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Über dieses Buch

This book introduces readers to the rich and varied thermal springs of the Tibetan Plateau, which is steadily rising due to the collision of two continental plates. Readers will discover a wealth of information on boiling springs and hot springs, including their location and elevation, temperature, geological characteristics, and water chemical data, as well as tables on warm and tepid springs. Shedding new light on this vital supplement to hydroelectric resources in remote southwest China, the book will appeal to a broad relationship, from experts researching the Tibetan Plateau to companies specializing in geothermal exploration.



Chapter 1. Classification of Thermal Springs

This chapter discusses the definition and classification of thermal springs. Based on the boiling temperature of local elevation, the annual mean maximum temperature of the earth and local annual average temperature, thermal springs can be divided into four categories: boiling spring, hot spring, warm spring, and tepid spring.

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Chapter 2. Thermal Springs in China

This chapter introduces the quantity and distribution of thermal springs in China, Based on the investigation of whole country in 1970s, the total number of thermal springs of whole nation was 3398, including Taiwan Province 94. The most concentrated region of thermal spring is Yunnan and Tibet in the first, Fujian and Guangdong second. The biggest distribution density is Taiwan. The boiling spring only emerges in Tibet, west Sichuan, Southwest Yunnan, and Taiwan, Qinghai is only one.

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Chapter 3. Geological Setting

This chapter analyses the geological setting of appearance of thermal springs in different provinces in China. High-temperature geothermal regions emerge on the margin of plate tectonic. Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau is a collision of continental crusts between Eurasian and Indian Plates. Taiwan is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Fujian and Guangdong are closed the margin of east edge of Eurasian Plate, but is not on the island arc of west pacific ocean, where is a shovel-like fracture system dip to east and short of boiling springs.

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Chapter 4. General Survey of Thermal Springs of Qingzang Plateau and Its Surrounding Areas

This chapter tabulates statistics of thermal springs in Tibet Autonomous Region, west Sichuan Province and southwest Yunnan Province. There are different opinions concerning the amount of thermal springs in Tibet. According to “national standard”, it is only 304; Considering low annual temperature at plateau, it could be more than 600. According to preliminary statistics in this book, the amount of thermal springs in Tibet is 645, in which 223 spas lack on-the-spot investigation. The west Sichuan is eastern end of Qingzang Plateau, where there are 334 thermal springs, in which 34 spas lack of temperature and water chemical data.

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Chapter 5. Boiling Springs in the Southwest China

This chapter describes varied and colorful 77 boiling springs in great detail. The types of geothermal manifestation include geysers, hydrothermal exploration, fumaroles, steaming ground, silica sinter, travertine, hot water lake, and intense hydrothermal alteration, and so on. Daggy, Capu in Tibet, and Caluparseng Qumig in Sichuan are three famous geysers. The strongest hydrothermal exploration took place at Qucain Lungba (Qubug) of Burang County in Tibet. The Yangbajain geothermal field and The Rehai geothermal field are the biggest high-temperature hydrothermal convective systems in southwestern China.

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Chapter 6. Hot Springs in Southwestern China

This chapter describes 548 hot spring in Qingzang Plateau and the surrounding, of which Tibet has 179, west Sichuan 103, and southwest Yunnan 266. A brief introduction of their geographical positions and altitude, spa’s temperatures, geothermal manifestations, and the main chemical compositions of spring waters and country rocks has been done.

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Chapter 7. Warm Springs and Tepid Springs in the Southwest China

This chapter will briefly introduce warm springs and tepid springs in research area by making use of tabulation. The items in table will show serial number, spa’s name, county, longitude and latitude, altitude, spa’s temperature, the SiO2 content and TDS values of spa’s water, and type of water. The table is marked “SiO2 concentration” that can distinguish type of hydrothermal convective system. The chemical content of some low-temperature springs is similar to that of high-temperature system. The analysis results of its water sample will be fully revealed.

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Chapter 8. Hydrothermal Convection Systems and Geothermal Energy in the Southwest China

This chapter is the assessment of geothermal resources (high and intermediate temperature) of the Qingzang Plateau and its surroundings. Based on the average of SiO2, Na–K, Na–K–Ca and K–Mg geothermometers, 107 high-temperature hydrothermal convective systems have been determined and then their installed capacity has been estimated. The definition of 559 intermediate temperature systems relies upon SiO2 geothermometer for help. The geothermoelectric potential of high-temperature system is 3410 MW30yr and the beneficial heat is 11.78 EJ in research area.

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Chapter 9. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Resources in Southwestern China

This chapter discusses Hot Dry Rock geothermal resources in southwest China and establishment of EGS system. Chinese terrestrial heat flow data amounts to 921 in 2001, which is the foundation assessing HDR geothermal resource. The highest heat flow values widely appeared in the Tibetan Plateau. The deep temperature patterns calculated by heat flow values in the continental area of China show that the temperature of most part of Tibet at the depth 3.5–8.5 km has reached 200–400 ℃. The southern part of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is provided with rich in HDR geothermal resources, accounting for 20.5% of total resource base.

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Chapter 10. The Future of Geothermal Energy in Qingzang Plateau

This chapter discusses the future of geothermal energy in Qingzang Plateau. The current situation of geothermal exploitation is that direct use ranks first in the world and geothermal power generation ranks eighteenth in 24 countries. The direct use in China mainly presented in bigger cities of eastern part of country to use intermediate-low temperature hot water from sedimentary basin. But the remote west region abounds in high-temperature geothermal resources and hydroelectric potentials. Thus, the geothermal electricity could only be an important supplement to hydropower stations.

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Erratum to: Thermal Springs and Geothermal Energy in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the Surroundings

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