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2023 | Buch

Threats to Peace and International Security: Asia versus West

Current Challenges in a New Geopolitical Situation


Über dieses Buch

This book aims to analyze from a multidisciplinary perspective the current geopolitical conflict between East and West, between two differentiated and apparently conflicting cosmogonic visions. The geopolitical evolution of the current panorama seems to lead to a new world in the field of international relations, a new board played on a planetary level. Once again, bloc geopolitics can be glimpsed in the immediate future, in which the most important actors such as Russia, China, the United States of America, and the European Union are called to position themselves with respect to the territorial and strategic ambitions of the opponent. International law seems to be overwhelmed by military actions and factual pressure on the ground, while the battle of ideas extends to the technological field and cyberspace. The different origins of the authors, with extensive academic, military, police forces, and business experience undoubtedly enriches the unique perspective that this work intends to address, always in the attempt to enforce international law and the channels of dialogue between nations, such as the best solution to conflicts.



European Challenges

Sovereignty and Defense in the European Union. A Historical and Current Essay
Rogelio Perez Bustamante
The Hegemonic Rivalry Between the United States and the People’s Republic of China: European Union’s Place
If anything characterises the current state of the international system, it is the re-emergence of great power rivalry. This rivalry has two main consequences: the re-emergence of traditional security problems and the challenge to the international order established since the Second World War. The powers at the centre of this rivalry for the dominance and design of the world order include the People's Republic of China, which has risen dramatically, now wields considerable comprehensive power and seeks to use it to project its influence. Against it, the United States takes a posture of resistance, containment and defence of the existing liberal international order and seeks relentlessly to enlist Europe's support in this effort. However, Europe, while increasingly aware of the challenge posed by the People's Republic of China, has not yet opted for a decisive alignment with Washington, probably because, at least in the short term, the relationship with Beijing also brings it benefits, but above all because it prioritises problems that are geographically closer and that may seem more pressing.
Gracia Abad-Quintanal
The Case of David vs. Goliath?
Reflections on the International Regulation of the Use of Force in Relation to the Russia–Ukraine Conflict
Noémi Nagy
The Ukrainian Russian Conflict Between the International Liberal System and International Realist System
Giovanni Tonlorenzi

Far East Challenges

China's Borderless Expansionism. Could Be a Threat to International Security?
In recent decades, China has established itself as a world economic power. While some Western countries question the leadership of their rulers, and weak governments are created, with little capacity for action, China is the only one of the five world powers that maintains an authoritarian regime, and the Government admits that the establishment of control measures helps to the growth of the country. While it is debated to become the first world power, it is worth asking if the absence of freedoms is one more boost to the development of the Asian country outside its borders. China´s strategy is going based on advance quietly, without attracting the attention of other opponents. This advance is aided by controlled public opinion within the borders. While the actions of democratic countries are influenced by the media, in China that does not count. Henry Kissinger in an article published in The Washington Post in the summer of 2009 already announced that “the axis that forms the backbone of the world is no longer the Atlantic”, but the Pacific. Two powers dispute hegemony: that of democracy, although “imperfect” and that of the authoritarian system. There is no doubt that the world is at a crossroads towards something new. In this, it is worth asking if greater democracy is synonymous with more risks. The Polish sociologist Zygmunt Bauman (1925–2017) already anticipated it when he said that greater control translates into greater security and balance; while the more freedom a country has, its insecurity increases (Bauman 2006). Are China and the United States within these statements? Will a new world order be possible without a confrontation between them? To what extent do their government structures influence economic expansionism? Asia has long ceased to be the Far East, and its importance is increasingly decisive on the board. The Polish sociologist Zygmunt Bauman (1925–2017) confronts the concepts of security and freedom. The dilemma applied to the Chinese case has its own connotations, clarifying that it is an exceptional case. The China system supports strong contradictions that make the analysis interesting. While security within its borders has gradually increased, its expansionism abroad has positioned it as an emerging power, and has opened the way to new markets.
Juan-José Delgado-Morán, Claudio-Augusto Payá-Santos, Roger Sanz-Gonzalez
The Philippines, Factor of Stability in Southeast Asia
The Republic of the Philippines is an archipelagic country of Southeast Asia, The Philippines (2022). It is situated in the western Pacific Ocean and consists of about 7,600 islands and islets lying about 500 miles (800 km) off the coast Vietnam. Manila is the capital, but nearby Quezon City is the country’s most-populous city. Both are part of the National Capital Region (Metro Manila), found on Luzon, the largest island. The Philippines takes its name from  Philip II, who was king of Spain during the first years of the colonization of the islands by the Spaniards in the 16th century. The Philippines was under Spanish rule for 333 years and later for 48 years was under U.S. tutelage. For that reason, the Philippines has unique cultural and historical ties with the West, Spain, and the United States. It is, one of only two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia (the other is tiny East Timor) and it is after India the second most-populous Asian country with English as an official language, World Atlas (2018). The Philippines are geographically part of Southeast Asia, but the country is culturally strongly Hispanic-American. Nearly four centuries of Western rule have left an indelible imprint on the Philippines, serving as a conduit for the introduction of Western culture and as the catalyst for the emergence of a sense of Philippine unity. The Christian churches built by the Spaniards provided a spiritual anchor and the educational system established by the United States and expanded by the Filipinos has become a sign of cultural unity and social progress, Nevertheless, increased attention to Asian history and literature and the revival of dormant traditions has strengthen the Asian heritage without abandoning the Philippines Western cultural ties. The Philippines has been and still is a supporter of the development of the concept of archipelagic states in the Law of the Sea, Churchill et al. (2022). Since 1898 the Philippines keeps a special relationship with the U.S. The Japanese occupation and the independence of the Philippines were no obstacles for keeping in force that link. In the context of the volatile situation in the Indo-Pacific region the visit of Mr. Blinken to the Philippines in August 2022 was relevant. The Statement on the on U.S.-The Philippines relationship published 5 August 2022 reflects the importance of U.S.-Philippines relations and specially security cooperation, U.S. Department of State (2022). The statement makes clear that bilateral defense agreements continue to supply the foundation for that relationship.
Federico Yaniz
Artificial Islands in the South China Sea. Territorial Disputes in the Area. United Nations Conference of the Law of the Sea Proposals
Artificial Islands construction is a rising phenomenon. The ones constructed by the People’s Republic of China in the South China Sea are a set of gains for the country, but they do not respect international law and specifically the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). China’s actions regarding the construction of these islands have succeeded in raising the tension in the region.
The consequences of China’s actions could have repercussions on international competitiveness with strong economic and political tensions also due to disputes over the limits of the jurisdiction of each of the States around the South Sea. China prefers the South China Sea issue to be resolved among the stakeholders of the region and with no external interference but in a globalized world, this situation should not be accepted. It is not only a question of economic exclusive zones (EEZ) but the control of essential maritime routes and oil and gas reserves in the area.
Jordi Regí Rodríguez
The Arbitral Decision Concerning the Historical Rights and Legality of Certain Chinese Actions in the South China Sea and Its Scope to Implement Part XV of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and to Contribute to Resolving the Dispute in the Area
Carlos Espaliú Berdud

