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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Seventh Theory of Cryptography Conference, TCC 2010, held in Zurich, Switzerland, February 9-11, 2010. The 33 revised full papers presented together with two invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 100 submissions.The papers are organized in topical sections on parallel repetition, obfuscation, multiparty computation, CCA security, threshold cryptography and secret sharing, symmetric cryptography, key-leakage and tamper-resistance, rationality and privacy, public-key encryption, and zero-knowledge.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Parallel Repetition

An Efficient Parallel Repetition Theorem

We present a general parallel-repetition theorem with an efficient reduction. As a corollary of this theorem we establish that parallel repetition reduces the soundness error at an exponential rate in any public-coin argument, and more generally, any argument where the verifier’s messages, but not necessarily its decision to accept or reject, can be efficiently simulated with noticeable probability.

Johan Håstad, Rafael Pass, Douglas Wikström, Krzysztof Pietrzak

Parallel Repetition Theorems for Interactive Arguments

We study efficient parallel repetition theorems for several classes of interactive arguments and obtain the following results:

1

We show a

tight

parallel repetition theorem for public-coin interactive arguments by giving a tight analysis for a reduction algorithm of Håstad et al. [HPPW08]. That is,

n

-fold parallel repetition decreases the soundness error from

δ

to

δ

n

. The crux of our improvement is a new analysis that avoid using Raz’s Sampling Lemma, which is the key ingredient to the previous results.

1

We give a new security analysis to strengthen a parallel repetition theorem of Håstad et al. for a more general class of arguments. We show that

n

-fold parallel repetition decreases the soundness error from

δ

to

δ

n

/2

, which is almost tight. In particular, we remove the dependency on the number of rounds in the bound, and as a consequence, extend the “concurrent” repetition theorem of Wikström [Wik09] to this model.

1

We obtain a way to turn

any

interactive argument to one in the class above using fully homomorphic encryption schemes. This gives a way to amplify the soundness of any interactive argument without increasing the round complexity.

1

We give a simple and generic transformation which shows that tight direct product theorems imply almost-tight Chernoff-type theorems. This extends our results to Chernoff-type theorems, and gives an alternative proof to the Chernoff-type theorem of Impagliazzo et al. [IJK09] for weakly-verifiable puzzles.

Kai-Min Chung, Feng-Hao Liu

Almost Optimal Bounds for Direct Product Threshold Theorem

We consider weakly-verifiable puzzles which are challenge-response puzzles such that the responder may not be able to verify for itself whether it answered the challenge correctly. We consider

k

-wise direct product of such puzzles, where now the responder has to solve

k

puzzles chosen independently in parallel. Canetti et al have earlier shown that such direct product puzzles have a hardness which rises exponentially with

k

. In the threshold case addressed in Impagliazzo et al, the responder is required to answer correctly a fraction of challenges above a threshold. The bound on hardness of this threshold parallel version was shown to be similar to Chernoff bound, but the constants in the exponent are rather weak. Namely, Impagliazzo et al show that for a puzzle for which probability of failure is

δ

, the probability of failing on less than (1 − 

γ

)

δk

out of

k

puzzles, for any parallel strategy, is at most

$e^{-\gamma^2\delta k/40}$

.

In this paper, we develop new techniques to bound this probability, and show that it is arbitrarily close to Chernoff bound. To be precise, the bound is

$e^{-\gamma^2(1-\gamma) \delta k/2}$

. We show that given any responder that solves

k

parallel puzzles with a good threshold, there is a uniformized parallel solver who has the same threshold of solving

k

parallel puzzles, while being oblivious to the permutation of the puzzles. This enhances the analysis considerably, and may be of independent interest.

Charanjit S. Jutla

Obfuscation

On Symmetric Encryption and Point Obfuscation

We show tight connections between several cryptographic primitives, namely encryption with weakly random keys, encryption with key-dependent messages (KDM), and obfuscation of point functions with multi-bit output (which we call multi-bit point functions, or MBPFs, for short). These primitives, which have been studied mostly separately in recent works, bear some apparent similarities, both in the flavor of their security requirements and in the flavor of their constructions and assumptions. Still, rigorous connections have not been drawn.

Our results can be interpreted as indicating that MBPF obfuscators imply a very strong form of encryption that

simultaneously

achieves security for weakly-random keys and key-dependent messages as special cases. Similarly, each one of the other primitives implies a certain restricted form of MBPF obfuscation. Our results carry both constructions and impossibility results from one primitive to others. In particular:

The recent impossibility result for KDM security of Haitner and Holenstein (TCC ’09) carries over to MBPF obfuscators.

The Canetti-Dakdouk construction of MBPF obfuscators based on a strong variant of the DDH assumption (EC ’08) gives an encryption scheme which is secure w.r.t.

any

weak key distribution of super-logarithmic min-entropy (and in particular, also has very strong leakage resilient properties).

