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2024 | Buch

Thermal Comfort Perception

A Questionnaire Approach Focusing on Children

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Über dieses Buch

This book offers a comprehensive exploration of children's understanding and experiences of thermal comfort. The book provides a methodology for evaluating comfort that takes into account the unique perspectives of children.

The first part of the book provides an overview of the history of thermal comfort, the human body and environmental parameters, and common thermal comfort indexes. It also offers guidelines for creating questionnaires that accurately assess children's perceptions of indoor thermal comfort.

The book then delves into children's understanding of the concepts of comfort and energy, as well as the factors that influence their perception of these concepts. It addresses the psychological and pedagogical aspects of thermal comfort judgment, as well as the architectural and environmental characteristics that contribute to children's perceptions of comfort.

First published as Indoor Thermal Comfort Perception, this updated edition also includes new sections on architecture and sensitivity, exploring the impact of classroom spaces on learning, and outdoor education and thermal comfort outdoors, based on qualitative research. These additions provide valuable insights for future studies on these topics.

While physical parameter measurements and comfort indexes are useful in thermal comfort, the book emphasizes the importance of ergonomic assessments in the form of questionnaires, which offer unique insights into children's experiences. The book fills a critical gap in understanding children's perceptions of thermal comfort and is essential reading for HVAC engineers, architects, environmental psychologists, and researchers in the medical and cognitive fields.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Thermal Comfort and Children Thermal Cognitive Knowledge

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction
Abstract
This chapter describes the purpose and content of the book, and acknowledgement.
Kristian Fabbri
Chapter 2. A Brief History of Thermal Comfort: From Effective Temperature to Adaptive Thermal Comfort
Abstract
The study of Thermal Comfort was born in the early decades of the twentieth century, with the studies of A. P. Gagge to resolve particular problems due to stressful situations in the workplace. The postwar period and in the seventies, with P. O. Fanger and other researchers, marked the study as a real discipline. This chapter is a brief history of the discipline that studies Thermal Comfort.
Kristian Fabbri
Chapter 3. Ergonomics of the Thermal Environment. Human Body and Clothes
Abstract
The Human Body constantly exchanges energy and mass with the environment, to ensure its own metabolism. The study of the physiology of the human body used to determine the terms of the Heat Balance Equation. This chapter describes the indexes that are used to determine: the Heat Balance Equation, the Clothes resistance and how the human body perceives the Indoor Air Quality.
Kristian Fabbri
Chapter 4. The Indoor Thermal Comfort Indexes PMV and PPD
Abstract
The study of the energy exchange between human body and environment (Human Body heat exchange) does not allow you to evaluate the view that people have with respect to comfort. Comfort can be expressed with indices and temperature sensation. This chapter describes the various indexes, in particular the Predicted Mean Vote and the related measurement tools as provided by the regulations. Added to this are considerations on the development of research in the field of comfort that includes the assessment of the social and cultural and tied to the Human Behavior, in particular the Adaptive Thermal Comfort, and the simultaneous evaluation of comfort parameters such as the Indoor Air Quality and the Indoor Environmental Quality.
Kristian Fabbri
Chapter 5. Assessment of the Influence of the Thermal Environment Using Subjective Judgement Scales
Abstract
The evaluation of the feeling of Thermal Comfort can also be achieved by directly asking users of indoor environments. After all, this is the same approach taken by Fanger. In these cases, taking the questionnaire by which you can determine the indexes of judgment (PMV and PPD) and indexes of preference on the desirable conditions of Thermal Comfort. This chapter describes the contents of the survey questions, and criteria for administration through surveys and/or interviews.
Kristian Fabbri
Chapter 6. The Thermal Comfort and Child Development Psychology
Abstract
The study of Thermal Comfort as perceived by children requires us to know Thermal Cognitive Knowledge (TCK): children’s ability to understand the feelings caused by iterations with the environment with respect to their own cognitive universe-world. Added to this is the need to define the questions that can be understood by children without the intermediation of the contents by adults. This chapter is a summary of the main issues affecting the study of Child Development and relations with the indoor environment and thermal comfort, and the information needed to prepare the contents of the survey questions to ask children.
Kristian Fabbri
Chapter 7. New Classroom: Indoor Air Quality and Distance Learning
Abstract
The first edition of book was in 2015, so many things have happened that have changed research in indoor thermal comfort, primarily, the effect of the pandemic on the classroom. Classrooms changed place: not only inside a school building, but also other space became school, such as a room in a home, thanks to DAT and outdoor space. This upgraded new chapter presents a brief survey of the scientific literature on thermal comfort and the classroom, their measurements, how COVID changed indoor air ventilation in the classroom.
Kristian Fabbri

