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Über dieses Buch

This revised text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. The book begins with fundamental definitions of units and dimensions, thermodynamic variables and the Laws of Thermodynamics progressing to sections on specific applications of the Brayton and Rankine cycles for power generation and projected reactor systems design issues. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play. There have been significant new findings for intercooled systems since the previous edition published and they will be included in this volume. New technology plans for using a Nuclear Air-Brayton as a storage system for a low carbon grid are presented along with updated component sizes and performance criteria for Small Modular Reactors.

Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. An Introduction to Thermal-Hydraulic Aspects of Nuclear Power Reactors

Abstract
Nuclear power plants (NPPs) currently generate better than 20% of the central station electricity produced in the United States. The United States currently has 104 operating power-producing reactors, with nine more planned. France has 58 with one more planned. China has 13 with 43 planned. Japan has 54 with three more planned. In addition, Russia has 32 with 12 more planned. Production of electricity via nuclear has certainly come into its own and is the safest, cleanest, and greenest form of electricity currently introduced on this planet. However, many current thermodynamic texts ignore nuclear energy and use few examples of nuclear power systems. Nuclear energy presents some interesting thermodynamic challenges, and it helps to introduce them at the fundamental level. Research activities are currently underway worldwide to develop Generation IV nuclear reactor concepts with the objective of improving thermal efficiency and increasing economic competitiveness of Generation IV nuclear power plants compared to modern thermal power plants. Our goal here will be to introduce thermal aspect of nuclear power reactors as it applies to a variety of issues related to nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics and safety, which deals with energy production and utilization, therefore to have some general understanding of nuclear power plants, is essential. However, that is true for any textual introduction to this science; yet, by considering concrete systems, it is easier to give insight into the fundamental laws of the science and to provide an intuitive feeling for further study.
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Chapter 2. Thermodynamics

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the turbine cycle, thermodynamics, and heat engines and relationship between pressure, specific volume, and temperature for a pure substance. The objective is to provide enough understanding of the turbine cycle to enable an appreciation of the role that it plays in overall plant design and performance. To set the scene, some thermodynamic fundamentals are reviewed in the next few sections.
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Chapter 3. Transport Properties

Abstract
This chapter deals with the relationship between pressure, specific volume, and temperature for a pure substance. As part nuclear or mechanical engineers, we face the calculation of energy and mass transfer rates in particular when we have a situation encountering the phases between fluid systems. There are cases that nuclear engineers have to deal with one-dimensional two phases flows (i.e., heat pipe designs for heat transfer purpose or core of nuclear power plants) that require them to have better understanding of transport phenomena. There are also circumstances that one deals with transfer at solid–liquid interfaces, and yet there are situations that we need to solve problems that process the interface between liquid and gas, so this chapter is that all about.
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Chapter 4. General Conservation Equations

Abstract
There are certain important physical properties that must be conserved. This chapter presents a generic recipe for deriving conservations equations of all kinds. It will demonstrate the physical basis of most of the frequently occurring terms. These terms are either presented in partial or ordinary differential equation (PDE, ODE) forms. When we are finished, we should be able to formulate any quantitative problem in continuum mechanics, with a little bit of thoughts.
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Chapter 5. Laminar Incompressible Forced Convection

Abstract
This chapter deals with a simple introductory of momentum balances and laminar one-dimensional flow, then progressing to transient analysis of one-dimensional flows. By studying this chapter, you will learn how to obtain average velocity from knowledge of velocity profile, and in contrast average temperature from temperature profile in internal flow. In addition, you be able to have a visual understanding of different flow regions in internal flow, such as the entry and the fully developed flow regions, and calculate hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths.
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Chapter 6. Turbulent Forced Convection

Abstract
Turbulence occurs nearly everywhere in nature. It is characterized by the efficient dispersion and mixing of vorticity, heat, and contaminants. In flows over solid bodies such as airplane wings or turbine blades, or in confined flows through ducts and pipelines, turbulence is responsible for increased drag and heat transfer. Turbulence is therefore a subject of great engineering interest. In this chapter, we will look at the state of the fluid motion, which is independent of heat transfer and this is where we speak of forced convection. Forced convection occurs when an external force, such as a pump, fan, or a mixer, induces a fluid flow. On the other hand, natural convection is caused by buoyancy forces due to density differences caused by temperature variations in the fluid. At heating the density change in the boundary layer will cause the fluid to rise and be replaced by cooler fluid that also will heat and rise. These continuous phenomena are called free or natural convection.
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Chapter 7. Compressible Flow