All the recent constructions of encryption schemes that are secure w.r.t. weak keys imply a weak form of MBPF obfuscators.

Ran Canetti, Yael Tauman Kalai, Mayank Varia, Daniel Wichs

Obfuscation of Hyperplane Membership

Previous work on program obfuscation gives strong negative results for general-purpose obfuscators, and positive results for obfuscating simple functions such as equality testing (point functions). In this work, we construct an obfuscator for a more complex algebraic functionality: testing for membership in a hyperplane (of constant dimension). We prove the security of the obfuscator under a new strong variant of the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Finally, we show a cryptographic application of the new obfuscator to digital signatures.

Ran Canetti, Guy N. Rothblum, Mayank Varia

Invited Talk

Secure Computation and Its Diverse Applications

Secure multiparty computation (MPC) allows two or more parties to perform a joint distributed computation without revealing their secrets to each other. While MPC has traditionally been viewed as an ends rather than a means, in recent years we have seen a growing number of unexpected applications of MPC and connections with problems from other domains.

In this talk we will survey several of these connections and highlight some research directions which they motivate. In particular, we will discuss the following connections:

MPC and locally decodable codes. How can the secrecy property of MPC protocols be useful for reliable and efficient access to data?

MPC and the parallel complexity of cryptography. How can progress on the round complexity of MPC lead to better parallel implementations of one-way functions and other cryptographic primitives?

MPC and private circuits. How can MPC be used to protect cryptographic hardware against side-channel attacks?

MPC in the head. How can MPC protocols which assume an honest majority be useful in the context of two-party cryptography?

Yuval Ishai

Multiparty Computation

On Complete Primitives for Fairness

For secure two-party and multi-party computation with abort, classification of which primitives are

complete

has been extensively studied in the literature. However, for

fair

secure computation, where (roughly speaking) either all parties learn the output or none do, the question of complete primitives has remained largely unstudied. In this work, we initiate a rigorous study of completeness for primitives that allow fair computation. We show the following results:

No “short” primitive is complete for fairness.

In surprising contrast to other notions of security for secure two-party computation, we show that for fair secure computation, no primitive of size

O

(log

k

) is complete, where

k

is a security parameter. This is the case even if we can enforce parallelism in calls to the primitives (i.e., the adversary does not get output from any primitive in a parallel call until it sends input to all of them). This negative result holds regardless of any computational assumptions.

A fairness hierarchy.

We clarify the fairness landscape further by exhibiting the existence of a “fairness hierarchy”. We show that for every “short” ℓ = 

O

(log

k

), no protocol making (serial) access to any ℓ-bit primitive can be used to construct even a (ℓ + 1)-bit simultaneous broadcast.

Positive results.

To complement the negative results, we exhibit a

k

-bit primitive that

is

complete for two-party fair secure computation. We show how to generalize this result to the multi-party setting.

Fairness combiners.

We also introduce the question of constructing a protocol for fair secure computation from primitives that may be faulty. We show that this is possible when a majority of the instances are honest. On the flip side, we show that this result is tight: no functionality is complete for fairness if half (or more) of the instances can be malicious.

Dov Gordon, Yuval Ishai, Tal Moran, Rafail Ostrovsky, Amit Sahai

On the Necessary and Sufficient Assumptions for UC Computation

We study the necessary and sufficient assumptions for universally composable (UC) computation, both in terms of setup and computational assumptions. We look at the common reference string model, the uniform random string model and the key-registration authority model (KRA), and provide new results for all of them. Perhaps most interestingly we show that:

For even the minimal meaningful KRA, where we only assume that the secret key is a value which is hard to compute from the public key, one can UC securely compute any poly-time functionality if there exists a passive secure oblivious-transfer protocol for the stand-alone model. Since a KRA where the secret keys can be computed from the public keys is useless, and some setup assumption

is

needed for UC secure computation, this establishes the best we could hope for the KRA model: any non-trivial KRA is sufficient for UC computation.

We show that in the KRA model one-way functions are sufficient for UC commitment and UC zero-knowledge. These are the first examples of UC secure protocols for non-trivial tasks which do not assume the existence of public-key primitives. In particular, the protocols show that non-trivial UC computation is possible in Minicrypt.

Ivan Damgård, Jesper Buus Nielsen, Claudio Orlandi

From Passive to Covert Security at Low Cost

Aumann and Lindell defined security against

covert attacks

, where the adversary is malicious, but is only caught cheating with a certain probability. The idea is that in many real-world cases, a large probability of being caught is sufficient to prevent the adversary from trying to cheat. In this paper, we show how to compile a passively secure protocol for honest majority into one that is secure against covert attacks, again for honest majority and catches cheating with probability 1/4. The cost of the modified protocol is essentially twice that of the original plus an overhead that only depends on the number of inputs.