Global Perspective

Jihad in Europe: Towards a Predictive Model for the Neutralization of Terrorist Threats
Nowadays, most people can remember where they were when the Twin Towers attack happened, and something similar happens to the Spaniards at a national level, when the attacks on the Madrid trains took place on March the 11th 2004, and more recently in August 2017 with the attacks that occurred successively on Las Ramblas in Barcelona and on the promenade of the town of Cambrils in Tarragona.
Oliver Pérez López
“Threats for Peace and Security: Asia vs. West”
Developments Oblige the New Iranian Government to Give a Higher Priority to Its Neighbouring Countries
Iran with thousand years of civilization is situated in the most strategic geopolitical location in the Middle East. With 5894 km of land borders and a total of 2440 km of sea borders in the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea with 15 neighbouring countries, the Islamic Republic of Iran has a pivotal role to play in this region.
The vital water ways in the Persian Gulf, specifically the Strait of Hormuz, as a crucial route to the world’s largest energy supply, as well as the Caspian Sea with its unique location, they all have given Iran an extraordinary potential for regional interactions with global impacts. The huge economic potential surrounding Iran has not yet been thoroughly explored due to political developments in the region, including, inter-alia, the 8-year imposed war by Saddam, the collapse of the Soviet Union as its powerful northern neighbour, and last but not least the unlawful catastrophic US invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.
A critical review by the author indicates that the following additional two factors derailed Iran and its neighbours from giving necessary and timely attention on each other’s great potentials and opportunities:
Miscalculations by some neighbours, specifically in the Persian Gulf, in counting on outside powers, specifically the United States, for their security and wellbeing, instead of having a more strategic alliance with their neighbouring country Iran.
The former Iranian government gave more priority to a grand bargain with great powers, such as the JCPOA negotiation with the P5 + 1 or EU3/EU + 3, expecting sustainability of the deal with full compliance by all parties, which then could automatically improve Iran’s relations with its neighbours and vice versa.
In practice, both assumptions proved to be inaccurate since the United States, and to some extent its European allies were not found to be reliable in keeping their words and promises.
Being frustrated from such a crystal-clear breach of the agreement and as a result of the failed foreign policy by putting almost all eggs in the volatile Western basket, the Iranian constituency voted for a change in the presidential election in June 2021.
The new President has given higher priority to the increase of strategic relations with its neighbours and countries throughout Asia at large. Since he took the office in August 2021, we have witnessed positive developments and certain achievements.
However, there is a long path towards achieving an ultimate success, which truly demands more capacity- and trust-building initiatives between and among the regional countries.
In this paper, the readers shall have an opportunity to get familiar with a first-hand personal review of the past lessons and anticipation of the future perspective of the new policy.
Ali Soltanieh
Analysis of Crisis Management Systems in the Context of the Global Economic Crisis and Military-Political Changes
Crisis management is experiencing turbulent times at all levels of governance globally on all continents. Governments have to respond to growing economic problems, military challenges, civilian emergency planning issues, as well as foreign policy changes that negatively affect the stability of many previously very stable sectors. The text examines the crisis management tools used by Western and Eastern countries, their different positions and strategies, and their approaches to dealing with current problems. The common approach for both East and West remains the same in the case of emergencies of a natural or technical nature as well as integrated rescue systems. There are many common features of the most advanced models of crisis management in the East and in the West. The text analyses the crisis management model in the USA, Russian Federation, China and in selected European countries.
Lucia Kurilovska, Jana Mullerova
Pedagogy of Peace: The Key to Understanding Between East and West
Peace is a very broad concept both from a theoretical and practical point of view, but it is indisputable that its educational promotion is called to play a fundamental role in today’s seriously threatened globalized world. The school, lato sensu, cannot ignore its responsibility for security and coexistence, particularly if we consider that conflicts and international insecurity have increased. among the efforts that western countries dedicate to a new international order based on security and human rights, the pedagogical strategy enriched with multidisciplinary research around notions such as global citizenship, the construction of just societies, understanding between the east and the west, and the expansion of peace culture. Education for planetary coexistence would be located within this framework, in accordance with the objectives for sustainable development (unesco, 2017), a consensual way at a global level to face challenges and prevent threats.
Valentín Martínez-Otero
Threats to Peace and International Security: Asia versus West
herausgegeben von
Juan Cayón Peña
J. Martín Ramírez
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