents. While some of the mechanisms are well known and relate to larger organizations, we also identified mechanisms that are unique to the small business context. With that, our contributions are twofold. We contribute to theory by identifying relevant design knowledge for small business digital transformation, and to practice by proposing mechanisms and real-world examples, especially for the design of small business platform providers.

Sarah Hönigsberg, Malshika Dias, Barbara Dinter, Munir Mandviwalla
Models of Impact: A Methodology and a Toolkit to Generate Sustainable Business Models

In this paper, we address the challenge of how social entrepreneurs can create a business model that can generate revenue while at the same time have an impact on society. We describe a novel methodology that we call Models of Impact (MOI) along with a toolkit. MOI has been used by thousands of entrepreneurs worldwide who have found it to be extremely useful. We present its usefulness and efficacy through a variety of use case studies.

Matthew Manos, Samir Chatterjee, Nagla Alnosayan

Sustainability and Responsible Design (Environmental Issues, Human Values and Ethical Design)

Towards Designing Smart Home Energy Applications for Effective Use

To reduce climate change, considerable behavioral changes are required from private households, who often have a low energy literacy and are therefore unaware of the necessary behavioral change.We introduce a Design Science Research project with the aim to increase energy literacy. To this end, we contribute a theory-grounded design theory for a Smart Home Energy Application based on effective use.In comparison to previous approaches for designing Smart Home Energy Applications, the design process is user-centered.We combine semi-structured interviews with a structured survey and a literature review to derive meta requirements and deduct preliminary design principles mapping them to a prototype.The intermediate results of this study inform research and practice by providing valuable insights on how users interact with a Smart Home Energy Application. The design principles enable the design of information systems allowing for effective use and contribute to a more sustainable energy behavior of households.

Saskia Bluhm, Philipp Staudt, Christof Weinhardt

Human Safety and Cybersecurity

Designing Information Security Culture Artifacts to Improve Security Behavior: An Evaluation in SMEs

This article examines the relationship between the information system security culture and the security behaviors of users of the information system (IS). This research follows the design science in information systems research guidelines proposed by [43] to conceptualize the IS security culture in its context, where we propose a model based on Schein’s three-level culture model (1985) [15], and evaluated at the level of our research context, which is SMEs, through a qualitative study conducted with twenty-two users belonging to eight French small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The results of this study show that there is a strong relationship between IS security culture and user behaviors related to IS security, in the sense that a positive security culture is conducive to the creation of security behaviors.

Olfa Ismail

Emerging DSR Methods and Processes

Toward a Method for Reviewing Software Artifacts from Practice

Solving real-world problems with innovative and novel artifacts is at the core of design science research (DSR). Given DSR’s emphasis on a strong connection to the real-world, artifacts for solving a particular problem may not only be described in extant literature, but also exist in practice. This is particularly the case for software artifacts. Therefore, DSR scholars need to explore the state of the art and demonstrate the novelty of their software artifact relative to existing artifacts in research and practice. However, while methodological guidance for conducting literature reviews is abundant, there is little guidance on how to review software artifacts from practice. This paper takes a first step toward addressing this gap by proposing and illustrating a seven-step method for reviewing software artifacts from practice. Our research provides actionable guidance for DSR scholars on how to support the claim that their software artifact constitutes a substantial contribution to knowledge.

Ulrich Gnewuch, Alexander Maedche
SeniorDT: A Design Thinking-Based Approach to Requirements Engineering Involving Elderly Users

Organizations are challenged to design solutions that increase the quality of life and well-being of elderly people because they inadequately understand the needs of this specific target group. Design thinking (DT) is a promising methodological framework for understanding the wants and needs of users. However, DT’s fast and highly interactive style is not fully inclusive, making it ill-suited for elderly participants. This research presents the SeniorDT framework, which affords opportunities for including elderly participants in a multi-stakeholder setting. Our framework is developed using the action design research methodology, which builds on field data gathered during a long-term DT project. On this basis, we derive theoretical and practical implications for conducting DT with older participants.

Alexandra Jussli, Kathrin Kim, Heiko Gewald, Jason Thatcher
A Granular View of Knowledge Development in Design Science Research

Design science research (DSR) should contribute to both the prescriptive and descriptive knowledge bases. Despite its maturity, a granular understanding of how DSR develops knowledge, while utilizing and contributing prescriptive and descriptive knowledge, remains incomplete. Creating such a granular understanding requires a detailed typology of design knowledge, a unifying vocabulary of operations, and an identification of which operations can be applied to produce different knowledge types. We propose that “triplets of dynamic knowledge”, relating source and target knowledge types through operations, can be defined, and combined to develop design knowledge. We provide a vocabulary of operations on knowledge types and investigate the relationships between knowledge types and operations. We illustrate triplets that can improve fitness, projectability or confidence. The goals of the granular view of knowledge development are to guide researchers without constraining them, and to progress a finer-grained description and accumulation of knowledge development in DSR.