Ivan Damgård, Martin Geisler, Jesper Buus Nielsen

CCA Security

A Twist on the Naor-Yung Paradigm and Its Application to Efficient CCA-Secure Encryption from Hard Search Problems

The Naor-Yung (NY) paradigm shows how to build a chosen-ciphertext secure encryption scheme from three conceptual ingredients:

a weakly (i.e.,

IND

-

CPA

) secure encryption scheme,

a “replication strategy” that specifies how to use the weakly secure encryption scheme; concretely, a NY-encryption contains several weak encryptions of the same plaintext,

a non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proof system to show that a given ciphertext is consistent, i.e., contains weak encryptions of the

same

plaintext.

The NY paradigm served both as a breakthrough proof-of-concept, and as an inspiration to subsequent constructions. However, the NY construction leads to impractical encryption schemes, due to the usually prohibitively expensive NIZK proof.

In this contribution, we give a variant of the NY paradigm that leads to practical, fully

IND

-

CCA

secure encryption schemes whose security can be based on a generic class of algebraic complexity assumptions. Our approach refines NY’s approach as follows:

Our sole computational assumption is that of a Diffie-Hellman (DH) type two-move key exchange protocol, interpreted as a weakly secure key encapsulation mechanism (KEM).

Our “replication strategy” is as follows. Key generation consists of replicating the KEM several times, but

only the first pass

. Encryption then consists of performing the second pass with respect to all of these,

but with the same random coins

in each instance.

For proving consistency of a given ciphertext, we employ a practical universal hash proof system, case-tailored to our KEM and replication strategy.

We instantiate our paradigm both from

computational

Diffie-Hellman (CDH) and from RSA type assumptions. This way, practical

IND

-

CCA

secure encryption schemes based on

search

problems can be built and explained in a generic, NY-like fashion.

We would like to stress that while we generalize universal hash proof systems

as a proof system

, we do

not

follow or generalize the approach of Cramer and Shoup to build

IND

-

CCA

secure encryption. Their approach uses specific hash proof systems that feature, on top of a NIZK property, a computational indistinguishability property. Hence they necessarily build upon

decisional

assumptions, whereas we show how to implement our approach with

search

assumptions. Our approach uses hash proof systems in the NY way, namely solely as a device to prove consistency. In our case, secrecy is provided by the “weak encryption” component, which allows us to embed search problems.

Ronald Cramer, Dennis Hofheinz, Eike Kiltz

Two Is a Crowd? A Black-Box Separation of One-Wayness and Security under Correlated Inputs

A family of trapdoor functions is one-way under correlated inputs if no efficient adversary can invert it even when given the value of the function on multiple correlated inputs. This powerful primitive was introduced at TCC 2009 by Rosen and Segev, who use it in an elegant black box construction of a chosen ciphertext secure public key encryption. In this work we continue the study of security under correlated inputs, and prove that there is no black box construction of correlation secure injective trapdoor functions from classic trapdoor permutations, even if the latter is assumed to be one-way for inputs from high entropy, rather than uniform distributions. Our negative result holds for all input distributions where each

x

i

is determined by the remaining

n

 − 1 coordinates. The techniques we employ for proving lower bounds about trapdoor permutations are new and quite general, and we believe that they will find other applications in the area of black-box separations.

Yevgeniy Vahlis

Threshold Cryptography and Secret Sharing

Efficient, Robust and Constant-Round Distributed RSA Key Generation

We present the first protocol for distributed RSA key generation which is constant round, secure against malicious adversaries and has a negligibly small bound on the error probability, even using only one iteration of the underlying primality test on each candidate number.

Ivan Damgård, Gert Læssøe Mikkelsen

Threshold Decryption and Zero-Knowledge Proofs for Lattice-Based Cryptosystems

We present a variant of Regev’s cryptosystem first presented in [Reg05], but with a new choice of parameters. By a recent classical reduction by Peikert we prove the scheme semantically secure based on the worst-case lattice problem

GapSVP

. From this we construct a threshold cryptosystem which has a very efficient and non-interactive decryption protocol. We prove the threshold cryptosystem secure against passive adversaries corrupting all but one of the players, and againts active adversaries corrupting less than one third of the players. We also describe how one can build a distributed key generation protocol. In the final part of the paper we show how one can, in zero-knowledge - prove knowledge of the plaintext contained in a given ciphertext from Regev’s original cryptosystem or our variant. The proof is of size only a constant times the size of the public key.