Case Studies

Frontmatter
Chapter 8. Field Research
Abstract
In Part Two we report the results of research in four case studies carried out at kindergartens and Italian schools of various levels. This chapter discusses the objectives, methodology and equipment common to all the research and the Italian educational system.
Kristian Fabbri
Chapter 9. Kindergarten Case Study
Abstract
In this chapter we report a case study of the Diana Kindergarten in Reggio-Emilia (Italy). The research concerns the assessment of the Thermal Comfort and Indoor Environmental Quality through questionnaires administered to children aged 4 and 5 years of age. The questionnaires were processed with the children with the support of teachers and education experts, according to the pedagogical model of the kindergarten (the Reggio-Emilia Approach). The results show a different cognitive universe of the children with regard to the understanding of the indoor and outdoor environment, and a metabolic rate slightly higher than that of adults. In addition, research has provided useful insights into the cognitive aspects of children and changes to the research approach.
Kristian Fabbri
Chapter 10. Elementary School Case Study
Abstract
In this chapter we report a case study of the Elementary School Centro Educativo Italo Svizzero (CEIS) of Rimini. The research concerns the evaluation of Thermal Comfort through questionnaires administered to classes of children between 7 and 10 years and of between 4 and 5 years of age. The questionnaires were carried out with the children and the teachers, according to the CEIS pedagogical model, recalling the experience of Piaget, reviewed by Margerita Zoebli. The questionnaires used images and references related to ideas from school programs.
Kristian Fabbri
Chapter 11. Middle School Case Study
Abstract
In this chapter we report the case study of the Middle School Plautus Cesena (Italy). The research concerns the evaluation of Thermal Comfort through questionnaires administered to approximately 230 children between 10 and 13 years of age. The questionnaires were developed by researchers and then given to children in two campaigns; the first campaign of surveys was not accompanied by monitoring and reported some errors that we consider useful to report in this book. Monitoring was done for one representative classroom. In the same classroom was made the monitoring and measurement of the levels of lighting and Perceived Lighting Comfort.
Kristian Fabbri

New Deal

Frontmatter
Chapter 12. Architecture, Comfort and Emotion in the Classroom (Air, Smell, Color)
Abstract
Thermal comfort is part of the child’s experience in the classroom and at school. The senses, sensations and, consequently, the emotions he or she feels during the day at school, are related to the architecture and to the pedagogical model. This chapter deals with the relationship between the senses and thermal sensation, between emotions and alliesthesia, the role of the senses in the perception of architecture, overcoming the approach to design that sees the predominance of the eye, as illustrated by J. Pallasmaa, towards architecture that considers all the senses.
Kristian Fabbri
Chapter 13. Outdoor Education and Thermal Comfort
Abstract
The chapter considers the role of Outdoor Thermal Comfort during Outdoor Education. Outdoor Education consists of carrying out educational activities or experiences with children outside the classroom, in the schoolyard, in open spaces or in nature, even including forests or the wilderness. The climate, in particular the study of the outdoor microclimate, makes it possible to evaluate the thermal sensation, expressed as Outdoor Thermal Comfort, determined by the energy exchanges between the human body, the sun and the external environment, with the aim of expressing indexes of heat stress or thermal discomfort. Finally, the relationships and connections between Outdoor Education and Outdoor Thermal Comfort are addressed, as a future research path in the framework of the various actions underway for the reduction of Urban Heat Islands and the implementation of Nature Based Solutions.
Kristian Fabbri
Chapter 14. Conclusions
Abstract
The chapter report the conclusion about the book new edition, with some suggestion to future studies on indoor and outdoor thermal comfort, correlation with architecture and landscape design, role of social thermal comfort correlated to children thermal cognitive and perceptive knowledge.
Kristian Fabbri
Metadaten
Titel
Thermal Comfort Perception
verfasst von
Kristian Fabbri
Copyright-Jahr
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-52610-7
Print ISBN
978-3-031-52609-1
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-52610-7