Nicolas Prat, Jacky Akoka, Isabelle Comyn-Wattiau, Veda C. Storey
Towards a Scheme for Contribution in Action Design Research

Researchers are increasingly asked to engage with industry in research projects and contribute to both practice and academia. Action Design Research (ADR) is gaining traction in IS due to its potential to achieve this dual goal. While the practical utility of ADR projects is obvious, the role of design science research (DSR) in knowledge abstraction and accumulation is still unclear and the subject of much discussion. Some scholars suggest DSR should build theory, some that it should test theory, while others suggest that its contributions lie elsewhere. While the elaborated ADR model of Mullarkey and Hevner (2019) clarified the potential for artefactual contributions at different abstraction levels throughout the research process, other types of contribution were left for further research. Drawing on reflections from an ongoing research project using ADR, as well as research on theorizing and DSR contributions, we present a tentative conceptual scheme that considers both empirical, artefactual, theory building, and theory testing opportunities in ADR. We discuss the benefits of the scheme in identifying contribution opportunities and reflect on its utility in research design for industrially engaged DSR.

Casper Solheim Bojer, Charles Møller

Designers and Collaborative DSR

Action Design Research – Models for Researcher-Practitioner Collaboration

One essential characteristic of the Action Design Research (ADR) method is researcher-practitioner collaboration (RPC). The purpose of this paper is to present theoretical models for RPC collaboration in ADR projects. The models involve conditions, actions, and consequences concerning RPC challenges. A grounded theory approach was applied to identify the RPC challenges. The challenges were identified in a collaborative ADR project consisting of four researchers and nine organizations from the industry sector. The identified main challenges are: researcher intervention in practitioner contexts, reciprocal shaping between artifacts and design principles emerged from theory and practice, and researcher and practitioner learning. The contribution to practice, which consists of future ADR projects involving collaboration between researchers and practitioners, involves specific actions to be taken.

Stefan Cronholm, Hannes Göbel
Are Journals and Repositories Enough? Design Knowledge Accumulation as a Diffusion of Innovation Practice

The accumulation of the design knowledge (DK) resulting from Design Science Research (DSR) requires other DSR researchers to appropriate, use, evaluate, modify, and/or extend prior DSR artifacts. Unfortunately, much DK (especially software artifacts) is never appropriated by other researchers for further DSR activity. The lack of take-up of DSR outcomes by other researchers represents a significant waste of resources, reduces the contribution of a DSR project and, most significantly, is a major barrier to the accumulation of DSR knowledge. We believe this problem is mainly a social one. DK appropriation is a decision supported by a communication effort, which suggests relevance of Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theory. While journals and repositories can make quality DK and IT artifacts find-able and available for reuse, supplementary and alternative communication channels may better enable and encourage DK appropriation decisions and thereby, DK accumulation longitudinally over multiple DSR projects. Based on this perspective, this paper explores a peer-to-peer decentralized communication pattern for DK dissemination and appropriation for further DSR projects and DK accumulation. Specifically, we propose (1) a model of DK accumulation as a DoI process (2) two new ‘communication channels’ (i.e., Appropriation Sessions and Marketplaces), and (3) questions (based on UTAUT) to (self-)assess the likelihood of new DK appropriation.

Oscar Díaz, John R. Venable, Xabier Garmendia
Analyzing Design Knowledge Representation in Design Science Research and Deriving Recommendations to Support Design Knowledge Codification

The goal of design science research is the generation of novel artifacts. Thereby DSR projects generate valuable design knowledge, thus, underscoring the importance to codify of design knowledge for achieving scientific progress. The research community observes that DSR projects generate a large amount of design knowledge, but the developed knowledge often ends as a single success story. To counter this situation, we analyze the variety of design knowledge representation forms that have been published in the AIS Senior Scholars’ Basket in design science research papers. Based on our systematic literature review, we identify prevalent ways of design knowledge representations. We provide as a central contribution how to effectively communicate design knowledge through the derivation of recommendations that provides practical guidance to support researchers and practitioners in making design knowledge contributions reusable and applicable.