Rikke Bendlin, Ivan Damgård

Ideal Hierarchical Secret Sharing Schemes

Hierarchical secret sharing is among the most natural generalizations of threshold secret sharing, and it has attracted a lot of attention from the invention of secret sharing until nowadays. Several constructions of ideal hierarchical secret sharing schemes have been proposed, but it was not known what access structures admit such a scheme. We solve this problem by providing a natural definition for the family of the hierarchical access structures and, more importantly, by presenting a complete characterization of the ideal hierarchical access structures, that is, the ones admitting an ideal secret sharing scheme. Our characterization deals with the properties of the hierarchically minimal sets of the access structure, which are the minimal qualified sets whose participants are in the lowest possible levels in the hierarchy. By using our characterization, it can be efficiently checked whether any given hierarchical access structure that is defined by its hierarchically minimal sets is ideal. We use the well known connection between ideal secret sharing and matroids and, in particular, the fact that every ideal access structure is a matroid port. In addition, we use recent results on ideal multipartite access structures and the connection between multipartite matroids and integer polymatroids. We prove that every ideal hierarchical access structure is the port of a representable matroid and, more specifically, we prove that every ideal structure in this family admits ideal

linear

secret sharing schemes over fields of all characteristics. In addition, methods to construct such ideal schemes can be derived from the results in this paper and the aforementioned ones on ideal multipartite secret sharing. Finally, we use our results to find a new proof for the characterization of the ideal weighted threshold access structures that is simpler than the existing one.

Oriol Farràs, Carles Padró

Symmetric Cryptography

A Hardcore Lemma for Computational Indistinguishability: Security Amplification for Arbitrarily Weak PRGs with Optimal Stretch

It is well known that two random variables

X

and

Y

with the same range can be viewed as being equal (in a well-defined sense) with probability 1 − 

d

(

X

,

Y

), where

d

(

X

,

Y

) is their statistical distance, which in turn is equal to the best distinguishing advantage for

X

and

Y

. In other words, if the best distinguishing advantage for

X

and

Y

is

ε

, then with probability 1 − 

ε

they are completely indistinguishable. This statement, which can be seen as an information-theoretic version of a hardcore lemma, is for example very useful for proving indistinguishability amplification results.

In this paper we prove the computational version of such a hardcore lemma, thereby extending the concept of hardcore sets from the context of computational

hardness

to the context of computational

indistinguishability

. This paradigm promises to have many applications in cryptography and complexity theory. It is proven both in a non-uniform and a uniform setting.

For example, for a weak pseudorandom generator (PRG) for which the (computational) distinguishing advantage is known to be bounded by

ε

(e.g.

$\epsilon=\frac{1}{2}$

), one can define an event on the seed of the PRG which has probability at least 1 − 

ε

and such that, conditioned on the event, the output of the PRG is essentially indistinguishable from a string with almost maximal min-entropy, namely log(1/(1 − 

ε

)) less than its length. As an application, we show an optimally efficient construction for converting a weak PRG for any

ε

< 1 into a strong PRG by proving that the intuitive construction of applying an extractor to an appropriate number of independent weak PRG outputs yields a strong PRG. This improves strongly over the best previous construction for security amplification of PRGs which does not work for

$\epsilon \geq \frac{1}{2}$

and requires the seed of the constructed strong PRG to be very long.

Ueli Maurer, Stefano Tessaro

On Related-Secret Pseudorandomness

Related-key attacks are attacks against constructions which use a secret key (such as a blockcipher) in which an attacker attempts to exploit known or chosen relationships among keys to circumvent security properties. Security against related-key attacks has been a subject of study in numerous recent cryptographic papers. However, most of these results are attacks on specific constructions, while there has been little positive progress on constructing related-key secure primitives.

In this paper, we attempt to address the question of whether related-key secure blockciphers can be built from traditional cryptographic primitives. We develop a theoretical framework of “related-secret secure” cryptographic primitives, a class of primitives which includes related-key secure blockciphers and PRFs. We show that while a single related-secret pseduorandom bit is sufficient and necessary to create related-key secure blockciphers, hard-core bits with typical proofs are

not

related-secret psuedorandom. Since the pseudorandomness of hard-core bits is the essential technique known to make pseudorandomness from assumptions of simple hardness, this presents a very strong barrier to the development of provably related-key secure blockciphers based on standard hardness assumptions.

David Goldenberg, Moses Liskov

A Domain Extender for the Ideal Cipher

We describe the first domain extender for ideal ciphers,

i.e.

we show a construction that is indifferentiable from a 2

n

-bit ideal cipher, given a

n

-bit ideal cipher. Our construction is based on a 3-round Feistel, and is more efficient than first building a

n

-bit random oracle from a

n

-bit ideal cipher (as in [9]) and then a 2

n

-bit ideal cipher from a

n

-bit random oracle (as in [10], using a 6-round Feistel). We also show that 2 rounds are not enough for indifferentiability by exhibiting a simple attack. We also consider our construction in the standard model: we show that 2 rounds are enough to get a 2

n

-bit tweakable block-cipher from a

n

-bit tweakable block-cipher and we show that with 3 rounds we can get beyond the birthday security bound.

Jean-Sébastien Coron, Yevgeniy Dodis, Avradip Mandal, Yannick Seurin

Delayed-Key Message Authentication for Streams

We consider message authentication codes for streams where the key becomes known only at the end of the stream. This usually happens in key-exchange protocols like SSL and TLS where the exchange phase concludes by sending a MAC for the previous transcript and the newly derived key. SSL and TLS provide tailor-made solutions for this problem (modifying HMAC to insert the key only at the end, as in SSL, or using upstream hashing as in TLS). Here we take a formal approach to this problem of delayed-key MACs and provide solutions which are “as secure as schemes where the key would be available right away” but still allow to compute the MACs online even if the key becomes known only later.

