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Über dieses Buch

Tile-based mapping systems have grown to become the dominant form of mapping system with the rise of Web-based mapping tools. The origin of this book is a desire to collect all our discoveries, techniques, and best practices for creating a til- mapping system into one combined volume. The intent of this text is to provide a comprehensive guide to the theory behind creating a tiled-map system as well as a practical guide to create a concrete implementation. Stennis Space Center, MS John Sample May 2010 Elias Ioup vii Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Naval Research Laboratory’s Base Program, program element number 0602435N, for sponsoring this research. Additionally, the following people provided technical assistance without which this book would not have been possible: Perry Beason, Frank McCreedy, Norm Schoenhardt, Brett Hode, Bruce Lin, Annie Holladay, Juliette Ioup, and Hillary Mesick. ix Contents 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 1 Background of Web-Based Mapping Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 2 Properties of tile-based mapping systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. 3 Book Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Logical Tile Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. 2 Global Logical Tile Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. 3 Blue Marble Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2. 4 Mercator-Based Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2. 5 Variable Start Tile Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2. 6 Standardized Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3 Tiled Mapping Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3. 1 Tile Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3. 1. 1 Discrete Map Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3. 1. 2 Continuous Map Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3. 2 Tile Retrieval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3. 2. 1 Local Tile Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Introduction to tiled mapping

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 2. Logical Tile Schemes

This chapter covers the different logical tile schemes in use.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 3. Tiled Mapping Clients

This chapter discusses the use of tiled map imagery within map and GIS clients. Both web-based and desktop clients are considered.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 4. Image Processing and Manipulation

To make source image sets suitable for serving as tiled images, significant image processing is required. This chapter provides a discussion of the image processing techniques necessary to create a tile-based GIS. It discusses algorithms for manipulating, cutting, and scaling different types of images. Several image interpolation algorithms are given with examples and discussion of the relative benefits of each. In addition, this chapter provides guidance for choosing tile image sizes and file formats.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 5. Image Tile Creation

This chapter discusses the processing raw imagery into tiles. It builds upon the techniques discussed in the previous image processing chapter.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 6. Optimization of Tile Creation

This chapter discusses the optimization of the tile creation process.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 7. Tile Storage

This chapter discusses storage of tiles for later use.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 8. Practical Tile Storage

This chapter provides practical technqiues for storing tiles efficiently.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 9. Tile Serving

This chapter covers the process of serving tiles over the Internet.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 10. Map Projections

Any system that uses maps must take into account three properties: datums, coordinate systems, and projections. These properties specify our model of the Earth and the way in which we specify locations upon it. In the world of geodesy there are a number of different options for each of these properties with no one “best fit” choice for all applications. While it is often not necessary to use more than one datum or coordinate system, it is important to understand them in case there is a need for interoperability with another system or data source which uses a different datum or coordinate system. As such, we will provide a general introduction to these two properties.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 11. Tile Creation using Vector Data

This chapter discusses the use of vector data as the primary source data when creating tile rather than imagery.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 12. Case Study: Tiles from Blue Marble Imagery

This chapter takes the reader through a case study of creating image tiles from raw bluemarble source imagery.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Chapter 13. Case Study: Supporting Multiple Tile Clients

The purpose of this chapter is to present specialized techniques for tile serving that will support a wide variety of mapping tools. We will build an interface for Google Earth using the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). We will also build an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server.

John T. Sample, Elias Ioup

Backmatter

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