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Über dieses Buch

The Cell-Surface Interaction, by J. S. Hayes, E. M. Czekanska and R. G. Richards. Studying Cell-Surface Interactions In Vitro: A Survey of Experimental Approaches and Techniques, by Stefanie Michaelis, Rudolf Robelek and Joachim Wegener. Harnessing Cell-Biomaterial Interactions for Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration, by Kyobum Kim, Diana M. Yoon, Antonios G. Mikos and F. Kurtis Kasper. Interaction of Cells with Decellularized Biological Materials, by Mathias Wilhelmi, Bettina Giere and Michael Harder. Evaluation of Biocompatibility Using In Vitro Methods: Interpretation and Limitations, by Arie Bruinink and Reto Luginbuehl. Artificial Scaffolds and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Hard Tissues, by Margit Schulze and Edda Tobiasch. Bioactive Glass-Based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering, by Julia Will, Lutz-Christian Gerhardt and Aldo R. Boccaccini. Microenvironment Design for Stem Cell Fate Determination, by Tali Re’em and Smadar Cohen. Stem Cell Differentiation Depending on Different Surfaces, by Sonja Kress, Anne Neumann, Birgit Weyand and Cornelia Kasper. Designing the Biocompatibility of Biohybrids, by Frank Witte, Ivonne Bartsch and Elmar Willbold. Interaction of Cartilage and Ceramic Matrix, by K. Wiegandt, C. Goepfert, R. Pörtner and R. Janssen. Bioresorption and Degradation of Biomaterials, by Debarun Das, Ziyang Zhang, Thomas Winkler, Meenakshi Mour, Christina I. Günter, Michael M. Morlock, Hans-Günther Machens and Arndt F. Schilling.



The Cell–Surface Interaction

The realm of surface-dependent cell and tissue responses is the foundation of orthopaedic-device-related research. However, to design materials that elicit specific responses from tissues is a complex proposition mainly because the vast majority of the biological principles controlling the interaction of cells with implants remain largely ambiguous. Nevertheless, many surface properties, such as chemistry and topography, can be manipulated in an effort to selectively control the cell–material interaction. On the basis of this information there has been much research in this area, including studies focusing on the structure and composition of the implant interface, optimization of biological and chemical coatings and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the subsequent cell–material interactions. Although a wealth of information has emerged, it also advocates the complexity and dynamism of the cell–material interaction. Therefore, this chapter aims to provide the reader with an introduction to the basic concepts of the cell–material interaction and to provide an insight into the factors involved in determining the cell and tissue response to specific surface features, with specific emphasis on surface microtopography.
J. S. Hayes, E. M. Czekanska, R. G. Richards

Studying Cell–Surface Interactions In Vitro: A Survey of Experimental Approaches and Techniques

A better understanding of the interactions of animal (or human) cells with in vitro surfaces is the key to the successful development, improvement and optimization of biomaterials for biomedical or biotechnological purposes. State-of-the-art experimental approaches and techniques are a prerequisite for further and deeper insights into the mechanisms and processes involved in cell–surface adhesion. This chapter provides a brief but not complete survey of optical, mechanical, electrochemical and acoustic devices that are currently used to study the structural and functional properties of the cell–surface junction. Each technique is introduced with respect to the underlying principles before example data are discussed. At the end of the chapter all techniques are compared in terms of their strengths, limitations and technical requirements.
Stefanie Michaelis, Rudolf Robelek, Joachim Wegener

Harnessing Cell–Biomaterial Interactions for Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration

Articular cartilage that is damaged or diseased often requires surgical intervention to repair the tissue; therefore, tissue engineering strategies have been developed to aid in cartilage regeneration. Tissue engineering approaches often require the integration of cells, biomaterials, and growth factors to direct and support tissue formation. A variety of cell types have been isolated from adipose, bone marrow, muscle, and skin tissue to promote cartilage regeneration. The interaction of cells with each other and with their surrounding environment has been shown to play a key role in cartilage engineering. In tissue engineering approaches, biomaterials are commonly used to provide an initial framework for cell recruitment and proliferation and tissue formation. Modifications of the properties of biomaterials, such as creating sites for cell binding, altering their physicochemical characteristics, and regulating the delivery of growth factors, can have a significant influence on chondrogenesis. Overall, the goal is to completely restore healthy cartilage within an articular cartilage defect. This chapter aims to provide information about the importance of cell–biomaterial interactions for the chondrogenic differentiation of various cell populations that can eventually produce functional cartilage matrix that is indicative of healthy cartilage tissue.
Kyobum Kim, Diana M. Yoon, Antonios G. Mikos, F. Kurtis Kasper

Interaction of Cells with Decellularized Biological Materials

The idea to create the concept of cardiovascular “tissue engineering” is based on the recognition that until then all known allogeneic/xenogeneic biological or alloplastic implant materials were associated with shortcomings, which led to graft deterioration, degradation and finally destruction. Thus, it aims to develop viable cardiovascular structures, e.g. heart valves, myocardium or blood vessels, which ideally demonstrate mechanisms of remodeling and self-repair, a high microbiological resistance, complete immunological integrity and a functional endothelial cell layer to guarantee physiological hemostasis. In our current review we aim to identify basic limitations of previous concepts, explain why the use of decellularized matrices was a logical consequence and which limitations still exist.
Mathias Wilhelmi, Bettina Giere, Michael Harder

Evaluation of Biocompatibility Using In Vitro Methods: Interpretation and Limitations

The in vitro biocompatibility of novel materials has to be proven before a material can be used as component of a medical device. This must be done in cell culture tests according to internationally recognized standard protocols. Subsequently, preclinical and clinical tests must be performed to verify the safety of the new material and device. The present chapter focuses on the first step, the in vitro testing according to ISO 10993-5, and critically discusses its limited significance. Alternative strategies and a brief overview of activities to improve the current in vitro tests are presented in the concluding section.
Arie Bruinink, Reto Luginbuehl

Artificial Scaffolds and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Hard Tissues

Medicine was revolutionized in the last two centuries and its advances have more than doubled life expectancy. Nevertheless, some problems are as old as mankind and although the underlying causes might have changed, the problems themselves have not. Musculoskeletal disorders and tooth loss are such problems; they are the major reasons for the ever-growing need for bone replacement, which cannot always be realized by autologous material. New, multidisciplinary strategies are needed for the development of novel materials to meet the demand. Stem-cell-based approaches combined with newly designed scaffold materials seem to be promising tools for constructing tissue replacements. Human mesenchymal stem cells and their remarkable differentiation potential are an interesting cell source for the development of bio-engineered tissues. Scaffolds based on natural and synthetic materials with or without the use of bioactive molecules are constructed to mimic the natural environment. They can improve proliferation and differentiation of the scaffold-seeded cells. Combined, they can provide specific remedies for hard tissue replacement, which will be discussed in this chapter.
Margit Schulze, Edda Tobiasch

Bioactive Glass-Based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Originally developed to fill and restore bone defects, bioactive glasses are currently also being intensively investigated for bone tissue engineering applications. In this chapter, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds made from bioactive silicate glasses. A brief historical review and the fundamental requirements in the field of bone tissue engineering scaffolds will be presented, followed by a detailed overview of recent developments in bioactive glass-based scaffolds. In addition, the effects of ionic dissolution products of bioactive glasses on osteogenesis and angiogenic properties of scaffolds are briefly addressed. Finally, promising areas of future research and requirements for the advancement of the field are highlighted and discussed.
Julia Will, Lutz-Christian Gerhardt, Aldo R. Boccaccini

