Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
This paper investigates the reasons why entry per se is not necessarily good and the evidence showing that innovative start-ups survive longer than their non-innovative counterparts. In this framework, our own empirical analysis shows that greater survival is achieved when start-ups engage successfully in both product innovation and process innovation, with a key role of the latter. Moreover, this study goes beyond a purely microeconomic perspective and discusses the key role of the environment within which innovative entries occur. What shown and discussed in this contribution strongly supports the proposal that the creation and survival of innovative start-ups should become one qualifying point of the economic policy agenda.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Acs, Z. J., & Audretsch, D. B. (1990). Innovation and small firms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Acs, Z. J., Braunerhjelm, P., Audretsch, D. B., & Carlsson, B. (2009). The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 32(1), 15–30. CrossRef
Agarwal, R., & Audretsch, D. B. (2001). Does entry size matter? The impact of the life cycle and technology on firm survival. Journal of Industrial Economics, 49, 21–43. CrossRef
Agarwal, R., & Shah, S. K. (2014). Knowledge sources of entrepreneurship: Firm formation by academic, user and employee innovators. Research Policy, 43, 1109–1133. CrossRef
Aghion, P., & Howitt, P. (1992). A model of growth through creative destruction. Econometrica, 60, 323–351. CrossRef
Altindag, E., Zehir, C., & Acar, A. Z. (2011). Strategic orientations and their effects on firm performance in Turkish family owned firms. Eurasian Business Review, 1(1), 18–36.
Arrighetti, A., & Vivarelli, M. (1999). The role of innovation in the postentry performance of new small firms: Evidence from Italy. Southern Economic Journal, 65(4), 927–939. CrossRef
Audretsch, D. B. (1991). New-firm survival and the technological regime. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 73, 441–450. CrossRef
Audretsch, D. B. (1995). Innovation and industry evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Audretsch, D. B., Keilbach, M. C., & Lehmann, E. E. (2006). Entrepreneurship and economic growth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Audretsch, D. B., & Lehmann, E. E. (2005). Does the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship hold for regions? Research Policy, 34, 1191–1202. CrossRef
Audretsch, D. B., & Mahmood, T. (1994). Firm selection and industry evolution: The post-entry performance of new firms. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 4, 243–260. CrossRef
Audretsch, D. B., & Mahmood, T. (1995). New firm survival: New results using a hazard function. Review of Economics and Statistics, 77(1), 97–103. CrossRef
Audretsch, D. B., Santarelli, E., & Vivarelli, M. (1999). Start up size and industrial dynamics: Some evidence from Italian manufacturing. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 17(7), 965–983. CrossRef
Baldwin, J. R., & Gorecki, P. K. (1987). Plant creation versus plant acquisition: The entry process in Canadian manufacturing. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 5(1), 27–41. CrossRef
Baldwin, J. R., & Gorecki, P. K. (1991). Firm entry and exit in the Canadian manufacturing sector. Canadian Journal of Economics, 24, 300–323. CrossRef
BarNir, A. (2012). Starting technologically innovative ventures: Reasons, human capital, and gender. Management Decision, 50, 399–419. CrossRef
Bartelsman, E., Haltiwanger, J., & Scarpetta, S. (2004). Microeconomic evidence of creative destruction in industrial and developing countries. Policy Research Working Paper 3464. World Bank, Policy Research Department, Washington, DC.
Bartelsman, E., Scarpetta, S., & Schivardi, F. (2005). Comparative analysis of firm demographics and survival: Evidence from micro-level sources in OECD countries. Industrial and Corporate Change, 14(3), 365–391. CrossRef
Baumol, W. J. (1990). Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive and destructive. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 893–921. CrossRef
Baumol, W. J. (2005). Entrepreneurship and invention: Toward their microeconomic value theory, AEI- Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies, related publication n. 05-38, Washington, Joint Center.
