Skip to main content

2024 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

2. The Water, Food, and Environmental Security Nexus

verfasst von : Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum, Rakhshanda Kousar, Muhammad Ashfaq, Mohamed Behnassi

Erschienen in: The Water, Climate, and Food Nexus

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Aktivieren Sie unsere intelligente Suche, um passende Fachinhalte oder Patente zu finden.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

Water, food, and environment are not only essential components of human life and existence but are also important for the economy. Given their interdependence, it is increasingly imperative to study them from a nexus perspective. Water is essential for daily life, industry, and agriculture and originates from varied underground and surface sources. The decreasing quality of water due to anthropogenic activities—such as pollution induced by industrialization, unsustainable agriculture and the wide use of toxic materials—contributes to water insecurity worldwide. Moreover, the underground water is being over-pumped in large quantities across in many regions, which results in water scarcity. Biological and technological advancements including hybrid seeds, improved irrigation facilities, efficient fertilizers use, effective disease and pest control, and efficient farm machinery in agricultural sector globally have contributed to increase the food production. Also, progress is being made in terms of economic development and growth but the sufficient and quality food is not available to the entire population for many reasons, including access and governance issues. Increasing food prices, unemployment, lack of opportunities and consumption smoothing make it difficult for the poor to access sufficient food. The natural environment is also on the verge of deterioration and degradation due to anthropogenic activities. Over and inefficient use of natural resources and unsustainable development have harmed the environment, sometimes irreversibly. Hence, this chapter aims at analyzing the different dimensions of water, food, and environment from a nexus perspective for a better understanding of the linkages between them and thus guide public policies aiming at fighting poverty, food insecurity and vulnerability while promoting a healthy environment for present and next generations.

Sie haben noch keine Lizenz? Dann Informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Fußnoten
2
Per day water intake by adult male is 3.7 L and 2.7 L for a woman (Sawka et al. 2005), and the average calculated is 3.2 L/day. The rest of calculation is: (39,800/3.2)/365 = 34.07.
 
