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In this concluding chapter, Simpson and Hawkins show how after ZANU-PF’s 2013 victory economic growth rates began to falter, unemployment rose, companies again began to close, and agriculture performance remained poor. They analyse how the ruling party, once in full control of monetary and fiscal policy, focused on replenishing its patronage systems and used these instruments to engage again in deficit financing. Corruption gathered pace as securocrats were rewarded with posts in already bankrupt state enterprises and parastatals, Zimbabweans were once again emigrating both legally and illegally in growing numbers, and the country remained a hostage to internal ZANU-PF disputes around the succession question. The military coup of November 2017 is contextualised, and the authors conclude that, leaving aside the short interregnum of the IG, as of 2018 Zimbabwe seems never to have left the downward path towards economic destruction, poverty production and increasing state fragility begun two decades earlier.
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- The Transitions That Weren’t
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