Marc Fischlin, Anja Lehmann

Key-Leakage and Tamper-Resistance

Founding Cryptography on Tamper-Proof Hardware Tokens

A number of works have investigated using tamper-proof hardware tokens as tools to achieve a variety of cryptographic tasks. In particular, Goldreich and Ostrovsky considered the problem of software protection via oblivious RAM. Goldwasser, Kalai, and Rothblum introduced the concept of

one-time programs

: in a one-time program, an honest sender sends a set of

simple

hardware tokens to a (potentially malicious) receiver. The hardware tokens allow the receiver to execute a secret program specified by the sender’s tokens exactly once (or, more generally, up to a fixed

t

times). A recent line of work initiated by Katz examined the problem of achieving UC-secure computation using hardware tokens.

Motivated by the goal of unifying and strengthening these previous notions, we consider the general question of basing secure computation on hardware tokens. We show that the following tasks, which cannot be realized in the “plain” model, become feasible if the parties are allowed to generate and exchange tamper-proof hardware tokens.

Unconditional and non-interactive secure computation.

We show that by exchanging simple

stateful

hardware tokens, any functionality can be realized with

unconditional

security against malicious parties. In the case of two-party functionalities

f

(

x

,

y

) which take their inputs from a sender and a receiver and deliver their output to the receiver, our protocol is non-interactive and only requires a unidirectional communication of simple stateful tokens from the sender to the receiver. This strengthens previous feasibility results for one-time programs both by providing

unconditional

security and by offering general protection against

malicious senders

. As is typically the case for unconditionally secure protocols, our protocol is in fact

UC-secure

. This improves over previous works on UC-secure computation based on hardware tokens, which provided computational security under cryptographic assumptions.

Interactive secure computation from stateless tokens based on one-way functions.

We show that

stateless

hardware tokens are sufficient to base general secure (in fact, UC-secure) computation on the existence of

one-way functions

.

Obfuscation from stateless tokens.

We consider the problem of realizing non-interactive secure computation from stateless tokens for functionalities which allow the receiver to provide an arbitrary number of inputs (these are the only functionalities one can hope to realize non-interactively with

stateless

tokens). By building on recent techniques for resettably secure computation, we obtain a general positive result under standard cryptographic assumptions. This gives the first general feasibility result for program obfuscation using

stateless

tokens, while strengthening the standard notion of obfuscation by providing security against a malicious sender.

Vipul Goyal, Yuval Ishai, Amit Sahai, Ramarathnam Venkatesan, Akshay Wadia

Truly Efficient String Oblivious Transfer Using Resettable Tamper-Proof Tokens

SFE requires expensive public key operations for each input bit of the function. This cost can be avoided by using tamper-proof hardware. However, all known efficient techniques require the hardware to have long-term secure storage and to be resistant to reset or duplication attacks. This is due to the intrinsic use of counters or erasures. Known techniques that use resettable tokens rely on expensive primitives, such as generic concurrent ZK, and are out of reach of practice.

We propose a

truly efficient

String Oblivious Transfer (OT) technique relying on

resettable

(actually,

stateless

) tamper-proof token. Our protocols require between 6 and 27

symmetric key

operations, depending on the model. Our OT is secure against covert sender and malicious receiver, and is sequentially composable.

If the token is semi-honest (e.g. if it is provided by a trusted entity, but adversarily initialized), then our protocol is secure against malicious adversaries in concurrent execution setting.

Only one party is required to provide the token, which makes it appropriate for typical asymmetric client-server scenarios (banking, TV, etc.)

Vladimir Kolesnikov

Leakage-Resilient Signatures

The strongest standard security notion for digital signature schemes is unforgeability under chosen message attacks. In practice, however, this notion can be insufficient due to “side-channel attacks” which exploit leakage of information about the secret internal state. In this work we put forward the notion of “leakage-resilient signatures,” which strengthens the standard security notion by giving the adversary the additional power to learn a bounded amount of

arbitrary information

about the secret state that was accessed during

every signature generation

. This notion naturally implies security against all side-channel attacks as long as the amount of information leaked on each invocation is bounded and “only computation leaks information.”

The main result of this paper is a construction which gives a (tree-based, stateful) leakage-resilient signature scheme based on any 3-time signature scheme. The amount of information that our scheme can safely leak

per signature generation

is 1/3 of the information the underlying 3-time signature scheme can leak

in total

. Signature schemes that remain secure even if a bounded total amount of information is leaked were recently constructed, hence instantiating our construction with these schemes gives the first constructions of provably secure leakage-resilient signature schemes.

