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Über dieses Buch

Nanofabrication is critical to the realization of potential benefits in the field of electronics, bioengineering and material science. One enabling technology in nanofabrication is Tip-Based Nanofabrication, which makes use of functionalized micro-cantilevers with nanoscale tips. Tip-Based Nanofabrication: Fundamentals and Applications discusses the development of cantilevered nanotips and how they evolved from scanning probe microscopy and are able to manipulate environments at nanoscale on substrates generating different nanoscale patterns and structures. Also covered are the advantages of ultra-high resolution capability, how to use tip based nanofabrication technology as a tool in the manufacturing of nanoscale structures, single-probe tip technologies, multiple-probe tip methodology, 3-D modeling using tip based nanofabrication and the latest in imaging technology.



Chapter 1. Nanoscale Scratching with Single and Dual Sources Using Atomic Force Microscopes

AFM (atomic force microscope) scratching is a simple yet versatile material removing technique for nanofabrication. It has evolved from a purely mechanical process to one in which the tip can be loaded by additional energy sources, such as thermal, electric, or chemical. In this chapter, scratching techniques using tips with both single and dual sources are reviewed with an emphasis on associated material removing behavior. Recent developments in scratching systems equipped with automated stages or platforms using both single tip and multiple tips are assessed. The characteristics of various approaches for scratching different types of materials, including polymers, metals, and semiconductors, are presented and evaluated. The effects of the major scratching parameters on the final nanostructures are reviewed with the goal of providing quantitative information for guiding the scratching process. Advances in several techniques using dual sources for AFM scratching are then studied with a focus on their versatility and potential for different applications. Finally, following a section on the applications of AFM scratching for fabricating a fairly wide range of nanoscale devices and systems, concluding remarks are presented to recommend subjects for future technological improvement and research emphasis, as well as to provide the author’s perspective on future challenges in the field of AFM scratching.
Ampere A. Tseng

Chapter 2. Local Oxidation Using Dynamic Force Mode: Toward Higher Reliability and Efficiency

Local oxidation by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is used extensively for patterning nanostructures on metallic, insulating, and semiconducting thin films and substrates. Numerous possibilities for refining the process by controlling charge density within the oxide and shaping the water meniscus formed at the junction of the probe tip and substrate have been explored by a large number of researchers under both contact mode (CM) and dynamic-force mode (DFM) conditions. This article addresses the question of whether or not the oxide growth rate and feature size obtainable by each method arise from distinctly different kinetic processes or arise simply because charge buildup and dissipation evolve over different time scales for these two cases. We report simultaneous oxide-volume and current-flow measurements for exposures performed by CM and DFM and then go on to discuss the practical realization of enhanced reliability and energy efficiency made possible by a better understanding of the relation between oxidation time and ionic diffusion using DFM.
Hiromi Kuramochi, John A. Dagata

Chapter 3. Double Layer Local Anodic Oxidation Using Atomic Force Microscopy

Double-layer local anodic oxidation is a powerful method for fabricating complex semiconductor nanostructures. Here we review the application of this technique to Ga[Al]As heterostructures with titanium top gate electrodes. After short historical remarks, the details of the experimental oxidation setup, and the most relevant physical aspects of the involved materials are described. The experimental procedures and the influence of the key parameters are discussed for both the direct oxidation of Ga[Al]As and the oxidation of titanium. The power of the technique is corroborated by an overview over fabricated devices ranging from a single few-electron quantum dot to a complex quantum circuit comprising an Aharonov-Bohm ring with two embedded mutually coupled quantum dots, and an integrated charge read-out coupled capacitively.
Urszula Gasser, Martin Sigrist, Simon Gustavsson, Klaus Ensslin, Thomas Ihn

