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Air temperatures in cities, particularly after sunset, can be warmer than the air in neighboring (city periphery). Therefore, the temperature on the earth surfaces increases surprisingly up to 60°C. An urban heat island (UHI) is a metropolitan area, which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. The annual indicate air temperature of a city with 1 million people or more can be 1–6°C warmer than its surroundings. In the evening, the difference can be as high as 12°C. The major reason of the UHI is change of the land surface by urban progress; waste heat creates by energy usage is a secondary contributor. As inhabitants centers grow they are inclined to adjust a greater and greater area of land and include an equivalent amplify in average temperature. It is clear today to observe that the negative effect of UHI in the center of many arid climates cities, over physical frameworks of the city; we can sense the typical UHI phenomenon by a large negative effect on summer.
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- The Urban Heat Island Phenomenon upon Urban Components
- Springer London
- Chapter 10