Baumol, W. J. (2010). The microtheory of innovative entrepreneurship. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Baumol, W. J., Schilling, M., & Wolff, E. (2009). The superstars inventors and entrepreneurs: How were they educated? Journal of Economic and Management Strategy, 18, 711–728. CrossRef
Beesley, M. E., & Hamilton, R. T. (1984). Small firms’ seedbed role and the concept of turbulence. Journal of Industrial Economics, 33(2), 217–231. CrossRef
Block, J. H., Kohn, K., Miller, D., & Ullrich, K. (2015). Small business. Economics, 44(1), 37–54.
Bonaccorsi, A., Colombo, M. G., Guerini, M., & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2013). University specialization and new firm creation across industries. Small Business Economics, 41(4), 837–863. CrossRef
Boschma, R. (2015). Do spinoff dynamics or agglomeration externalities drive industry clustering? A reappraisal of Steven Klepper’s work. Industrial and Corporate Change, 24(4), 859–873. CrossRef
Boschma, R., & Fornahl, D. (2011). Cluster evolution and a roadmap for future research. Regional Studies, 45(10), 1295–1298. CrossRef
Breschi, S., Lenzi, C., Malerba, F., & Mancusi, M. L. (2014). Knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship: Sectoral patterns in a sample of European high-tech firms. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26, 751–764. CrossRef
Bruderl, J., & Schussler, R. (1990). Organizational mortality: The liabilities of newness and adolescence. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 530–547. CrossRef
Buenstorf, G. (2015). Schumpeterian incumbents and industry evolution. Journal of Evolutionary Economics,. doi: 10.1007/s00191-015-0423-7.
Caves, R., & Porter, M. (1977). From entry barriers to mobility barriers. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 91, 241–261. CrossRef
Cefis, E., & Marsili, O. (2005). A matter of life and death: Innovation and firm survival. Industrial and Corporate Change, 14(6), 1167–1192. CrossRef
Cefis, E., & Marsili, O. (2006). Survivor: The role of innovation in firm’s survival. Research Policy, 35(5), 626–641. CrossRef
Coad, A., & Rao, R. (2008). Innovation and firm growth in high-tech sectors: A quantile regression approach. Research Policy, 37(4), 633–648. CrossRef
Colombelli, A. (2016). The impact of local knowledge bases on the creation of innovative start-ups in Italy. Small Business Economics. doi: 10.1007/s11187-016-9722-0
Colombelli, A., Krafft, J., & Quatraro, F. (2013). Properties of knowledge base and firm survival: Evidence from a sample of French manufacturing firms. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80(8), 1469–1484. CrossRef
Colombelli, A., Krafft, J., & Quatraro, F. (2014a). High growth firms and technological knowledge: Do gazelles follow exploration or exploitation strategies? Industrial and Corporate Change, 23(1), 261–291. CrossRef
Colombelli, A., Krafft, J., & Quatraro, F. (2014b). The emergence of new technology-based sectors in European regions: A proximity-based analysis of nanotechnology. Research Policy, 43(10), 1681–1696. CrossRef
Colombo, M. G., Delmastro, M., & Grilli, L. (2004). Entrepreneurs’ human capital and the start-up size of new technology-based firms. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 22(8–9), 1183–1211. CrossRef
Colombo, M. G., & Grilli, L. (2005). Founders’ human capital and the growth of new technology-based firms: A competence-based view, Research Policy, 34, 795–816. CrossRef
Colombo, M. G., & Grilli, L. (2010). On growth drivers of high-tech start-ups: Exploring the role of founders’human capital and venture capital. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(6), 610–626. CrossRef
Cortese, C. G., Ghislieri, C., Molino, M., Mercuri, A., Colombelli, A., Cantamessa, M., et al. (2015). Promuovere lo sviluppo delle start-up. Sviluppo e Organizzazione, 265, 69–78.
