Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The passage of the Water Act 2007 by the Australian Government was an historic moment in the management of the Murray-Darling Basin, a transboundary river system home to 16 Ramsar wetlands and responsible for generating approximately 50% of the country’s irrigated produce (Murray-Darling Basin Authority 2017). The Act sought to end decades of unsustainable water use—principally for irrigated agriculture—by introducing new limits on water extraction across the Basin. The vehicle for achieving this goal, the Basin Plan, was in turn passed in late 2012. However—and contrary to the requirements of the Act—the limits imposed under the Plan were not sustainable, not least of all because they failed to take into account likely, future climate change. Implementation of the Plan’s various sub-instruments and strategies has also been beset by statutory and policy changes that privilege consideration of socio-economic factors over environmental outcomes. This chapter examines the aforementioned reorientation and sets out a series of recommendations intended to restore faith in water reform processes in the Murray-Darling Basin. It is also hoped that this analysis will assist regulators and stakeholders to identify and manage possible barriers to proper implementation of domestic and international water laws in other, transboundary basins.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2010). 1301.0: Year book 2009–10. Feature article: Murray-Darling Basin. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/1301.0Chapter3042009–10.
Australian Government. (2009). Letter to Ramsar Secretariat. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://www.environment.gov.au/water/topics/wetlands/database/pubs/28-art-3-2-notification-20090717.pdf.
Australian Government. (2016). Commonwealth water purchasing in Murray-Darling Basin. Retrieved March 3, 2017, from http://www.agriculture.gov.au/water/markets/commonwealth-water-mdb/.
Australian Government Solicitor (AGS). (2010).The role of social and economic factors in the Basin Plan. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from http://www.aph.gov.au/DocumentStore.ashx?id=dd6cb9d1-a591-48de-97aa-ec31cf91e259.
Australian National Audit Office (ANAO). ANAO Report No. 17, Assurance Review. (2017–2018). Department of Agriculture and Water Resources’ Assessment of New South Wales’ Protection and use of Environmental Water under the National Partnership Agreement on Implementing Water Reform in the Murray-Darling Basin.
Bettles, C. (2016). Irrigators fishing for new CEO. In Queensland country life. 2 November 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2017, from http://www.queenslandcountrylife.com.au/story/4266461/irrigators-fishing-for-new-ceo/?cs=4704.
Colloff, M. J., Caley, P., Saintilan, N., Pollino, C. A., & Crossman, N. D. (2015). Long-term ecological trends of flow-dependent ecosystems in a major regulated river basin. Marine & Freshwater Research,66(11), 957–969. CrossRef
Commonwealth Environmental Water Office. (2013). Environmental Outcomes Report 2012–13. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/cd8b1f80-3ca7-4275-9100-30524335ef75/files/environmental-outcomes-report-12-13.pdf.
Cotton Australia. (2016). Growers call for basin authority to implement complementary measures in northern basin. 13 September 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from http://cottonaustralia.com.au/news/article/growers-call-for-basin-authority-to-implement-complementary-measures-in-nor.
Cunningham, S. C., Griffioen, P., White, M., & Mac Nally, R. (2011). Mapping the condition of river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) and Black Box (Eucalyptus largiflorens F.Muell.) stands in the living murray icon sites. stand condition report 2010. Canberra: Murray‐Darling Basin Authority.
CSIRO. (2017). Reducing Australia’s carp invasion. Retrieved March 05, 2017, from https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/BF/Areas/Invasive-species-and-diseases/Biological-control/Biocontrol-of-carp.
Davies, P. E., Harris, J. H., Hillman, T. J., & Walker, K. F. (2008). A report on the ecological health of rivers in the Murray–Darling Basin 2004–2007, Report by the Independent Sustainable Rivers Audit Group for the Murray–Darling Commission. Canberra: Murray–Darling Basin Commission.
Department of Agriculture and Water Resources. (2016). National carp control plan. Retrieved March 05, 2017, from http://www.agriculture.gov.au/pests-diseases-weeds/pest-animals-and-weeds/national-carp-control-plan.