Microenvironment Design for Stem Cell Fate Determination

Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability for self-renewal and differentiation, potentially yielding large numbers of cells that can be used in cell therapy and tissue engineering for repairing devastating diseases. Attaining control over stem cell fate decision in culture is a great challenge since these cells integrate a complex array of “niche” signals, which regulate their fate. Given this, the recent findings that synthetic microenvironments can be designed to gain some level of control over stem cell fate are encouraging. This chapter provides an overview of the current state and knowledge of the design of synthetic microenvironments bio-inspired by the adult stem cell niche. We describe the biomaterials used for reconstituting the niche, highlighting the bioengineering principles used in the process. Such synthetic microenvironments constitute powerful tools for elucidating stem cell regulatory mechanisms that should fuel the development of advanced culture systems with accurate regulation of stem cell fate.
Tali Re’em, Smadar Cohen

Stem Cell Differentiation Depending on Different Surfaces

Mesenchymal stem cells and 3D biomaterials are a potent assembly in tissue engineering. Today, a sizable number of biomaterials has been characterized for special tissue engineering applications. However, diverse material properties, such as soft or hard biomaterials, have a specific influence on cell behavior. Not only the cell attachment and proliferation, but also differentiation is controlled by the microenvironment. Material characteristics such as pore size, stiffness, roughness, and geometry affect not only the cell attachment and proliferation, but also the differentiation behavior of mesenchymal stem cells. Optimization of these features might enable direct differentiation without adjustment of the culture medium by applying expensive growth or differentiation factors. Future aspects include the design of multilayered biomaterials, where each zone fulfills a distinct function. Moreover, the embedding of growth and differentiation factors into the matrix with a controlled release rate might be advantageous to direct differentiation.
Sonja Kress, Anne Neumann, Birgit Weyand, Cornelia Kasper

Designing the Biocompatibility of Biohybrids

Biohybrid has been used as a fashionable term in scientific publications during the past years to describe a functional unit consisting of a bioactive and a structural component. The bioactive part of the biohybrid could consist of cells or bioactive molecules, while the structural part is of biological or non-biological origin. Biohybrids are currently used as implants and transplants in regenerative medicine or in vitro applications such as assays, biosensors or bioreactors. However, a clear definition of a biohybrid has not been given yet. This chapter reviews the current applications of biohybrids and identifies the challenges of biohybrids in in vivo applications. A classification of biohybrids according to their functional use and application is provided.
Frank Witte, Ivonne Bartsch, Elmar Willbold

Interaction of Cartilage and Ceramic Matrix

As subchondral bone is often affected during cartilage injuries, the aim of research is to generate osteochondral implants in vitro using tissue engineering techniques. These constructs consist of a cartilage layer grown on top of a bone phase. In clinical applications, phosphate ceramics have gained acceptance as bone substitute materials because of their great affinity to natural bone. Furthermore, the interaction between cartilage and the underlying bone equivalent is essential for the development and success of osteochondral implants. Here, the influence of a carrier containing hydroxyapatite on the quality of cartilage constructs generated in vitro is investigated. Attempts are made to explain the effects described, by considering chemical and physical properties of the biomaterial.
K. Wiegandt, C. Goepfert, R. Pörtner, R. Janssen

Bioresorption and Degradation of Biomaterials

The human body is a composite structure, completely constructed of biodegradable materials. This allows the cells of the body to remove and replace old or defective tissue with new material. Consequently, artificial resorbable biomaterials have been developed for application in regenerative medicine. We discuss here advantages and disadvantages of these bioresorbable materials for medical applications and give an overview of typically used metals, ceramics and polymers. Methods for the quantification of bioresorption in vitro and in vivo are described. The next challenge will be to better understand the interface between cell and material and to use this knowledge for the design of “intelligent” materials that can instruct the cells to build specific tissue geometries and degrade in the process.
Debarun Das, Ziyang Zhang, Thomas Winkler, Meenakshi Mour, Christina I. Günter, Michael M. Morlock, Hans-Günther Machens, Arndt F. Schilling


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