Chapter 4. Nanomanipulation of Biological Macromolecules by AFM

AFM-based nanomanipulation has been used to study every type of biological macromolecules and revealed important, previously unknown properties and functional mechanisms. The capacity of the AFM for the isolation, transfer, positioning and assembling of individual macromolecules with nanometer spatial resolutions has significantly advanced the field of bionanotechnology toward the fabrication of functional structures and devices with macromolecules as building blocks. This review focuses on the studies of proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides using AFM-based nanomanipulation technique. An introduction to the principles of the technique is followed by reviewing the types of problems investigated, with emphasis on the capacities of the technique to reveal novel structural and functional mechanisms of biological macromolecules.
Guoliang Yang

Chapter 5. Nanografting: A Method for Bottom-up Fabrication of Designed Nanostructures

Nanografting is a scanning probe-based technique which takes advantage of the localized tip-surface contact to rapidly and reproducibly inscribe arrays of nanopatterns of thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and other nanomaterials with nanometer-scale resolution. Scanning probe-based approaches for lithography such as nanografting with self-assembled monolayers extend beyond simple fabrication of nanostructures to enable nanoscale control of the surface composition and chemical reactivity from the bottom-up. Commercial scanning probe instruments typically provide software to control the length, direction, speed and applied force of the scanning motion of a tip, analogous to a pen-plotter. Nanografting is accomplished by force-induced displacement of molecules of a matrix SAM, followed immediately by the surface self-assembly of n-alkanethiol ink molecules from solution. Desired surface chemistries can be patterned by choosing SAMs of different lengths and terminal groups. By combining nanografting and designed spatial selectivity of n-alkanethiols, in situ studies provide new capabilities for nanoscale surface reactions with proteins, nanoparticles or chemical assembly. Methods to precisely arrange molecules on surfaces will contribute to development of molecular device architectures for future nanotechnologies.
Tian Tian, Zorabel M. LeJeune, Wilson K. Serem, Jing-Jiang Yu, Jayne C. Garno

Chapter 6. Nanopattern Formation Using Dip-Pen Nanolithography

The fabrication of bottom-up nanostructures is a crucial step for the advancement of nanotechnology. Dip-pen nanolithography has started off as a method for the transfer of small organic molecules and has matured over the years to one of the most versatile patterning techniques available in the nanoscale. Three-dimensional structures made from organic or inorganic materials on a large variety of different substrates and length scales have been fabricated. This review highlights the techniques used for the fabrication of these structures together with their practical applications. Furthermore, the physical mechanisms involved in the dip-pen process are discussed by summarizing the experimental and theoretical results obtained so far.
Bernhard Basnar

Chapter 7. Nanofabrication of Functional Nanostructures by Thermochemical Nanolithography

Nanofabrication is the process of building functional structures with nanoscale dimensions, which can be used as components, devices, or systems with high density, in large quantities, and at low cost. Since the invention of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in 1980s, the application of scanning probe based lithography (SPL) techniques for modification of substrates and creation of functional nanoscale structures and nanostructured materials has been widespread, resulting in the emergence of a large variety of methodologies. In this chapter, we review the recent development of a thermal probe based nanofabrication technique called thermochemical nanolithography (TCNL). We start with a brief review of the evolution of the thermal AFM probes integrated with resistive heaters. We then provide an overview of some established nanofabrication techniques in which thermal probes are used, namely thermomechanical nanolithography, the Millipede project, and thermal dip-pen nanolithography. We discuss the heat transfer mechanisms of the thermal probes in the thermal writing process of TCNL. The remainder of the chapter focuses on the use of TCNL on a variety of systems and thermochemical reactions. TCNL has been successfully used for fabrication of functional nanostructures that are appealing for various applications in nanofluidics, nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, and biosensing devices. Finally, we close this chapter by discussing some future research directions where the capabilities and robustness of TCNL can be further extended.
Debin Wang, Vamsi K. Kodali, Jennifer E. Curtis, Elisa Riedo

Chapter 8. Proton-fountain Electric-field-assisted Nanolithography (PEN)