Department of Agriculture and Water Resources. (2018). Progress of Water Recovery towards Bridging the Gap to the SDLs As at 31 December 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018 from http://www.agriculture.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/water/progress-towards-bridging-gap.pdf.
EDO NSW. (2012). Submission in response to Proposed arrangements for shepherding environmental water in NSW-Draft for consultation, 6 July 2012. Retrieved March 04, 2017, from https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/edonsw/pages/351/attachments/original/1473997289/EDO_NSW_Sub_Shepherding_July_2012.pdf?1473997289.
EDO NSW. (2015). Submission responding to the Draft NSW Pre-requisite Policy Measures-Implementation Plan, 29 May 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2017, from https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/edonsw/pages/2096/attachments/original/1436144311/EDO_Letter_re__PPMs_290515.pdf?1436144311.
EDOs of Australia. (2017). Submission responding to the Northern Basin Review, 24 February 2017. Retrieved March 04, 2017, from https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/edonsw/pages/3625/attachments/original/1488240454/Northern_Basin_Review_EDOs_of_Australia_Submission_Feb_2017.pdf?1488240454.
Grafton, R. Q. (2011). Economic costs and benefits of the proposed basin plan. In D. Connell, & R. Q. Grafton (Eds.), Basin futures: water reform in the Murray-Darling Basin (pp. 245–262). Canberra: ANU E Press.
Grafton, R., Pittock, J., Jiang, Q., Possingham, H., & Quiggin, J. (2014). Water planning and hydro-climatic change in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Ambio,43(8), 1082–1092. CrossRef
Howard, J. (2007). National Plan for Water Security, speech delivered to the National Press Club on 25 January 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/media/pressrel/K81M6/upload_binary/k81m68.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%22media/pressrel/K81M6%22.
Jeffery, C., Delaney, A., Gorman, V., & Shuhvta, B. (2017). Murray-Darling Basin Plan southern review not until 2026. ABC News. 24 January 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017, from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-01-25/10-year-wait-for-murray-darling-basin-plan-southern-review/8211332.
Joint media release with the Deputy Prime Minister, the Hon Barnaby Joyce MP, the Minister for the Environment, the Hon Greg Hunt MP, and the Assistant Minister for Agriculture and Water Resources, Senator the Hon Anne Ruston (2016). Cleaning up Australia’s waterways. Retrieved March 24 2018, from http://minister.industry.gov.au/ministers/pyne/media-releases/cleaning-australias-waterways.
Jones, G., et al. (2002). Independent report of the expert reference panel on environmental flows and water quality requirements for the river Murray system. Canberra: Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology.
Kingsford, R., et al. (2011). A Ramsar wetland in crisis–the Coorong, Lower Lakes and Murray Mouth, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 62, 255–265. CrossRef
Martin, W., & Turner, G. (2015). SDL Adjustment Stocktake Report.
Matthews, K. (2017). Independent investigation into NSW water management and compliance—Interim report.
Murray-Darling Basin Authority. (2010). Guide to the proposed Basin Plan: Technical background. Murray-Darling Basin Authority: Canberra.
Murray-Darling Basin Authority. (2011a). River management–challenges and opportunities. Murray-Darling Basin Authority: Canberra.
Murray-Darling Basin Authority. (2011b). The Proposed 'environmentally sustainable level of take' for surface water of the Murray-Darling Basin: Method and outcomes. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from https://www.mdba.gov.au/sites/default/files/pubs/eslt-mdba-report.pdf.
Murray-Darling Basin Authority. (2012). Hydrologic modelling to inform the proposed Basin Plan: Methods and results. Murray-Darling Basin Authority: Canberra.
Murray-Darling Basin Authority. (2015). The Northern Basin review. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from http://www.mdba.gov.au/sites/default/files/pubs/northern-basin-review.pdf.
Murray-Darling Basin Authority. (2016). Northern Basin review-Technical overview of the socioeconomic analysis. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from https://www.mdba.gov.au/publications/mdba-reports/northern-basin-review-technical-overview-socio-economic-analysis.