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Alexandratos N, Bruinsma J (2012) World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision Alexandratos N, Bruinsma J (2012) World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision
Zurück zum Zitat Arnell NW (1999) Climate change and global water resources. Glob Environ Change 9:S31–S49CrossRef Arnell NW (1999) Climate change and global water resources. Glob Environ Change 9:S31–S49CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Barrett CB (2010) Measuring food insecurity. Science 327(5967):825–828CrossRef Barrett CB (2010) Measuring food insecurity. Science 327(5967):825–828CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Cai X, Wallington K, Shafiee-Jood M, Marston L (2018) Understanding and managing the food-energy-water nexus–opportunities for water resources research. Adv Water Resour 111:259–273CrossRef Cai X, Wallington K, Shafiee-Jood M, Marston L (2018) Understanding and managing the food-energy-water nexus–opportunities for water resources research. Adv Water Resour 111:259–273CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Chai J, Shi H, Lu Q, Hu Y (2020) Quantifying and predicting the water-energy-food-economy-society-environment nexus based on Bayesian networks-a case study of China. J Clean Prod 256:120266CrossRef Chai J, Shi H, Lu Q, Hu Y (2020) Quantifying and predicting the water-energy-food-economy-society-environment nexus based on Bayesian networks-a case study of China. J Clean Prod 256:120266CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Chen C, Trias APL (2020) Water security in southeast Asia: regional, national, and sub-national challenges Chen C, Trias APL (2020) Water security in southeast Asia: regional, national, and sub-national challenges
Zurück zum Zitat De Laurentiis V, Hunt DV, Rogers CD (2016) Overcoming food security challenges within an energy/water/food nexus (EWFN) approach. Sustainability 8(1):95CrossRef De Laurentiis V, Hunt DV, Rogers CD (2016) Overcoming food security challenges within an energy/water/food nexus (EWFN) approach. Sustainability 8(1):95CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat FAO (2009) The state of food insecurity in the world, economic crises—impacts and lessons learned, United Nations, Rome, Italy. ISBN 978-92-5-106288-3 FAO (2009) The state of food insecurity in the world, economic crises—impacts and lessons learned, United Nations, Rome, Italy. ISBN 978-92-5-106288-3
Zurück zum Zitat FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, WHO (2020) The state of food security and nutrition in the world 2020. Transforming food systems for affordable healthy diets. FAO, Rome FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, WHO (2020) The state of food security and nutrition in the world 2020. Transforming food systems for affordable healthy diets. FAO, Rome
Zurück zum Zitat Gleick PH (1993) Water in crisis. Pacific Institute for Studies in Dev., Environment & Security. Stockholm Env. Institute, Oxford University Press, 473 Gleick PH (1993) Water in crisis. Pacific Institute for Studies in Dev., Environment & Security. Stockholm Env. Institute, Oxford University Press, 473
Zurück zum Zitat Grey D, Sadoff CW (2007) Sink or swim? Water security for growth and development. Water Policy 9(6):545–571CrossRef Grey D, Sadoff CW (2007) Sink or swim? Water security for growth and development. Water Policy 9(6):545–571CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Han Z (2003) Groundwater resources protection and aquifer recovery in China. Environ Geol 44(1):106–111CrossRef Han Z (2003) Groundwater resources protection and aquifer recovery in China. Environ Geol 44(1):106–111CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hoekstra AY, Chapagain AK (2008) Globalization of water: sharing the planet’s freshwater resources. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford Hoekstra AY, Chapagain AK (2008) Globalization of water: sharing the planet’s freshwater resources. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford
Zurück zum Zitat Hoff H (2011) Understanding the nexus. Background paper for the Bonn 2011 conference: the water, energy and food security nexus. Environment Stockholm Institute Hoff H (2011) Understanding the nexus. Background paper for the Bonn 2011 conference: the water, energy and food security nexus. Environment Stockholm Institute
Zurück zum Zitat Inyinbor AA, Adebesin BO, Oluyori AP, Adelani ATA, Dada AO, Oreofe TA (2018) Water pollution: effects, prevention, and climatic impact. In: Water challenges of an urbanizing world, 33 Inyinbor AA, Adebesin BO, Oluyori AP, Adelani ATA, Dada AO, Oreofe TA (2018) Water pollution: effects, prevention, and climatic impact. In: Water challenges of an urbanizing world, 33