Abstract
Compressible flow is the area of fluid mechanics that deals with fluids in which the fluid density varies significantly in response to a change in pressure. Compressibility effects are typically considered significant if the Mach number of the flow exceeds 0.3 before significant compressibility occurs. The study of compressible flow is relevant to high-speed aircraft, jet engines, gas pipelines, and commercial applications such as abrasive blasting and many other fields.
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Chapter 8. Conduction Heat Transfer

Abstract
Thermodynamics, along with thermal hydraulic analysis, deals with the transfer of heat to and from a working fluid and the performance of work by that fluid. Since the transfer of heat to a working fluid is central to thermodynamics, a short excursion into the technology of heat transfer is useful to tie thermodynamics to real world devices. Heat transfer processes are never ideal and a study of the technology of heat transfer will develop an understanding of the trade-offs in the design of the devices that actually accomplish the heat transfer. Heat transfer technology provides the basis on which heat exchangers are designed to accomplish the actual transfer of thermal energy.
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Chapter 9. Forced Convection Heat Transfer

Abstract
Convection is the term used for heat transfer mechanism, which takes place in a fluid because of a combination of conduction due to the molecular interactions and energy transport due to the macroscopic (bulk) motion of the fluid itself. In the above definition, the motion of the fluid is essential otherwise, the heat transfer mechanism becomes a static conduction situation. When the term of convection is used, usually a solid surface is present next to the fluid. There are also cases of convection where only fluids are present, such as a hot jet entering into a cold reservoir. However, the most of the industrial applications involve a hot or cold surface transferring heat to the fluid or receiving heat from the fluid.
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Chapter 10. Natural or Free Convection

Abstract
As opposed to a forced convection flow where external means are used to provide the flow, the free-convection flow field is a self-sustained flow driven by the presence of a temperature gradient.
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Chapter 11. Mass Transfer

Abstract
In this chapter, we will discuss mass transfer and its occurrence in many processes, such as absorption, evaporation, adsorption, drying, precipitation, membrane filtration, and distillation. Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location to another. Mass transfer is used by different scientific disciplines for different processes and mechanisms. The phrase is commonly used in engineering for physical processes that involve diffusive and convective transport of chemical species within physical systems.
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Chapter 12. Thermal Radiation

Abstract
Thermal radiation is type of energy that is transferred by the direct contact of molecules, not by the movement of the material. All materials radiate thermal energy in amounts determined by their temperature, where the energy is carried by photons of light in the infrared and visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. When temperatures are uniform, the radiative flux between objects is in equilibrium and no net thermal energy is exchanged. The balance is upset when temperatures are not uniform, and thermal energy is transported from surfaces of higher to surfaces of lower temperature. An example of such event is, when heat felt while standing away from a large fire on a calm night. Everything that has a temperature above absolute zero radiates energy. Radiation is not “felt” until it is absorbed by a substance. It does not require a medium to transfer energy through as do conduction and convection. Thermal radiation is emitted when a body is heated, in wavelengths primarily in the 0.1–10 μm range.
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Chapter 13. Multiphase Flow Dynamics

Abstract
The subject of two- or multiphase flow has become increasingly important in a wide variety of engineering systems for their optimum design and safe operations. It is, however, by no means limited to today’s modern industrial technology, and multiphase flow phenomena which require better understandings. Some of the important applications are listed below. A phase is simply one of the states of matter and can be a gas, either a liquid, or a solid. Multiphase flow is the simultaneous flow of several phases. Two-phase flow is the simplest case of multiphase flow.
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Chapter 14. Convective Boiling

Abstract
An understanding of convective boiling flow depends on successful methods for analyzing two-phase flows first developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two-phase flow is a very complex problem. Its complexity stems from the coexistence of steam and water in flows in a pot of boiling water, as occurs in a pressurized water reactor during an accident involving a loss of coolant. Other examples of two-phase flow, human made or natural, are bubbles rising in a carbonated drink, raindrops falling through the air, gasoline and air reacting in an automobile engine, and water and steam circulating through a nuclear reactor.
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Chapter 15. Thermal Stress

Abstract
A temperature changes cause the body to expand or contract. If temperature deformation is permitted to occur freely, no load or stress will be induced in the structure. In some cases where temperature deformation is not permitted, an internal stress is created. The internal stress created is termed as thermal stress. This deformation can induce stresses in the material and this is when a solid material is subjected to a temperature differential, the structure of the material changes and causes a volumetric expansion. Thermal stresses must often be accounted for and avoided, for example in the construction of railways, roads, or copper interconnects used in microelectronic devices [1–3].
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Chapter 16. Combined Cycle-Driven Efficiency in Nuclear Power Plant