The above construction assumes that the signing algorithm can sample truly random bits, and thus an implementation would need some special hardware (randomness gates). Simply generating this randomness using a leakage-resilient stream-cipher will in general not work. Our second contribution is a sound general principle to replace uniform random bits in any leakage-resilient construction with pseudorandom ones: run two leakage-resilient stream-ciphers (with independent keys) in parallel and then apply a two-source extractor to their outputs.

Sebastian Faust, Eike Kiltz, Krzysztof Pietrzak, Guy N. Rothblum

Public-Key Encryption Schemes with Auxiliary Inputs

We construct

public-key

cryptosystems that remain secure even when the adversary is given any

computationally uninvertible function

of the secret key as auxiliary input (even one that may reveal the secret key information-theoretically). Our schemes are based on the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) and the Learning with Errors (LWE) problems.

As an independent technical contribution, we extend the Goldreich-Levin theorem to provide a hard-core (pseudorandom) value over

large

fields.

Yevgeniy Dodis, Shafi Goldwasser, Yael Tauman Kalai, Chris Peikert, Vinod Vaikuntanathan

Public-Key Cryptographic Primitives Provably as Secure as Subset Sum

We propose a semantically-secure public-key encryption scheme whose security is polynomial-time equivalent to the hardness of solving random instances of the subset sum problem. The subset sum assumption required for the security of our scheme is weaker than that of existing subset-sum based encryption schemes, namely the lattice-based schemes of Ajtai and Dwork (STOC’97), Regev (STOC’03, STOC’05), and Peikert (STOC’09). Additionally, our proof of security is simple and direct. We also present a natural variant of our scheme that is secure against key-leakage attacks, and an oblivious transfer protocol that is secure against semi-honest adversaries.

Vadim Lyubashevsky, Adriana Palacio, Gil Segev

Rationality and Privacy

Rationality in the Full-Information Model

We study rationality in protocol design for the full-information model, a model characterized by computationally unbounded adversaries, no private communication, and no simultaneity within rounds. Assuming that players derive some utility from the outcomes of an interaction, we wish to design protocols that are faithful: following the protocol should be an optimal strategy for every player, for various definitions of “optimal” and under various assumptions about the behavior of others and the presence, size, and incentives of coalitions. We first focus on leader election for players who only care about whether or not they are elected. We seek protocols that are both faithful and resilient, and for some notions of faithfulness we provide protocols, whereas for others we prove impossibility results. We then proceed to random sampling, in which the aim is for the players to jointly sample from a set of

m

items with a distribution that is a function of players’ preferences over them. We construct protocols for

m

 ≥ 3 that are faithful and resilient when players are single-minded. We also show that there are no such protocols for 2 items or for complex preferences.

Ronen Gradwohl

Efficient Rational Secret Sharing in Standard Communication Networks

We propose a new methodology for rational secret sharing leading to various instantiations (in both the two-party and multi-party settings) that are simple and efficient in terms of computation, share size, and round complexity. Our protocols do not require physical assumptions or simultaneous channels, and can even be run over asynchronous, point-to-point networks.

We also propose new equilibrium notions (namely, computational versions of

strict Nash equilibrium

and

stability with respect to trembles

) and prove that our protocols satisfy them. These notions guarantee, roughly speaking, that at each point in the protocol there is a

unique

legal message a party can send. This, in turn, ensures that protocol messages cannot be used as subliminal channels, something achieved in prior work only by making strong assumptions on the communication network.

Georg Fuchsbauer, Jonathan Katz, David Naccache

Bounds on the Sample Complexity for Private Learning and Private Data Release

Learning is a task that generalizes many of the analyses that are applied to collections of data, and in particular, collections of sensitive individual information. Hence, it is natural to ask what can be learned while preserving individual privacy. [Kasiviswanathan, Lee, Nissim, Raskhodnikova, and Smith; FOCS 2008] initiated such a discussion. They formalized the notion of

private learning

, as a combination of PAC learning and differential privacy, and investigated what concept classes can be learned privately. Somewhat surprisingly, they showed that, ignoring time complexity, every PAC learning task could be performed privately with polynomially many samples, and in many natural cases this could even be done in polynomial time.

While these results seem to equate non-private and private learning, there is still a significant gap: the sample complexity of (non-private) PAC learning is crisply characterized in terms of the VC-dimension of the concept class, whereas this relationship is lost in the constructions of private learners, which exhibit, generally, a higher sample complexity.

Looking into this gap, we examine several private learning tasks and give tight bounds on their sample complexity. In particular, we show strong separations between sample complexities of proper and improper private learners (such separation does not exist for non-private learners), and between sample complexities of efficient and inefficient proper private learners. Our results show that VC-dimension is not the right measure for characterizing the sample complexity of proper private learning.

We also examine the task of

private data release

(as initiated by [Blum, Ligett, and Roth; STOC 2008]), and give new lower bounds on the sample complexity. Our results show that the logarithmic dependence on size of the instance space is essential for private data release.