Zurück zum Zitat Jiang Y (2009) China’s water scarcity. J Environ Manage 90(11):3185–3196CrossRef Jiang Y (2009) China’s water scarcity. J Environ Manage 90(11):3185–3196CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kundzewicz ZW, Mata LJ, Arnell NW, Doll P, Kabat P, Jiménez B (2007). Freshwater resources and their management. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Paluticof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contributions of the working group II to the fourth assessment report of theintergovernmental panel on climate change Kundzewicz ZW, Mata LJ, Arnell NW, Doll P, Kabat P, Jiménez B (2007). Freshwater resources and their management. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Paluticof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contributions of the working group II to the fourth assessment report of theintergovernmental panel on climate change
Zurück zum Zitat Kuure L, Riekki M, Tumelius R (2018) Nexus analysis in the study of the changing field of language learning, language pedagogy and language teacher education. AFinLA-e: Soveltavan kielitieteen tutkimuksia (11):71–92 Kuure L, Riekki M, Tumelius R (2018) Nexus analysis in the study of the changing field of language learning, language pedagogy and language teacher education. AFinLA-e: Soveltavan kielitieteen tutkimuksia (11):71–92
Zurück zum Zitat Lele U, Klousia-Marquis M, Goswami S (2013) Good governance for food, water and energy security. Aquatic Procedia 1:44–63CrossRef Lele U, Klousia-Marquis M, Goswami S (2013) Good governance for food, water and energy security. Aquatic Procedia 1:44–63CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Liu C, Xia J (2004) Water problems and hydrological research in the Yellow River and the Huai and Hai River basins of China. Hydrol Process 18(12):2197–2210CrossRef Liu C, Xia J (2004) Water problems and hydrological research in the Yellow River and the Huai and Hai River basins of China. Hydrol Process 18(12):2197–2210CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Luo T, Young R, Reig P (2015) Aqueduct projected water stress country rankings. Technical Note. World Resources Institute Luo T, Young R, Reig P (2015) Aqueduct projected water stress country rankings. Technical Note. World Resources Institute
Zurück zum Zitat Meadows DH, Meadows DL, Randers J, Behrens WW (1972) The limits to growth. N Y 102(1972):27 Meadows DH, Meadows DL, Randers J, Behrens WW (1972) The limits to growth. N Y 102(1972):27
Zurück zum Zitat Merchant AT, Jones C, Kiure A, Kupka R, Fitzmaurice G, Herrera MG, Fawzi WW (2003) Water and sanitation associated with improved child growth. Eur J Clin Nutr 57(12):1562–1568CrossRef Merchant AT, Jones C, Kiure A, Kupka R, Fitzmaurice G, Herrera MG, Fawzi WW (2003) Water and sanitation associated with improved child growth. Eur J Clin Nutr 57(12):1562–1568CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Momblanch A, Papadimitriou L, Jain SK, Kulkarni A, Ojha CS, Adeloye AJ, Holman IP (2019) Untangling the water-food-energy-environment nexus for global change adaptation in a complex Himalayan water resource system. Sci Tot Environ 655:35–47CrossRef Momblanch A, Papadimitriou L, Jain SK, Kulkarni A, Ojha CS, Adeloye AJ, Holman IP (2019) Untangling the water-food-energy-environment nexus for global change adaptation in a complex Himalayan water resource system. Sci Tot Environ 655:35–47CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Nadeem AM, Rafique MZ, Bakhsh K, Makhdum MSA, Huang S (2020) Impact of socio-economic and water access conditions on life satisfaction of rural farmers in Faisalabad district of Pakistan. Water Policy 22(4):686–701CrossRef Nadeem AM, Rafique MZ, Bakhsh K, Makhdum MSA, Huang S (2020) Impact of socio-economic and water access conditions on life satisfaction of rural farmers in Faisalabad district of Pakistan. Water Policy 22(4):686–701CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Nie Y, Avraamidou S, Xiao X, Pistikopoulos EN, Li J, Zeng Y, Zhu M et al (2019) A food-energy-water nexus approach for land use optimization. Sci Tot Environ 659:7–19CrossRef Nie Y, Avraamidou S, Xiao X, Pistikopoulos EN, Li J, Zeng Y, Zhu M et al (2019) A food-energy-water nexus approach for land use optimization. Sci Tot Environ 659:7–19CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Raimi M, Vivien OT, Odipe OE, Owobi OE (2018) The sources of water supply, sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in oil producing communities in central senatorial district of Bayelsa state, Nigeria. MOJ Public Health 7(6):337–345 Raimi M, Vivien OT, Odipe OE, Owobi OE (2018) The sources of water supply, sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in oil producing communities in central senatorial district of Bayelsa state, Nigeria. MOJ Public Health 7(6):337–345
Zurück zum Zitat Rostow W (1960) The five stages of economic growth–a summary. Sociol Dev:1 Rostow W (1960) The five stages of economic growth–a summary. Sociol Dev:1
Zurück zum Zitat Sawka MN, Cheuvront SN, Carter R (2005) Human water needs. Nutr Rev 63(suppl_1):S30–S39 Sawka MN, Cheuvront SN, Carter R (2005) Human water needs. Nutr Rev 63(suppl_1):S30–S39