Ernestine Dickhaut, Andreas Janson, Jan Marco Leimeister

Education and DSR

Designing Virtual Toolboxes to Guide Educators in Creating Online Learning

Online learning has gained an increasingly important role at universities, schools, and companies, which was boosted by the pandemic to yet another level. Given that online teaching requires different skills compared to traditional teaching, educators face challenges when creating online learning. Research is looking at these challenges from various perspectives to provide guidance. However, the guidance provided is often not interactive or engaging, and thus does not motivate to explore possibilities in online learning more widely. This paper explores how to design virtual toolboxes to engage and guide educators when creating online learning. Conducting a design science research project, we propose theory-grounded design principles and instantiate them in an interactive toolbox. Our artifact is evaluated with educators from seven European universities to iteratively improve the design foundation. We contribute valuable design knowledge that enables researchers and practitioners to develop tools in the field of online learning. In addition, we propose a novel toolbox that supports educators when creating online courses.

Lea Blecher, Lara Riefle, Tomi Kauppinen
DSR Teaching Support: A Checklist for Better DSR Research Design Presentations

Students that first learn about and wish to apply Design Science Research (DSR) perceive difficulties in communicating DSR research designs. This, however, is an important communication use case, since more senior design researchers need to gain a good understanding of the DSR research design propositions in order to provide adequate feedback and thus, support the new generation of design researchers. This study features an artefact that fills junior design researchers’ unsatisfied need for support in presenting DSR research designs. The artefact was built based on knowledge from the problem environment (i.e., a research methods course) and the emerging body of literature on DSR communication. It is evaluated in a natural field experiment, and the results indicate that the artefact is useful. A contribution of this article is the artefact itself, which is presented explicitly and can be re-used freely by DSR instructors.

Marcel Cahenzli
System Design Principles for Intergenerational Knowledge Sharing

Up to four generations are potentially involved in education and workspaces. This means that people of different generations can increasingly learn together and share knowledge virtually in the digital age. Nevertheless, the principles for designing systems to support intergenerational knowledge sharing (IKS) are inconclusive. Our results demonstrate the value of applying design science research methodology to capture design principles for IKS systems. We articulate what design goals should be considered and bring more conceptual clarity to this phenomenon by presenting five design principles: a) positive personalization, b) progressive design ecosystem, c) effectual system design, d) iterative goal reflection, e) coopetitive intergenerational tasks. By reflecting on the design process and formalizing a class of design principles, we contribute to design-oriented IKS systems in the digital age.

Irawan Nurhas, Xelia Mattick, Stefan Geisler, Jan Pawlowski
User Experience Requirements of Digital Moderation Systems in South Africa: Using Participatory Design Within Design Science Research

The digital transformation within the global educational environment led to a transformation in assessment strategies and the increased use of ICTs in assessments. Digitization offers innovative teaching and learning opportunities. But it also introduces new challenges to current quality assurance processes. A narrative literature review revealed a scarcity of empirical evidence on dedicated digital moderation systems and no representation of teachers’ views could be found. The purpose of this paper is to report on an investigation into the requirements for a digital moderation (eModeration) system to enhance teachers’ user experience (UX) of moderation practices in the school environment. Design science research (DSR) is the paradigm applied to guide the alignment of the findings from a literature review on eModeration requirements with the findings from a Participatory Design (PD) intervention for eliciting UX requirements for an eModeration system. The context is school teachers in South Africa. The methodological contribution of this paper is the transdisciplinary approach of using DSR to guide both the literature review and the PD interaction towards a synthesis of the requirements and the implementation in a prototype eModeration system. The theoretical contribution is the evidence based UX design requirements of an eModeration system.

V. Rajamany, J. A. van Biljon, C. J. van Staden
“Designing” Design Science Research – A Taxonomy for Supporting Study Design Decisions

The Design Science Research (DSR) paradigm is highly relevant to the Information Systems (IS) discipline because DSR aims to improve the state of practice and contribute design knowledge through the systematic construction of useful artefacts. Since study designs can be understood as useful artefacts, DSR can also contribute to improving conceptualizing a research project. This study developed a taxonomy with relevant dimensions and characteristics for DSR research. Such a taxonomy is useful for analyzing existing DSR study designs and successful DSR study design patterns. In addition, the taxonomy is valuable for identifying DSR study design principles (dependencies among characteristics) and subsequently for systematically designing DSR studies. We constructed the DSR study taxonomy through a classification process following the taxonomy development approach of Nickerson et al.

Hanlie Smuts, Robert Winter, Aurona Gerber, Alta van der Merwe
The Transdisciplinary Reach of Design Science Research
herausgegeben von
Andreas Drechsler
Aurona Gerber
Prof. Alan Hevner
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