Amos Beimel, Shiva Prasad Kasiviswanathan, Kobbi Nissim

Public-Key Encryption

New Techniques for Dual System Encryption and Fully Secure HIBE with Short Ciphertexts

We construct a fully secure HIBE scheme with short ciphertexts. The previous construction of Boneh, Boyen, and Goh was only proven to be secure in the selective model, under a non-static assumption which depended on the depth of the hierarchy. To obtain full security, we apply the dual system encryption concept recently introduced by Waters. A straightforward application of this technique is insufficient to achieve short ciphertexts, since the original instantiation of the technique includes tags that do not compress. To overcome this challenge, we design a new method for realizing dual system encryption. We provide a system in composite order groups (of three primes) and prove the security of our scheme under three static assumptions.

Allison Lewko, Brent Waters

Robust Encryption

We provide a provable-security treatment of “robust” encryption. Robustness means it is hard to produce a ciphertext that is valid for two different users. Robustness makes explicit a property that has been implicitly assumed in the past. We argue that it is an essential conjunct of anonymous encryption. We show that natural anonymity-preserving ways to achieve it, such as adding recipient identification information before encrypting, fail. We provide transforms that do achieve it, efficiently and provably. We assess the robustness of specific encryption schemes in the literature, providing simple patches for some that lack the property. We present various applications. Our work enables safer and simpler use of encryption.

Michel Abdalla, Mihir Bellare, Gregory Neven

Invited Talk

Privacy-Enhancing Cryptography: From Theory into Practice

We conduct an increasing part of our daily transactions electronically and thereby we leave an eternal electronic trail of personal data. We are almost never able to see what data about us we imprint, where it is processed or where it is stored. Indeed, controlling the dispersal of our data and protecting our privacy has become virtually impossible.

In this talk we will investigate the extent to which tools from cryptography and other technical means can help us to regain control of our data and to save our privacy. To this end, we will review the most important of the practical cryptographic mechanisms and discuss how they could be applied. In a second part, we will report on the readiness of the industry to indeed employ such technologies and on how governments address the current erosion of privacy.

Jan Camenisch

Zero-Knowledge

Concise Mercurial Vector Commitments and Independent Zero-Knowledge Sets with Short Proofs

Introduced by Micali, Rabin and Kilian (MRK), the basic primitive of zero-knowledge sets (ZKS) allows a prover to commit to a secret set

S

so as to be able to prove statements such as

x

 ∈ 

S

or

$x \not\in S$

. Chase

et al.

showed that ZKS protocols are underlain by a cryptographic primitive termed

mercurial commitment

. A (trapdoor) mercurial commitment has two commitment procedures. At committing time, the committer can choose not to commit to a specific message and rather generate a dummy value which it will be able to softly open to any message without being able to completely open it. Hard commitments, on the other hand, can be hardly or softly opened to only one specific message. At Eurocrypt 2008, Catalano, Fiore and Messina (CFM) introduced an extension called trapdoor

q

-mercurial commitment (qTMC), which allows committing to a vector of

q

messages. These qTMC schemes are interesting since their openings w.r.t. specific vector positions can be short (ideally, the opening length should not depend on

q

), which provides zero-knowledge sets with much shorter proofs when such a commitment is combined with a Merkle tree of arity

q

. The CFM construction notably features short proofs of

non-membership

as it makes use of a qTMC scheme with short soft openings. A problem left open is that hard openings still have size

O

(

q

), which prevents proofs of membership from being as compact as those of non-membership. In this paper, we solve this open problem and describe a new qTMC scheme where hard and short position-wise openings, both, have

constant size

. We then show how our scheme is amenable to constructing independent zero-knowledge sets (i.e., ZKS’s that prevent adversaries from correlating their set to the sets of honest provers, as defined by Gennaro and Micali). Our solution retains the short proof property for this important primitive as well.

Benoît Libert, Moti Yung

Eye for an Eye: Efficient Concurrent Zero-Knowledge in the Timing Model

We present new and efficient concurrent zero-knowledge protocols in the timing model. In contrast to earlier works—which through artificially-imposed delays require

every

protocol execution to run at the speed of the

slowest

link in the network—our protocols essentially only delay messages based on the

actual

response time of each verifier (which can be significantly smaller).

Rafael Pass, Wei-Lung Dustin Tseng, Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam

Efficiency Preserving Transformations for Concurrent Non-malleable Zero Knowledge

Ever since the invention of Zero-Knowledge by Goldwasser, Micali, and Rackoff [1], Zero-Knowledge has become a central building block in cryptography - with numerous applications, ranging from electronic cash to digital signatures. The properties of Zero-Knowledge range from the most simple (and not particularly useful in practice) requirements, such as honest-verifier zero-knowledge to the most demanding (and most useful in applications) such as non-malleable and concurrent zero-knowledge. In this paper, we study the complexity of

efficient

zero-knowledge reductions, from the first type to the second type. More precisely, under a standard complexity assumption (

ddh

), on input a public-coin honest-verifier statistical zero knowledge argument of knowledge

π

′ for a language

L

we show a compiler that produces an argument system

π

for

L

that is concurrent non-malleable zero-knowledge (under non-adaptive inputs – which is the best one can hope to achieve [2,3]). If

κ

is the security parameter, the overhead of our compiler is as follows:

The round complexity of

π

is

$r+\tilde{O}(\log\kappa)$

rounds, where

r

is the round complexity of

π

′.