Zurück zum Zitat Scanlon BR, Ruddell BL, Reed PM, Hook RI, Zheng C, Tidwell VC, Siebert S (2017) The food-energy-water nexus: transforming science for society. Water Resour Res 53(5):3550–3556CrossRef Scanlon BR, Ruddell BL, Reed PM, Hook RI, Zheng C, Tidwell VC, Siebert S (2017) The food-energy-water nexus: transforming science for society. Water Resour Res 53(5):3550–3556CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Singh VP (2017) Challenges in meeting water security and resilience. Water Int 42(4):349–359CrossRef Singh VP (2017) Challenges in meeting water security and resilience. Water Int 42(4):349–359CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Smajgl A, Ward J, Pluschke L (2016) The water–food–energy nexus–realising a new paradigm. J Hydrol 533(1):533–540CrossRef Smajgl A, Ward J, Pluschke L (2016) The water–food–energy nexus–realising a new paradigm. J Hydrol 533(1):533–540CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Sood A, Nicol A, Arulingam I (2019) Unpacking the water-energy-environment-food nexus: working across systems, vol 186. IWMI Sood A, Nicol A, Arulingam I (2019) Unpacking the water-energy-environment-food nexus: working across systems, vol 186. IWMI
Zurück zum Zitat Staupe-Delgado R (2019) The water–energy–food–environmental security nexus: moving the debate forward. Environ Dev Sustain:1–17 Staupe-Delgado R (2019) The water–energy–food–environmental security nexus: moving the debate forward. Environ Dev Sustain:1–17
Zurück zum Zitat Stephens GL, Slingo JM, Rignot E, Reager JT, Hakuba MZ, Durack PJ, Rocca R (2020) Earth’s water reservoirs in a changing climate. Proc R Soc A 476(2236):20190458CrossRef Stephens GL, Slingo JM, Rignot E, Reager JT, Hakuba MZ, Durack PJ, Rocca R (2020) Earth’s water reservoirs in a changing climate. Proc R Soc A 476(2236):20190458CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Usman M, Kousar R, Makhdum MSA (2020a) The role of financial development, tourism, and energy utilization in environmental deficit: evidence from 20 highest emitting economies. Environ Sci Poll Res 27(34):42980–42995CrossRef Usman M, Kousar R, Makhdum MSA (2020a) The role of financial development, tourism, and energy utilization in environmental deficit: evidence from 20 highest emitting economies. Environ Sci Poll Res 27(34):42980–42995CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Usman M, Kousar R, Yaseen MR, Makhdum MSA (2020b) An empirical nexus between economic growth, energy utilization, trade policy, and ecological footprint: a continent-wise comparison in upper-middle-income countries. Environ Sci Poll Res 27(31):38995–39018CrossRef Usman M, Kousar R, Yaseen MR, Makhdum MSA (2020b) An empirical nexus between economic growth, energy utilization, trade policy, and ecological footprint: a continent-wise comparison in upper-middle-income countries. Environ Sci Poll Res 27(31):38995–39018CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ustun PA, World Health Organization (2008) Safer water, better health: costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. World Health Organization Ustun PA, World Health Organization (2008) Safer water, better health: costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. World Health Organization
Zurück zum Zitat UNICEF, Indonesia (2012) Ringkasan Kajian: Air Bersih, Sanitasi, dan Kebersihan. UNICEF Indonesia, Jakarta UNICEF, Indonesia (2012) Ringkasan Kajian: Air Bersih, Sanitasi, dan Kebersihan. UNICEF Indonesia, Jakarta
Zurück zum Zitat United Nations (2010) Resolution A/RES/64/292. United Nations General Assembly. July 2010 United Nations (2010) Resolution A/RES/64/292. United Nations General Assembly. July 2010
Zurück zum Zitat United Nations (2015) World population prospects: the 2015 revision, key findings and advance tables. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.241. http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/ United Nations (2015) World population prospects: the 2015 revision, key findings and advance tables. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.241. http://​esa.​un.​org/​unpd/​wpp/​
Zurück zum Zitat WEF (2011) Water security: the water-energy-food-climate nexus. World Economic Forum initiative WEF (2011) Water security: the water-energy-food-climate nexus. World Economic Forum initiative
Zurück zum Zitat World Food Summit (1996) Rome declaration on world food security World Food Summit (1996) Rome declaration on world food security
Zurück zum Zitat World Health Organization (2003) McMichael AJ, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Corvalán CF, Ebi KL, Githeko AK, Scheraga JD, Woodward A (eds) Climate change and human health: risks and responses. ISBN 92 4 156248 X World Health Organization (2003) McMichael AJ, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Corvalán CF, Ebi KL, Githeko AK, Scheraga JD, Woodward A (eds) Climate change and human health: risks and responses. ISBN 92 4 156248 X
Metadaten
Titel
The Water, Food, and Environmental Security Nexus
verfasst von
Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum
Rakhshanda Kousar
Muhammad Ashfaq
Mohamed Behnassi
Copyright-Jahr
2024
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-50962-9_2