Crespi, F., Ghisetti, C., & Quatraro, F. (2015). Environmental and innovation policies for the evolution of green technologies: A survey and a test. Eurasian Business Review, 5(2), 343–370. CrossRef
Croce, A., Grilli, L., & Murtinu, S. (2014). Venture capital enters academia: An analysis of university-managed funds. Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(5), 688–715. CrossRef
Czarnitzki, D., & Delanote, J. (2015). R&D policies for young SMEs: Input and output effects. Small Business Economics, 45(3), 465–485. CrossRef
De Jong, J. P. J., & Marsili, O. (2015). The distribution of Schumpeterian and Kirznerian opportunities. Small Business Economics, 44(1), 19–35. CrossRef
Dejardin, M. (2011). Linking net entry to regional economic growth. Small Business Economics, 36(4), 443–460. CrossRef
Dosi, G. (1988). Sources, procedures and microeconomic effects of innovation. Journal of Economic Literature, 26, 1120–1171.
Dosi, G., & Nelson, R. R. (2013). The evolution of technologies: An assessment of the state-of-the-art. Eurasian Business Review, 3(1), 3–46.
Dunne, T., Roberts, M. J., & Samuelson, L. (1989). The growth and failure of US manufacturing plants. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 104(4), 671–698. CrossRef
Esteve-Pérez, S., Sanchis, A., & Sanchis, J. A. (2004). The determinants of survival of Spanish manufacturing firms. Review of Industrial Organization, 25(3), 251–273. CrossRef
Evans, D. (1987). Tests of alternative theories of firm growth. Journal of Political Economy, 95, 657–674. CrossRef
Evans, D. S., & Leighton, L. S. (1990). Small business formation by unemployed and employed workers. Small Business Economics, 2(4), 319–330. CrossRef
Foti, A., & Vivarelli, M. (1994). An econometric test of the self-employment model: The case of Italy. Small Business Economics, 6(2), 81–93. CrossRef
Freeman, C., Clark, J., & Soete, L. (1982). Unemployment and technical innovation. London: Pinter.
Freeman, C., & Soete, L. (Eds.). (1987). Technical change and full employment. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
García-Quevedo, J., Pellegrino, G., & Vivarelli, M. (2014). R&D drivers and age: Are young firms different? Research Policy, 43, 1544–1556. CrossRef
Geroski, P. A. (1995). What do we know about entry? International Journal of Industrial Organization, 13(4), 421–440. CrossRef
Ghio, N., Guerini, M., & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2016). University knowledge and the creation of innovative start-ups: An analysis of the Italian case. Small Business Economics. doi: 10.1007/s11187-016-9720-2
Gkypali, A., Kokkinos, V., Boura, C., & Tsekouras, K. (2016). Revisiting the role of Science & Technology Parks in the heart of the fiscal austerity era: The case of a lagging Greek RIS. Small Business Economics.
Gkypali, A., Rafailidis, A., & Tsekouras, K. (2015). Innovation and export performance: Do young and mature innovative firms differ? Eurasian Business Review, 5(2), 397–415. CrossRef
Grilli, L., & Murtinu, S. (2014). Government, venture capital and the growth of European high-tech entrepreneurial firms. Research Policy, 43(9), 1523–1543. CrossRef
Grilli, L., & Murtinu, S. (2015). New technology-based firms in Europe: Market penetration, public venture capital, and timing of investment. Industrial and Corporate Change, 24(5), 1109–1148. CrossRef
Hafer, R. W., & Jones, G. (2015). Are entrepreneurship and cognitive skills related? Some international evidence. Small Business Economics, 44(2), 283–298. CrossRef
Hall, B. H. (1987). The relationship between firm size and firm growth in the US manufacturing sector. The Journal of Industrial Economics, 35, 583–606. CrossRef
Hanley, A., Liu, W. H., & Vaona, A. (2015). Credit depth, government intervention and innovation in China: Evidence from the provincial data. Eurasian Business Review, 5(1), 73–98. CrossRef
Helmers, C., & Rogers, M. (2010). Innovation and the survival of new firms in the UK. Review of Industrial Organization, 36, 227–248. CrossRef
Hsu, D. H. (2006). Venture capitalists and cooperative start-up commercialization strategy. Management Science, 52(2), 204–219. CrossRef
Johnson, P. S. (2005). Targeting firm births and economic regeneration in a lagging region. Small Business Economics, 24(5), 451–464. CrossRef
Jolink, A., & Niesten, E. (2016). The impact of venture capital on governance decisions in collaborations with start-ups. Small Business Economics. doi: 10.1007/s11187-016-9719-8
Jovanovic, B. (1982). Selection and evolution of industry. Econometrica, 50, 649–670. CrossRef
Kaiser, U., & Muller, B. (2015). Skill heterogeneity in startups and its development over time. Small Business Economics, 45(4), 787–804. CrossRef
Kalbfleisch, J. D., & Prentice, R. L. (1980). Statistical analysis of failure time data. New York: Wiley.
