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Über dieses Buch

Porous media theories play an important role in many branches of engineering, including material science, the petroleum industry, chemical engineering, and soil mechanics, as well as biomechanics. This book offers a consistent treatment of the material-independent fundamental equations of the theory of porous media, formulates constitutive equations for frictional materials in the elastic and plastic range, and traces the historical development of porous media theory. Thus, for the first time, a unique treatment of fluid-saturated porous solids is presented. The corresponding theory is explained by its historical progression, and its current state is thoroughly described.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
In general, many solids show an internal structure. On the one hand, this is due to the fact that several solids consist of different solid components, such as dense concrete without pores. On the other hand, solids can contain closed and open pores, such as ceramics and soils, as well as concrete. In the past, these materials were, in general, treated as one-component materials lacking an internal structure. Using such a model — one which consists of an ideal material classical continuum mechanics has been very successful. All defined mechanical terms (for example, stress) are thereby understood as average quantities. Classical continuum mechanics can therefore not answer questions concerning the change of pores and the different motions belonging to the phases of liquid-saturated porous solids.
Reint de Boer

Chapter 2. The Early Era

Abstract
Porous media theory is based on the fundamental axioms and principles of mechanics and thermodynamics. The development of the scientific treatment of mechanical problems started around 1600. It was Galileo Galilei who founded mechanics as a branch of science. He laid the corner stone for a scientific approach to the natural world — namely to gather experience of certain mechanical problems, to order them, to create a theory, and to prove this through selected experiments as he had done in the treatments of streangth of material and projectile motion.
Reint de Boer

Chapter 3. The Classical Era

Abstract
The classical era of the development of porous media theory spanned almost one hundred years, from 1822 to 1913. The term classical era is justified in the sense that, during this time, fundamental ideas from the eighteenth century were made concrete and various theories completed. As was mentioned at the end of the previous chapter, this is true, on the one hand, for the concrete formulation of the stress concept and for the derivation of the material-independent fundamental equations; and on the other hand, for the completion of the theory of linear-elastic bodies, that of viscous fluids, the earth pressure theory, and the failure condition for granular material. This is also true for the formulation of a plasticity theory for ductile materials as well as the development of thermodynamics.
Reint de Boer

Chapter 4. The Modern Era

Abstract
The development of basic relations in the classical era: the stress concept, the elasticity law, the fundamental laws of Delesse, Fick, and Darcy, the foundation of the mixture theory by Maxwell and Stefan, as well as the foundation of thermodynamics, all these had provided enough background material in order to treat empty or fluid-saturated porous solids. Indeed, in this century, the theory of porous media has been at last firmly established based on the achievements of the nineteenth century.
Reint de Boer

Chapter 5. Current State of Porous Media Theory

Abstract
In many branches of engineering, for example, in chemical engineering, material science, and soil mechanics, as well as in biomechanics, the different reactions of material systems undergoing external and/or internal loadings must be studied and described precisely in order to be able to predict the responses of these systems. Subsequently, the most important point of the investigation is to determine first the composition of the body, because one must know the physically and chemically differing materials that constitute the system under consideration. The material systems (or bodies) in these fields of engineering can be composed in various ways. On the one hand, solids can consist of different solid components, such as dense concrete, without considerable pores. On the other hand, solids can contain closed and open pores, such as ceramics and soils, as well as concrete. The pores can be filled with fluids and, due to the different material properties and the different motions, there may be interaction between the constituents. As was mentioned in Section 1, this fact makes the description of the mechanical (or the thermodynamic) behavior difficult.
Reint de Boer

Chapter 6. Conclusions and Outlook

Abstract
In the historical part (Chapter 2 through 4) some highlights of the development of porous media theory have been traced from infancy to their current state. Among the highlights, the bitter dispute between the professors Fillunger and von Terzaghi at the Technische Hochschule in Vienna in the 1930s, with its tragic results, has a particular place. The affair is representative of the unrest and upheaval in middle Europe during this period. For porous media theory, the year 1936 is a landmark, because it is in this year that the precise and general formulation of the one-dimensional mechanical porous media theory by Fillunger came to light. It is clear with hindsight that Fillunger’s approach was about 35 years ahead of its time.
Reint de Boer

Backmatter

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