Positive relationships between confusion and learning have been found for the last decade. Most theoretical foundations for confusion hypothesize that it is not the mere occurrence of confusion, but rather the successful resolution that benefits learning. Empirical research has provided some support for this hypothesis, but investigations of the confusion resolution process are still sparse. The present work is a preliminary investigation of the confusion resolution process within two learning environments that experimentally induce confusion (false feedback, contradictory information). Findings showed that learners did benefit from confusion resolution compared to when confusion was unresolved, but it was not merely from increased effort. The nature of the confusion induction method also influenced the positive impact of confusion resolution on learning. Implications for intelligent tutoring systems are discussed.
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- To Resolve or not to Resolve? that is the Big Question About Confusion