The new prover

$\mathcal{P}$

(resp., the new verifier

$\mathcal{V}$

) incurs an additional overhead of (at most)

$r+{\kappa\cdot\tilde{O}(\log^2\kappa)}$

modular exponentiations. If tags of length

$\tilde{O}(\log\kappa)$

are provided, the overhead is only

$r+{\tilde{O}(\log^2\kappa)}$

modular exponentiations.

The only previous concurrent non-malleable zero-knowledge (under non-adaptive inputs) was achieved by Barak, Prabhakaran and Sahai [4]. Their construction, however, mainly focuses on a

feasibility

result rather than efficiency, and requires expensive

${\mathcal{NP}}$

-reductions.

Rafail Ostrovsky, Omkant Pandey, Ivan Visconti

Efficiency Limitations for Σ-Protocols for Group Homomorphisms

Efficient zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge for group homomorphisms are essential for numerous systems in applied cryptography. Especially, Σ-protocols for proving knowledge of discrete logarithms in known and hidden order groups are of prime importance. Yet, while these proofs can be performed very efficiently within groups of known order, for hidden order groups the respective proofs are far less efficient.

This paper shows strong evidence that this efficiency gap cannot be bridged. Namely, while there are efficient protocols allowing a prover to cheat only with negligibly small probability in the case of known order groups, we provide strong evidence that for hidden order groups this probability is bounded below by 1/2 for all efficient Σ-protocols not using common reference strings or the like.

We prove our results for a comprehensive class of Σ-protocols in the generic group model, and further strengthen them by investigating certain instantiations in the plain model.

Endre Bangerter, Jan Camenisch, Stephan Krenn

Composition of Zero-Knowledge Proofs with Efficient Provers

We revisit the composability of different forms of zero- knowledge proofs when the honest prover strategy is restricted to be polynomial time (given an appropriate auxiliary input). Our results are:

1

When restricted to efficient provers, the original Goldwasser–Micali–Rackoff (GMR) definition of zero knowledge (STOC ‘85), here called

plain zero knowledge

, is closed under a constant number of sequential compositions (on the same input). This contrasts with the case of unbounded provers, where Goldreich and Krawczyk (ICALP ‘90, SICOMP ‘96) exhibited a protocol that is zero knowledge under the GMR definition, but for which the sequential composition of 2 copies is not zero knowledge.

1

If we relax the GMR definition to only require that the simulation is indistinguishable from the verifier’s view by uniform polynomial-time distinguishers, with no auxiliary input beyond the statement being proven, then again zero knowledge is not closed under sequential composition of 2 copies.

1

We show that auxiliary-input zero knowledge with efficient provers is not closed under

parallel

composition of 2 copies under the assumption that there is a secure key agreement protocol (in which it is easy to recognize valid transcripts). Feige and Shamir (STOC ‘90) gave similar results under the seemingly incomparable assumptions that (a) the discrete logarithm problem is hard, or (b)

${\mathcal{UP}}\not\subseteq {\mathcal{BPP}}$

and one-way functions exist.

Eleanor Birrell, Salil Vadhan

Private Coins versus Public Coins in Zero-Knowledge Proof Systems

Goldreich-Krawczyk (Siam J of Comp’96) showed that only languages in

BPP

have constant-round

public-coin

black-box zero-know-ledge protocols. We extend their lower bound to “fully black-box”

private-coin

protocols based on one-way functions. More precisely, we show that only languages in

BPP

Sam

—where

Sam

is a “collision-finding” oracle in analogy with Simon (Eurocrypt’98) and Haitner et. al (FOCS’07)—can have constant-round fully black-box zero-knowledge proofs; the same holds for constant-round fully black-box zero-knowledge

arguments

with sublinear verifier communication complexity. We also establish near-linear lower bounds on the round complexity of fully black-box concurrent zero-knowledge proofs (or arguments with sublinear verifier communication) for languages outside

BPP

Sam

.

The technique used to establish these results is a transformation from private-coin protocols into

Sam

-relativized public-coin protocols; for the case of fully black-box protocols based on one-way functions, this transformation preserves zero knowledge, round complexity and communication complexity.

Rafael Pass, Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam

Erratum to: Theory of Cryptography

Erratum to: D. Micciancio (Ed.) Theory of Cryptography DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-11799-2The book was inadvertently published with an incorrect name of the copyright holder. The name of the copyright holder for this book is: © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The book has been updated with the changes.

Daniele Micciancio

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