Abstract
A number of technologies are being investigated for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant that will produce heated fluids at significantly higher temperatures than current generation power plants. The higher temperatures offer the opportunity to significantly improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the energy conversion cycle. One of the concepts currently under study is the Molten Salt Reactor. The coolant from the Molten Salt Reactor may be available at temperatures as high as 800–1000 °C. At these temperatures, an open Brayton cycle combined with and Rankine bottoming cycle appears to have some strong advantages. Thermodynamic efficiencies approaching 50% appear possible. Requirements for circulating cooling water will be significantly reduced. However, to realistically estimate the efficiencies achievable it is essential to have good models for the heat exchangers involved as well as the appropriate turbo-machinery. This study has concentrated on modeling all power conversion equipment from the fluid exiting the reactor to the energy releases to the environment.
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Chapter 17. Heat Exchangers

Abstract
A number of technologies are being investigated for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant that will produce heated fluids at significantly higher temperatures than current generation power plants. The higher temperatures offer the opportunity to significantly improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the energy conversion cycle. One of the concepts currently under study is the Molten Salt Reactor. The coolant from the Molten Salt Reactor may be available at temperatures as high as 800–1000 °C. At these temperatures, an open Brayton cycle combined with a Rankine bottoming cycle appears to have some strong advantages. Thermodynamic efficiencies approaching 50% appear possible. Requirements for circulating cooling water will be significantly reduced. However, to realistically estimate the efficiencies achievable it is essential to have good models for the heat exchangers involved as well as the appropriate turbo-machinery. This study has concentrated on modeling all power conversion equipment from the fluid exiting the reactor to the energy releases to the environment.
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Chapter 18. Analysis of Reactor Accident

Abstract
Since the nuclear reactors based on the fission reaction are getting to be more economically competitive, with other type of electrical power plants such as gas or fossil fuel based. However, there appears to be nearly unlimited supply of fission product fuel, providing the new generation (i.e., GEN IV) concepts are developing over the near term, as a result, the nuclear power reactor is becoming a major source of electric power as well as supply of such source to industrialized society are becoming inevitable. The scope of this chapter is confined to nuclear safety as it pertains to power reactor accident that may lead to release of radioactive materials to the environment. Moreover, we should be concerned and put emphasis to the discussion of those more serious situations with the potential for causing significant public health problem.
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Chapter 19. Probabilistic Risk Assessment

Abstract
Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has emerged as an increasingly popular analysis tool especially during the last decade. PRA is a systematic and comprehensive methodology to evaluate risks associated with every life-cycle aspect of a complex engineered technological entity (e.g., facility, spacecraft, or power plant) from concept definition, through design, construction, and operation, and up to removal from service [1].
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Chapter 20. Nuclear Power Plants

Abstract
Currently, about half of all nuclear power plants are located in the United States. There are many different kinds of nuclear power plants, and we will discuss a few important designs in this text. A nuclear power plant harnesses the energy inside atoms themselves and converts this to electricity. All of us use this electricity. In Sect. 20.1 of this chapter, we show you the idea of the fission process and how it works. A nuclear power plant uses controlled nuclear fission. In this chapter, we will explore how a nuclear power plant operates and the manners in which nuclear reactions are controlled. There are several different designs for nuclear reactors. Most of them have the same basic function, but ones implementation of this function separates it from another. There are several classification systems used to distinguish between reactor types. Below is a list of common reactor types and classification systems found throughout the world, and they are briefly explained below according to the three types of classification: (1) Classified by Moderator Material, (2) Classified by Coolant Material, and (3) Classified by Reaction Type.
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Chapter 21. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Abstract
Nuclear power has unresolved challenges in long-term management of radioactive wastes. A critical factor for the future of an expanded nuclear power industry is the choice of the fuel cycle—what type of fuel is used, what types of reactors “burn” the fuel, and the method of disposal of spent fuel.
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Chapter 22. The Economic Future of Nuclear Power

Abstract
From the global viewpoint and urgent need to support rising demand for electricity, many countries recognize the substantial role which nuclear power has played in satisfying various policy objectives, including energy security of supply, reducing import dependence, and reducing greenhouse gas or polluting emissions. Nevertheless, as such considerations are far from being fully accounted for in liberalized power markets, nuclear plants must demonstrate their viability on normal commercial criteria as well as their life cycle advantages.
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Chapter 23. Safety, Waste Disposal, Containment, and Accidents

Abstract
The public acceptance of nuclear energy is still greatly dependent on the risk of radiological consequences in case of severe accidents. Such consequences were recently emphasized with the Fukushima-Daiichi accident in 2011. The nation’s nuclear power plants are among the safest and most secure industrial facilities in the United States. Multiple layers of physical security, together with high levels of operational performance, protect plant workers, the public, and the environment.
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Backmatter

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