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Über dieses Buch

This book deals with the theory of macroscopic systems. Traditionally this theory has been fragmented over a number of disciplines like thermodynamics, physical transport phenomena, sometimes referred to as non-equilibrium or irreversible thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, chemical reaction engineering and heat and power engineering. This fragmentation, the different approaches followed in presenting theory, e.g. the inductive approach as opposed to the postulational approach in textbooks on thermodynamics, many alternative representations of equations and differences in notation make it cumbersome to discern a single coherent theory of macroscopic systems. The idea of this book is to present the theory of macroscopic systems as a unified theory with equations strictly developed from a single set of principles and concepts. The book is an attempt to bridge gaps between the various disciplines. It can serve as a textbook, refresher or reference book to students of an advanced level in various disciplines, to scientists and to practising engineers working in design and development. It provides rigorous equations and their possible simplifications for use in computer models for scale-up or optimisation. Topics like exergy analysis and multi­ component diffusion are included. The principles and concepts in the theory of macroscopic systems com­ prise in addition to the mole and mass balances over a system, the balance equations for the fundamental extensive properties momentum, energy and entropy as well as the phenomenological laws on asymptotic phase behaviour and molecular transport.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Structure and Contents

Abstract
The accompanying table at the end of the volume summarises the structure and contents of the book. It has nine rows representing the chapters and three columns in which principles and concepts are consecutively postulated or applied. The first two of the nine chapters deal with principles and first deductions, the next three with property relations (PR’s) of systems at equilibrium and the last four with balance equations (BE’s) of systems distinct by the way their properties change with time and place. Column 1 involves mole numbers, masses and generalised extensive properties, column 2 the fundamental extensives momentum, energy and entropy and column 3 the phenomenological laws on asymptotic phase behaviour and molecular transport.
Cor Ouwerkerk

1. Principles

Abstract
All equations in this book are derived from the principles and concepts postulated in this chapter. As indicated in the structure and contents the principles are introduced in three consecutive steps. We introduce first the column-1 principles which involve mole numbers, masses and generalised extensives, then the column-2 principles which include the fundamental extensives momentum, energy and entropy, and, finally, the column-3 principles comprising phenomenological laws.
Cor Ouwerkerk

2. First Deductions

Abstract
In this chapter we deduce some first results from the column-1 and column-2 principles postulated in Chapter 1 to be applied in deriving PR’s and BE’s in the next chapters.
Cor Ouwerkerk

3. PR’s of Single-Phase Systems

Abstract
After the principles postulated in Chapter 1 and the first deductions presented in Chapter 2, we shall now derive PR’s of a single-phase system in the three consecutive cells of Chapter 3. Inputs to each cell can come from cells with equal or lower row and column numbers.
Cor Ouwerkerk

4. PR’s of Multi-Phase Systems

Abstract
The development of PR’s in this chapter follows the same pattern as in Chapter 3. Again inputs to each cell are from cells with equal or lower row and column numbers.
Cor Ouwerkerk

5. PR’s of Reaction Systems

Abstract
This chapter is the last of the three chapters on PR’s. The development of the PR’s proceeds along the same lines as for a multi-phase system in Chapter 4.
Cor Ouwerkerk

6. BE’s of Non-Flow Systems

Abstract
This is the first of a series of four chapters on BE’s It deals with non-flow systems. In practical terms one can think of a non-flow system as a piston-in-cylinder system with inlets and outlets. The intensive properties of the system are time-dependent and place-independent. Transport of matter into or from the system is in general not gradientless. In deriving equations we use mole and mass balances and the FBE’s [U] and [S]. Column-2 PR’s are included to express physical equilibrium within the system. In this chapter column-3 equations are obtained by inserting ideal-gas PR’s.
Cor Ouwerkerk

7. BE’s of Continuous Plug Flow Systems

Abstract
We have seen that properties of a non-flow system are time-dependent and place-independent.
Cor Ouwerkerk

8. BE’s of Continuous Mixed Flow Systems

Abstract
In Chapter 7 we introduced continuous flow systems having time-independent and place-dependent properties and, as a consequence, zero accumulation terms and continuous transport and production rates in their describing BE’s. There we focused on continuous plug flow systems as a subclass. In this chapter we turn to continuous mixed flow systems as a second subclass.
Cor Ouwerkerk

9. BE’s of Infinitesimal Systems

Abstract
In the previous chapters on BE’s we focused on non-flow, continuous plug flow and continuous mixed flow systems. These systems have in common that the dependency of properties on time and place is simplified. In contrast we allow properties in this chapter to change both with time and with place in all directions. It is the first chapter in which the linear transport laws postulated in cell 1.3 are applied.
Cor Ouwerkerk

Backmatter

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