Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Large wireless sensor networks can contain hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes. Due to wireless sensor network’s properties of low-energy-efficiency, large-scale, low cost, and lossy nature, the development of efficient routing protocols for these large and dense wireless sensor networks is an interesting research topic. This research focuses on the design and implementation of protocols for dense and wireless sensor networks. More specifically, we propose to combine an underlying topology with Xmesh, the multihop routing strategy of Crossbow Technology’s motes. In an effort to limit the path lengths, we propose to impose an underlying connectivity graph for Xmesh. The underlying connectivity graph is a virtual topology of the network, hence the name “topology-based routing.” Instead of being always forwarded to the node with the best link quality among all neighbors, a packet is being routed according to the shortest path routing of the underlying graph which guarantees a bounded path length. Cayley graphs from the Borel subgroup have been known as the densest degree-4 graphs and all Cayley graphs are vertex transitive. In this work, we propose a topology-based routing for Xmesh with Cayley graphs as the underlying topology. We show that, indeed, by imposing a Cayley graph as an underlying graph, the average path lengths between nodes is smaller and that the averaged power consumed is less than the original Xmesh.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
J.N. Al-Karaki and A.E. Kamal, “Routing Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey”, IEEE Wireless Communications, 11, 6, December 2004, 6–28. CrossRef
I. Akyildiz et al., “A Survey on Sensor Networks”, IEEE Commun. Mag., 40, 8, Aug. 2002, 102C14. CrossRef
W. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks”, Proc. 33rd Hawaii Intl. Conf. Sys. Sci., Jan. 2000.
J.M. Hellerstein, W. Hong, and S.R. Madden, “The Sensor Spectrum: Technology, Trends, and Requirements”, ACM SIGMOD 32, 4, December 2003, 22–27. CrossRef
E. Noel and K.W. Tang, “Novel Sensor MAC Protocol Applied to Cayley and Manhattan”, IEEE International Workshop on Wireless Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks, 2006
L. Wang, E. Noel, C. Fong, R. Kamoua, and K.W. Tang, “A Wireless Sensor System for Biopotential Recording in the Treatment of Sleep Apnea Disorder”, IEEE International Conference On Networking, Sensing and Control, 2006.
A. Woo, T. Tong, and D. Culler, ”Taming the Underlying Challenges of Reliable Multihop Routing in Sensor Networks”, Sen-Sys03,November 5C7, 2003, Los Angeles, California, USA.
A. Woo and D. Culler, “Evaluation of efficient link reliability estimators for low-power wireless networks”, Technical Report UCB//CSD-03-1270, U.C. Berkeley Computer Science Division, September 2003.
K.W. Tang and B.W. Arden, “Vertex-Transitivity and Routing for Cayley Graphs in GCR Representations", in the 1992 Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 1180–1187, March 1–3, 1992, Kansas City, MO.
K.W. Tang, “Dense, Symmetric Interconnection Networks”, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1991.
D.V. Chudnovsky, G.V. Chudnovsky, and M.M. Denneau, “Regular graphs with small diameter as models for interconnection networks”, Tech. Rep. RC 13484–60281, IBM Res. Division, Feb. 1988.
C.L. Liu, “Shortest Path In Weighted Graphs”, In Elements Of Discrete Mathematics, 2nd Edition, p. 147, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1998
D.B. Johnson and D.A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks” In T. Imielinski and H.F. Korth, Eds., Mobile Computing, vol. 353, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1996.
V. Shnayder, M. Hempstead, C.Bor-rong, and M. Welsh, “Simulating the Power Consumption of Large-Scale Sensor Network Applications”, SenSys’04, November 3–5, 2004.
Crossbow Technology Inc’s homepage, http://www.xbow.com, accessed in August 2007.
Crossbow, “Hardware Framework for Sensor Networks”, In Presentation of Day one in Crossbow Seminar, Towson, December 2005.
Crossbow, “Multihop-Mesh-Network”, In Presentation of Day one in Crossbow Seminar, Towson, December, 2005.
MoteIV Website, http://www.moteiv.com/, accessed in August 2007.
R. Fonseca, S. Ratnasamy et al., “Beacon-Vector Routing: Scalable Point-to-Point Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks”, In Proceedings of NSDI 2005.
MICA2 Radio Stack for TinyOS, http://www.tinyos.net/tinyos-1.x/tos/platform/pc/CC1000Radio/CC1000RadioIntM.nc
- Topology-Based Routing for Xmesh in Wireless Sensor Networks
K. Wendy Tang
- Springer US