This chapter describes the implementation of Proton-fountain Electric-field-assisted Nanolithography (PEN) as a potential tool for fabricating nanostructures by exploiting the properties of stimuli-responsive materials. The merits of PEN are demonstrated using poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) films, whose structural (swelling) response is triggered by the delivery of protons from an acidic fountain tip into the polymer substrate. Despite the probably many intervening factors affecting the fabrication process, PEN underscores the improved reliability in the pattern formation when using an external electric field (with voltage values of up to 5 V applied between the probe and the sample) as well as when controlling the environmental humidity conditions. PEN thus expands the applications of P4VP as a stimuli-responsive material into the nanoscale domain, which could have technological impact on the fabrication of memory and sensing devices as well as in the fabrication of nanostructures that closely mimic natural bio-environments. The reproducibility and reversible character of the PEN fabrication process offers opportunities to also use these films as test bed for studying fundamental (thermodynamic and kinetic) physical properties of responsive materials at the nanoscale level.
Andres La Rosa, Mingdi Yan

Chapter 9. Development of High-Throughput Control Techniques for Tip-Based Nanofabrication

In this chapter, we will discuss recent developments of advanced control techniques for nanoscale precision motion in general and probe-based nanofabrication (PBN) in specific. First, from the control perspective viewpoint, the advantages and challenges in parallel-probe based approach will be discussed to clarify the needs of high-speed PBN, particularly for areas such as nanoscale rapid prototyping and self-assembly based nanomanufacturing using chemical evaporation deposition (CVD). Then secondly, control challenges encountered in high-speed PBN will be discussed to introduce three main approaches to address these challenges: the robust-control based approach, the system-inversion based approach, and the iterative control approach. The basic idea and the main results obtained in these three approaches will be comparatively discussed. We finish our discussion with a few remarks.
Haiming Wang, Qingze Zou

Chapter 10. Scanning Probe Based Nanolithography and Nanomanipulation on Graphene

Alternative lithographic techniques, in particular those based on scanning probe microscopy, have shown a great potential for fabricating nanostructures using various material and allowing high spatial resolution, alignment capabilities and high-resolution imaging during the different lithographic steps. More specifically, atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscope (STM) have been in the recent past employed to image and modify at nanometer scale a new carbon material discovered in 2004 and called graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb crystal lattice. In this chapter a review of recent results obtained by scanning probe based nanofabrication on graphene nanostructures is presented. It is focused in particular on nanomanipulation, local anodic oxidation (LAO), electrochemical or thermal-stimulated desorption, static or dynamic ploughing as well as other AFM and STM based techniques on imaging, lithography and spectroscopy.
Pasqualantonio Pingue

Chapter 11. Diamondoid Mechanosynthesis for Tip-Based Nanofabrication

Diamond mechanosynthesis (DMS), or molecular positional fabrication, is the formation of covalent chemical bonds using precisely applied mechanical forces to build nanoscale diamondoid structures via manipulation of positionally controlled tooltips, most likely in a UHV working environment.  DMS may be automated via computer control, enabling programmable molecular positional fabrication. The Nanofactory Collaboration is coordinating a combined experimental and theoretical effort involving direct collaborations among dozens of researchers at institutions in multiple countries to explore the feasibility of positionally controlled mechanosynthesis of diamondoid structures using simple molecular feedstocks, the first step along a direct pathway to developing working nanofactories.
Robert A. Freitas

Chapter 12. Constraints and Challenges in Tip-Based Nanofabrication

In the past decade, tip-based nanofabrication (TBN) has become a powerful technology for nanofabrication due to its low cost and unique atomic-level manipulation capabilities. While a wide range of nanoscale components, devices, and systems have been fabricated by TBN, this technology still faces a number of constraints and challenges, which can be categorized into three areas: repeatability (reliability), ability (feasibility), and productivity (throughput). This chapter reviews these constraints and discusses the challenges for potential approaches to circumventing them. First, the major TBN techniques and their recent advances are reviewed in brief. Then, specific approaches for enhancing its repeatability by using automated equipment, for increasing its ability by seeking strategies to create truly three-dimensional nanostructures, and for improving its productivity by parallel processing, speed increasing, and larger tips, are evaluated. Finally, a preliminary roadmap for the next several years and a recommendation of areas for future research and development are provided.
Ampere A. Tseng


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