Kaplan, S., & Lerner, J. (2014). Venture capital data: Opportunities and challenges. In NBER-CRIW conference on measuring entrepreneurial businesses: Current knowledge and challenges, December 2014.
Kaplan, E. L., & Meier, P. (1958). Non-parametric estimation from incomplete observations. Journal of American Statistical Association, 53, 457–481. CrossRef
Klepper, S. (1996). Entry, exit, growth, and innovation over the product life cycle. American Economic Review, 86(3), 562–583.
Klepper, S. (1997). Industry life cycles. Industrial and Corporate Change, 6, 145–181. CrossRef
Koellinger, P., & Thurik, A. R. (2012). Entrepreneurship and the business cycle. Review of Economics and Statistics, 94(4), 1143–1156. CrossRef
Kolstad, I., & Wiig, A. (2015). Education and entrepreneurial success. Small Business Economics, 44(4), 783–796. CrossRef
Krafft, J. (2004). Entry, exit and knowledge: Evidence from a cluster in the info-communications. Research Policy, 33(10), 1687–1706. CrossRef
Lindsey, L. (2008). Blurring firm boundaries: The role of venture capital in strategic alliances. The Journal of Finance, 63(3), 1137–1168. CrossRef
Lockett, A., Siegel, D., Wright, M., & Ensley, M. D. (2005). The creation of spin-off firms at public research institutions: Managerial and policy implications. Research Policy, 34, 981–993. CrossRef
Lockett, A., & Wright, M. (2005). Resources, capabilities, risk capital and the creation of university spin-out companies. Research Policy, 34, 1043–1057. CrossRef
Lotti, F., Santarelli, E., & Vivarelli, M. (2003). Does Gibrat’s law hold among young, small firms? Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 13, 213–235. CrossRef
Lotti, F., Santarelli, E., & Vivarelli, M. (2009). Defending Gibrat’s law as a long-run regularity. Small Business Economics, 32, 31–44. CrossRef
Malchow-Møller, N., Schjerning, B., & Sørensen, A. (2011). Entrepreneurship, job creation and wage growth. Small Business Economics, 36(1), 15–32. CrossRef
Mata, J., & Portugal, P. (1994). Life duration of new firms. Journal of Industrial Economics, 42, 227–246. CrossRef
Mata, J., Portugal, P., & Guimaraes, P. (1995). The survival of new plants: Start-up conditions and post-entry evolution. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 13(4), 459–482. CrossRef
Meoli, M., & Vismara, S. (2016). University support and the creation of technology and non-technology academic spin-offs. Small Business Economics. doi: 10.1007/s11187-016-9721-1.
Mitra, A., & Jha, A. K. (2015). Innovation and employment: A firm level study of Indian industries. Eurasian Business Review, 5(1), 45–71. CrossRef
Modrego, F., McCann, P., Foster, W. E., & Olfert, M. R. (2015). Regional entrepreneurship and innovation in Chile: A knowledge matching approach. Small Business Economics, 44(3), 685–703. CrossRef
Mueller, S., & Stegmaier, J. (2015). Economic failure and the role of plant age and size. Small Business Economics, 44(3), 621–638. CrossRef
Muscio, A., Quaglione, D., & Vallanti, G. (2015). University regulation and university-industry interaction: A performance analysis of Italian academic departments. Industrial and Corporate Change, 24(5), 1047–1079. CrossRef
OECD. (2003). The Sources of Economic Growth in OECD Countries. Paris: OECD Publication.
Oxenfeldt, A. R. (1943). New firms and free enterprise: Pre-war and post-war aspects. Washington, DC: American Council on Public Affairs.