Murray-Darling Basin Authority. (2017). Economy of the Basin. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from https://www.mdba.gov.au/discover-basin/people/economy-basin.
Norris R. H., et al. (2001). The Assessment of River Condition (ARC). An audit of the ecological condition of Australian Rivers. Final report submitted to the National Land and Water Resources Audit Office, Canberra, Australia.
NSW Government. (2012). NSW Government submission on the proposed Murray Darling Basin Plan. DPI Water. April 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2017, from http://www.water.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/548898/law_reform_mdb_murray_darling_basin_plan_nsw_govt_response.pdf.
NSW Government. (2018). Better management of environmental water—Consultation paper.
NSW Department of Primary Industries. (2016). Water, Northern Basin review, NSW Synopsis, November 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2017, from http://www.water.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/688790/Northern-Basin-Review-NSW-Synopsis-fact-sheet_161130.pdf.
Ombudsman NSW. (2017). Investigation into water compliance and enforcement 2007-17: A special report to Parliament under section 31 of the Ombudsman Act 1974.
Pittock, J. (2011). Six reasons why the 2011 draft Murray-Darling Basin Plan fails, Global Water Forum, UNESCO. 21 December 2011. Retrieved March 03, 2017, from http://www.globalwaterforum.org/2011/12/21/six-reasons-why-the-2011-draft-murray-darling-basin-plan-fails/.
Pittock, J. (2013). Lessons from adaptation to sustain freshwater environments in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, WIREs Clim Change (unpaginated).
Pittock, J., & Finlayson, M. (2011a). Freshwater ecosystem conservation: Principles versus policy. In D. Connell, & R. Q. Grafton (Eds.), Basin Futures (pp. 39–58). Acton: ANU E Press.
Pittock, J., & Finlayson, M. (2011b). Australia’s Murray-Darling Basin: freshwater ecosystem conservation options in an era of climate change. Marine & Freshwater Research,62(3), 232–243. CrossRef
Pittock, J., Williams, J., & Grafton, R. Q. (2015). The Murray-Darling Basin Plan fails to deal adequately with climate change. Water, 42(6): 28–32.
Rogers, E. (2010). Inquiry called as basin plan anger grows. ABC News, 13 October 2010. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2010-10-14/inquiry-called-as-basin-plan-anger-grows/2298200.
Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists. (2012). Statement on the 2011 Draft Murray-Darling Basin Plan, 18 January 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from http://wentworthgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Statement-on-the-2011-Draft-Basin-Plan.pdf.
Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists. (2017). Submission on the Proposed amendments to the Murray-Darling Basin Plan, 24 February 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from http://wentworthgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Submission-on-Proposed-Amendments-to-Basin-Plan-24Feb.pdf.
Williams, G., & Kildea, P. (2011). The Water Act and Murray-Darling Basin Plan. Public Law Review,22(1), 9–14.
Wittwer, G., & Dixon, P. (2011). Water trading, buybacks and drought in the Murray-Darling Basin: Lessons from Economic Modelling. Centre of Policy Studies Monash University, General Paper No. G-222 September 2011.
Young, W. J., Bond, N., Brookes, J., Gawne, B., & Jones, G. J. (2011). Science review of the estimation of an environmentally sustainable level of take for the Murray–Darling Basin. A report to the Murray–Darling Basin Authority from the CSIRO Water for a Healthy Country Flagship.
Water Sharing Plan for the Barwon-Darling Unregulated and Alluvial Water Sources 2012 (NSW).
Water Act 2007 (Cth).
Water Amendment Bill. (2015) Replacement Explanatory Memorandum.
Basin Plan Amendment (SDL Adjustments) Instrument 2017 (Cth).
State of Victoria v Commonwealth (1996)186 CLR 416; 138 ALR 129.
- The Unwinding of Water Reform in the Murray-Darling Basin: A Cautionary Tale for Transboundary River Systems
- Springer Singapore
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Neuer Inhalt/© julien tromeur | Fotolia