Pavitt, K. (1984). Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory. Research Policy, 13, 343–373. CrossRef
Pellegrino, G., Piva, M., & Vivarelli, M. (2012). Young firms and innovation: A microeconometric analysis. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 23, 329–340. CrossRef
Quatraro, F., & Vivarelli, M. (2015). Drivers of entrepreneurship and post-entry performance of newborn firms in developing countries. World Bank Research Observer, 30, 277–305. CrossRef
Raspe, O., & Van Oort, F. G. (2008). Firm growth and localized knowledge externalities. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 38(2), 100–116.
Reid, G. C. (1991). Staying in business. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 9(4), 545–556. CrossRef
Renko, M., Carsrud, A., & Brännback, M. (2009). The effect of a market orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, and technological capability on innovativeness: A study of young biotechnology ventures in the United States and in Scandinavia. Journal of Small Business Management, 47, 331–369. CrossRef
Rocha, V., Carneiro, A., & Varum, C. A. (2015). Entry and exit dynamics of nascent business owners. Small Business Economics, 45(1), 63–84. CrossRef
Rojas, F., & Huergo, E. (2016). Characteristics of entrepreneurs and public support for NTBFs. Small Business Economics. doi: 10.1007/s11187-016-9718-9
Santarelli, E. (2006). Introduction. In E. Santarelli (Ed.), Entrepreneurship, growth, and innovation: The dynamics of firms and industries (pp. xiii–xx). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Santarelli, E., & Vivarelli, M. (2002). Is subsidizing entry an optimal policy? Industrial and Corporate Change, 11(1), 39–52. CrossRef
Santarelli, E., & Vivarelli, M. (2007). Entrepreneurship and the process of firms’ entry, survival and growth. Industrial and Corporate Change, 16(3), 455–488. CrossRef
Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1939). Business cycles: A theoretical, historical and statistical analysis of the capitalist process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1943). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York: Harper.
Shane, S. (2009). Why encouraging more people to become entrepreneurs is bad public policy. Small Business Economics, 33(2), 141–149. CrossRef
Söderblom, A., Samuelsson, M., Wiklund, J., & Sandberg, R. (2015). Inside the black box of outcome additionality: Effects of early-stage government subsidies on resource accumulation and new venture performance. Research Policy, 44, 1501–1512. CrossRef
Storey, D. J. (1991). The birth of new firms—Does unemployment matter? A review of the evidence. Small Business Economics, 3(3), 167–178. CrossRef
Storey, D. J. (1994). Understanding the small business sector. London: Routledge.
Sutton, J. (1997). Gibrat’s legacy. Journal of Economic Literature, 35, 40–59.
Szopa, A. (2013). Intellectual capital and business performance in university spin-off companies. In P. Ordóñez de Pablos, R. Tennyson, & J. Zhao (Eds.), Intellectual capital strategy management for knowledge-based organizations (pp. 215–224). Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference. CrossRef
Ter Val, A., & Boschma, R. (2011). Co-evolution of firms, industries and networks in space. Regional Studies, 45(7), 919–933. CrossRef
van Praag, M. C., & Versloot, P. H. (2007). What Is the value of entrepreneurship? A review of recent research. Small Business Economics, 29(4), 351–382. CrossRef
Vivarelli, M. (2007). Entry and post-entry performance of newborn firms. London: Routledge. CrossRef
Vivarelli, M. (2013). Is entrepreneurship necessarily good? Microeconomic evidence from developed and developing countries. Industrial and Corporate Change, 22(6), 1453–1495. CrossRef
Vivarelli, M., & Audretsch, D. B. (1998). The link between the entry decision and post-entry performance: Evidence from Italy. Industrial and Corporate Change, 7(3), 485–500. CrossRef
Wagner, J. (1994). The post-entry performance of new small firms in German manufacturing industries. The Journal of Industrial Economics, 42, 141–154. CrossRef
Wennekers, S., & Thurik, A. R. (1999). Linking entrepreneurship and economic growth. Small Business Economics, 13(1), 27–55. CrossRef
- To be born is not enough: the key role of innovative start-ups
- Springer US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia