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This book accounts that Bangladesh is a potential destination in South Asia exhibiting a steady growth in its economy along with socio-cultural developments. With a population of over 170 million, the country possesses significant possibilities in (domestic) tourism. This book explicates that increasing number of upper social classes along with their affordability to spend on tourism and leisure activities has recalled attention for the development of this emerging industry.

This book comprehensively examines the overall tourism and hospitality contexts in Bangladesh under the lens of current policy and administrative frameworks. In so doing, the contribution of tourism and hospitality industry has been highlighted in the economy of Bangladesh as a means to creating employment opportunities. Further, the book addresses that contributions remain uneven and distributed improperly and to date the tourism industry has not been offered the desired attention in supporting examples in this regard. Nonetheless, tourism and hospitality education and research have been intensifying in recent years across numerous higher academic institutions (e.g. public and private universities) in Bangladesh. This book explores critically the requirement of supportive roles of key tourism and hospitality stakeholders both from public and private domains. Ultimately, the book signifies collaborative and continuous efforts are imperative that partake both the practitioners and the academia in the development and execution of inclusive and functional tourism policy and planning in Bangladesh.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Tourism Policy in Bangladesh

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Policy Overview for Bangladesh Tourism

Abstract
Tourism policy of a country provides a broad guideline and direction based on which tourism systems should function. The National Tourism Policy (NTP) of Bangladesh has initiated strategies to platform the economic, cultural, social, heritage, and environmental values that the industry can provide. It focuses on multidimensional facets of the industry. With a qualitative research orientation, this chapter provides altogether an overview of the tourism policy that has been taken by the government to promote Bangladesh as one of the preferred destinations. The policy prioritizes several types of operation such as beach and marine tourism, forest-based tourism, rural and riverine tourism, cultural tourism, religious tourism, and community tourism. Apart from the in-house strategies to foster the tourism industry, it focuses on the importance of collaboration with regional unions and international organizations. However, the NTP largely fails to reach desired goals and objectives due to the lack of apprehension of “inside” and “outside” policy factors as well as policy process. A strong research-base is inevitable to optimize tourism benefits from a tourism policy. This chapter is expected to help future tourism policymakers in Bangladesh in the development of an updated policy instrument.
Takrima Sayeda, Samia Afrin Shetu, Muhammad Shoeb-Ur- Rahman

Tourism Administration

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Theoretical Discussion on Tourism Administration with Reference to Bangladesh

Abstract
Tourism industry is very unique in nature depending on the geographical locations of a country leaving the administrative rules, regulations and legal framework as distinctive. The major contribution of the Government is conventionally necessary to ensure proper administration of tourism in an area or region. Reviewing the existing tourism administration literature, this chapter relates and critically analyses the situation of tourism administration in Bangladesh as the case. This research outlines the tourism administrative structure in Bangladesh with the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism (MOCAT) as the supreme. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC) and Bangladesh Tourism Board (BTB) are the later government organisations in the line of tourism administration in the country. The Government of Bangladesh offers different courses and expertise development initiatives for tourism administration to become well aware about the legal rules, regulations, policies, frameworks and structure of administration related to this industry. This chapter identifies the insufficiencies and lacks of tourism administration in Bangladesh and labels that this industry both strategically and practically is very unlikely to be well-administered. So the chapter makes some recommendations in respect to get a developed tourism administration in the country. This study stresses on facing the present drawbacks and to ensure a well-deserved and effective tourism administration in the future.
Yeasmin Islam, Azizul Hassan

Chapter 3. The Role of Local Government in Tourism Development: Evidence from Kuakata, Bangladesh

Abstract
The lack of well-designed planning and effective management of tourism development in Bangladesh may cause the destructive force, associated with negative externalities such as the loss of natural landscapes, congestion, environmental and cultural degradation. In tourism development, the effective role of local government is necessary to promote the social, economic, environmental and cultural well–being to the local communities. Many literature studies have scrutinized how the development of tourism involves collaborative relationships between the various local actors and stakeholders that participate in tourism development. Using the evidence of tourism in Kuakata, this paper contends that it is essential to understand the roles, responsibilities and benefits of all stakeholders of a specific tourist destination from sustainable tourism practice and policy and also how they retort to its adoption. The aim is to find the paramount way to develop tourism towards sustainability in Kuakata according to the main stakeholders: local government members, local community people, hotel owners and employees, and tourists, focusing mostly on the obstacles and undesirable issues. Results of this study point out the fact that there is a wide range of influences that constrain Kuakata tourism development from adopting more sustainable tourism practices. All of these aspects play a crucial role in manifestation the actions of all stakeholders concerning sustainable tourism development.
Johura Jabin Anika, Md Yusuf Hossein Khan, Azizul Hassan

Required Tourist Facilities and Services

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. Tourism Policy Analysis of Required Tourist Facilities in Bangladesh

Abstract
In concept, tourist facilities refer to the services and products aimed for tourist development. Tourist facilities appear in many different forms but this research defined selected tourist facilities as: visa and entry, currency converting, transportation, accommodation, catering, sight-seeing and tour guiding, and safety and security. This research relied on general tourists’ opinions in terms of their views on tourism facility related policy. Information and data were generated from face-to-face interviews with these respondents. Apart from these, an online and literature review was carried out. Findings show that tourists demand good and uninterrupted supply and availability of facilities. Developing tourist attractions in both known and less known regions is important for Bangladesh. Tourist facilities in Bangladesh also encompass several international air, water and land entry points to the country for tourists. Tourist facilities in the present situation and scopes require capacity enhancements. Respondents asserted that tourism product development is the result of the collaborative efforts of various stakeholders as identified and mentioned earlier in this research. Thus, the identification of all relevant stakeholders in private and public sectors, tourism and allied businesses, Destination Management Organisations, and their respective roles in creating or developing a part of a tourism product render importance.
Sadia Afrin Ananya, Abdullah Al Muneem, Azizul Hassan

Chapter 5. Tourism Facility Design Standards and Development in Bangladesh

Abstract
Tourist facility demands in Bangladesh are rising significantly and will keep on rising in the coming years. Quality issue can be serious in tourist facilities offered and the demand for government policy frameworks become essential. Tourist facilities are aimed at catering the diverse and manifold facilities for the tourists. In order to promote tourism in a country like Bangladesh, tourism facility design standards and development need adequate attention. This is particularly important as this relates tourist demands. The government stays as the key facilitator for both the design standard and development. This research is based on data and information generated from both the face-to-face interviews and the relevant literature studies. Findings outline that tourism facility has sensitivity as related to influencing tourist decision to avail a specific product or service. Tourists in almost all cases search for the best available tourist facility and the role of design standard and development become important in this regard. This study outlines inadequate policy support of the Bangladesh government in this particular area. The study then stresses on strengthening the capacities of the Bangladesh government to involve both the international and local agencies in ensuring the quality in standard design and development.
Md. Rakibul Hafiz Khan Rakib, Azizul Hassan

Tour Routes in Bangladesh and Their Regional Connections

Frontmatter

Chapter 6. “Staying Connected”: Policies for Tour Routes in Bangladesh and the Regional and International Connectivity

Abstract
Tourism in the world is more connected these days than ever before mainly due to the realisation of the policy planners. In the present global perspective, connectivity stays as one of the most sought after features of tourism. In tourism, both regional and international connections play crucial role for tourism development. Tourists in the current world are almost aware about staying connected. Still, this area of tourism has not been widely popular for research. In this research, connectivity is featured as tourism policy connections. This is true that at least in the last decade, social media platform has enabled and opened communication opportunities in-between travellers and the regional and international tourism policy planners. Thus, this research also partly analyses the unprecedented role of the social media as a tool of tourist connectivity. This conceptual paper is designed to highlight the policies related to major tour routes followed by both the regional and international connectivity. This research relied on secondary resources for data and information. Both published and unpublished data, reports and information were considered. Findings show that the effective utilization of tourism promotion triad, tourism promotion-connectivity-tour route planning, plays vital roles for tourism development in Bangladesh. However, there is a lack of useful policy supports both for regional and international connectivity even on the social media. This study asserts on formulating and implementing policy that can benefit connectivity of the tourists in Bangladesh.
Md. Rakibul Hafiz Khan Rakib, Azizul Hassan

Legislative Framework, Organisational Entitles and Investment Policies in Tourism

Frontmatter

Chapter 7. Visa and Immigration for Tourists in Bangladesh

Abstract
Visa and immigration are essential formalities for foreign nationals to enter or stay in any country of the world. Tourists as foreigners to a country also need visas and to respect the host country immigration. The importance of visas and immigration get importance. Still, few tourism literature studies have explored diverse aspects of visas and immigration for tourists. Especially, research works on visas and immigration of a South Asian country as Bangladesh have a severe lacking. Hence, this chapter understands the global trends of visa and immigration in tourism. In doing so, the research presents relevant conceptual explanations and examples. This explanations and examples are then related to the context of Bangladesh. The chapter then analytically presents the existing visa and immigration procedures of the country while considering the earlier literal discussions. The research finds that although number of foreign tourist arrival is decreased, the government of Bangladesh tries to follow standard visa and immigration policy to attract international tourists and align the global standard. However, both the availability and accessibility of the most updated facilities and services are yet to be ensured. The chapter stresses on carrying out learning tourist demands regularly and efficiently. This can allow the relevant policy planners and officials to formulate effective, timely and beneficial visa and immigration system networks for tourists in Bangladesh.
Nazmoon Akhter, Azizul Hassan, Md. Alauddin

Investment and Capital in Tourism

Frontmatter

Chapter 8. The Involvement of Private Sector in Tourism in Bangladesh

Abstract
Bangladesh is a land of natural beauty with hilly mountains, rivers, lakes. The beauties of Bangladesh have attracted both local and foreign people. To make proper utilization of the scenic beauty tourism industry has been established in Government and Private sector. The objective of the study is to find out the involvement of Private sector in tourism industry in Bangladesh. Questionnaire has been constructed based on several parameters to take feedback from respondents. A conceptual model has been developed to judge the satisfaction level of the tourists. Likert scale test, Alpha test for reliability, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, regression analysis have been conducted. Likert test result shows higher reliability of questionnaire constructed. Correlation showed positive relationship between independent and dependent variables and regression result showed significant satisfaction level of respondents on the involvement of private sector in tourism industry. Null hypothesis is rejected which means respondents opinion is positive in terms of involvement of private sector in tourism industry. Overall it can be said that involvement of both Private and Public sector can ensure smooth operation of tourism industry and provide the needed support to tourists, which will also ensure economic growth and stability.
Shafir Zaman, Mallika Roy, Md. Mohiuddin Chowdhury

Strategies of Tourism Marketing and Promotion

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. The Role of Institutions for Marketing and Promoting the Tourism Industry of Bangladesh

Abstract
The purpose of this literature review based study is to emphasis the role of various public and private institutions towards the tourism development in Bangladesh. This chapter analyses how tourism institutions like the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism (MOCAT), Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC), like Bangladesh are Bangladesh Tourism Board (BTB), Association of Travel Agents of Bangladesh (ATAB), Tour Operators Association of Bangladesh (TOAB), Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) and so on perform in Bangladesh. Relevant data for this paper were collected primarily by direct investigations of institutions mentioned above. Data were also collected from various secondary sources like brochure, websites and different manuals. This research implies both qualitative in general and quantitative approaches. This chapter argues that to form guidelines for the new entrepreneur and other stakeholders of the tourism industry. The primary objective of these institutions are to spread Bangladesh’s tourism through its nature, history, heritage and culture so that tourism can gain global recognition and international standard. BTB, BPC, BTF, ATAB, TOAB, MOCAT along with stakeholders design the existing and future tourism demands that covers the tourist attraction, accommodation, transportation, food and beverages sector. This paper understands how these institutions offer tourism and hospitality knowledge to create competent manpower for the tourism industry by providing both theoretical and practical experiences. Focusing on Bangladesh, this study concludes the importance of the institutionalisation of tourism for its development and promotion in the country.
Zakia Sharmin, Bapon Chandra Kuri, Azizul Hassan

Chapter 10. Reaching the Stakeholders: Social Media and the Administration of Tourism in Bangladesh

Abstract
The results and effectivity of technology in tourism administration is unprecedented. Social media as a technology application can play a crucial role in both attracting and managing visitors in destinations in a developing country like Bangladesh. The country has promising tourism destinations that require considerable attention in terms of promotion and administration. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC) and Bangladesh Tourism Board (BTB) occupy pioneering positions towards the structural and promotional upkeep of Bangladesh tourism. These organisations behold the national pride and support the entire tourism sector of the country. Both BPC and BTB are said to have adopted social networks as a tool for promotion and administration. However, the effectiveness of social media can be questionable in promoting and administering tourist attractions. This is significant particularly when information sharing and communication between the authorities and beneficiaries remain crucial. This chapter aims to outline the interaction of social media networks in tourism destination promotion and administration. This study also offers some policy recommendations to better guide the use of social networks for tourism development. Results outline that social media network can be purposive not only for tourism promotion and administration but also supports the process of information sharing and keep stakeholders informed about various services and offerings at destinations.
Md. Ashikur Rahman Avi, Abdullah Al Muneem, Shelamony Hafsa

Tourism Education and Training

Frontmatter

Chapter 11. General Tourism and Hospitality Education and Research in Bangladesh

Abstract
The rapid expansion of tourism and hospitality sector demands more subject-oriented expertise. In order to address the situation, many countries of the world started offering different levels of educational programs. In Bangladesh, tourism education and research remain comparatively a new stream of learning opportunity. This paper instigates an exploratory study to report on the general tourism and hospitality education and research in Bangladesh. Using both primary and secondary methods, this research collects data and analyze following the content analysis technique. The findings reveal that the unique nature and interdisciplinary orientations require tourism education to accommodate both theoretical as well as practical learning modules. However, the practical part has been found largely absent in most of the tertiary level institutions. Finally, a number of issues have been identified for future research opportunities that entail the supply and demand side of tourism education and research in Bangladesh. More specifically, the findings highlighted the nature and status associated with tourism and hospitality jobs, scarcity of qualified academicians and institutes, faulty course curriculum, lack of accessibility to quality and updated materials, and failure of government to play its functional roles. This paper will be helpful for policymakers in tourism and hospitality sectors in Bangladesh.
Karabi Kabir, Muhammad Shoeb-Ur- Rahman

Chapter 12. Evaluating Social Engagement Through Talent Management Practices

Abstract
This chapter aims to assess the social engagement of hospitality & tourism employees through Talent Management Practices (TMPs). Specifically, the views of employees who are working in the hotel and restaurant sector in Bangladesh are examined. There appears to be challenges unique to this sector (e.g. high turnover and low performance) that can potentially result in a loss of competitive advantage. Therefore, research associated within this context is a matter of importance. The partial least square structural equation modelling uses SMART–PLS for 458 employees and applied a positive research approach with a quantitative basis of enquiry. The measurement model i.e. results of indicator, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity i.e. Heterotrait–Monotrait (HTMT) ratio was tested. Overall, the structural model also shown that TMPs have a significant impact on social engagement. This chapter intends to develop a better understanding of practitioners about TM practices that can affect social engagement of employees. Key issues relating to social engagement are discussed, followed by several practical recommendations. This chapter represents a more profound insight into the dynamics of TM.
Fatema Johara, Sofri Yahya, Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal

Chapter 13. Suggestions for Tourism Marketing Education and Research Development in Bangladesh

Abstract
Tourism industry, having immense potential is being considered as one of the most emergent economic sectors of Bangladesh. But, without being backed by an educated and groomed workforce, this sector cannot gain competitive edge and sustainable growth. Though graduate unemployment rate is increasing in the market, this industry lacks in tourism professionals and entrepreneurs. So, at one side, this surplus human resources need to be converted to human capital by creating dynamic job sectors. On the other side, prudent and structured curriculum should be in place; those create educated and knowledgeable individuals who are occupationally functional to work in tourism industry. This chapter reviews the existing tourism marketing education and research development status in Bangladesh. Research initiatives prescribing suggestions for development of tourism marketing education and research are very few in numbers; which is necessary to build up indigenous knowledge on tourism services. Purpose of this chapter is to provide appropriate suggestions in this regard. This chapter finds out that, for development of tourism marketing education and research in Bangladesh, there is lack of coordination among different stakeholders of the industry. The chapter recommends that the existing tourism marketing education needs radical transformations, including curriculum, program offering, pedagogy, andragogy, research, training and learning environment. The chapter concludes that flourishment of marketing research and education facilities will open ways for national and international opportunities in tourism market both in tourism business and profession and create great impact in generating GDP of the country through skilled human capital.
Yeasmin Islam, Nazia Akthar

Chapter 14. Non-governmental Organisations and Tourism Education in Bangladesh

Abstract
Socio-economic developments in Bangladesh have been largely impacted by the advocacy and relevant interventions of the non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The foremost success so far of these NGOs is confined in microcredit, women empowerment and social welfare programmes. However, some of the NGOs extended the area of social interventions for sustainable community development, primarily contributing to the primary health care, early childhood education, adult literacy programme and vocational training. Furthermore, capitalising the favourable education policies, relatively large NGOs have remarkably been engaged in tertiary education. This study reviews the historical and contemporary perspectives of two Bangladesh-origin NGOs – BRAC (Building Resources Across Communities) and ASA (Association for Social Advancement) – and their engagements in the private sector tertiary education. Given the organisational objectives, socio-political influence, managerial and financial capacities, NGO-affiliated universities arguably paved the way of a notable shift in resource diversification and investments of NGOs. This chapter explicitly narrates the academic disciplines and curriculum of these NGO-operated universities and stresses the need for the inclusion of tourism education and research. Findings of this conceptual study suggest that the institutional role of these NGO-based universities can significantly contribute to the knowledge co-creation and management for sustainable tourism leaderships and socio-economic developments in Bangladesh.
Md Ariful Hoque, Abrar Faisal, Muhammad Shoeb-Ur- Rahman, Azizul Hassan

Tourism Policy and Gender

Frontmatter

Chapter 15. Tourism and Gender Equity in Bangladesh

Abstract
How far tourism industry can ensure gender equity in achieving sustainable tourism in Bangladesh? To unravel this central query, this chapter intends to critically explore the policies and practices of our tourism industry weighing from a gender lens. Initially, it unfolds the resonance that to what extent gender equity matters in order to ensure a sustainable tourism industry in Bangladesh. According to the resemblance of United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) with the fifth agenda of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) gender equality needs to be addressed in order to ensure a sustainably co-existed and developed society. However, the absence of women being the “less included gender” in both policies and practices of tourism industry can noticeably be evident since the inception of the industry in Bangladesh. On top of that, the non-appearance of women particularly at the heart of decision making and leading positions in tourism continues to stumble their professional advancements. In parallel with these policies and pay gap this chapter has simultaneously unfolded inequitable leadership, societal stereotypes and non-acceptance, work-life balance, lack of self-esteem, lack of training and violence against women to be the overt and covert responsible reasons behind the non-equitable gender balance in the tourism industry of Bangladesh. Thereby, gender-mainstreaming needs to be replicated in order to revise the gendered stereotypes in terms of the policies and practices related to tourism industry in Bangladesh. Being qualitative in nature, on the basis of a secondary data based research methodology this chapter intends to altercate that a rigorous gender analysis related to the policies, practices and societal mind-set needs to be revised. Finally, gradual development of a gender dimension along with reframing of policies can only be expected to ensure a gender balanced sustainable tourism policies in Bangladesh for the future days to endeavor.
Iffat Anjum

Future Directions for Tourism Policy and Planning in Bangladesh

Frontmatter

Chapter 16. Tourism Development Agendas in Bangladesh: Exploring Some Policy Considerations

Abstract
Tourism as a promising economic sector has gained acceptance globally and endorsed increasingly by apex international organizations such as the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Representing the developing world, Bangladesh has a range of tourism resources to attract tourists to contribute to the overall economy. However, the development of this sector within the country is still at its early stage. Accordingly, the country is failing to receive the utmost value from tourism sector. This chapter aims to outline a number of suggestions to develop tourism sector in the context of Bangladesh. In doing so, qualitative research approach has been employed. The data collection strategy encompasses both primary and secondary techniques. The primary technique mainly involves securing opinions from industry experts while the secondary techniques cover reviewing a wide range of published and unpublished materials. This paper identifies a number of issues to be addressed to realize the potential of tourism sector in Bangladesh. These issues include formulation and implementation of tourism friendly master plan, creation of tourism quality assurance cell, development of tourists’ facilities and necessary infrastructures, coordination among key stakeholders, proper marketing and promotional campaign, allocation of adequate budget, invitation of foreign investments, and awareness creation to upgrade tourism from the existing condition. This study is believed to be helpful for tourism policymakers and researchers in Bangladesh.
Abdullah Al Muneem, Md. Ashikur Rahman Avi, Md Ariful Hoque

Chapter 17. An Investigation into the National Tourism Policy of Bangladesh to Explore Policy Significance for a Regional-Level Destination

Abstract
This chapter contemplates a qualitative review of the National Tourism Policy (NTP) of Bangladesh. The review eventually scopes the significance for adopting a regional-level destination’ policy. Taking Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) as a case, the study generates findings and reports accordingly. The CHT remains a unique region and/or destination within Bangladesh since it is an exclusive hilly area and it has different administrative set up including the deployment of militaries by the central government. In addition, the destination hosts heterogeneous communities including indigenous communities and mainstream Bengali community. This chapter is anchored in a qualitative approach following desk-based literature review, which has been further complemented by opinions from various industry experts. The findings indicate that the NTP fails largely to acknowledge tourism significance of CHT as a distinct destination. The NTP has six chapters in which the CHT is barely mentioned. Moreover, the community aspects including the presence and inclusion of indigenous communities and administrative distinctiveness have not given due diligence. The NTP has been criticized accordingly on the ground of sidestepping key features of a region that exhibits unique cultural and natural compositions. This chapter concludes with a bare necessity to develop region-based tourism policies under the broad umbrella of the NTP. The development of such policies must be backed by strong research inputs to ensure coherence and endurability in planning and formulation of strategies.
Muhammad Shoeb-Ur- Rahman

Chapter 18. Tourism Policy in Bangladesh: A Critical Perspective

Abstract
The tourism industry of Bangladesh is reported to be one of the fastest-growing in South Asia. In the last few decades, the country witnessed a sharp growth of a social class with discretionary income to afford leisure travels. However, this is dubious that the existing tourism policy is inclusive, and has been able to facilitate a sustainable development trajectory of the tourism industry. This study comprehensively reviews the tourism policy implications and addresses complexities at the intersections of the public, private, and community sectors in Bangladesh. The findings suggest that an inclusive tourism policy and relevant instruments are essential to support and (de)regulate the thriving tourism industry of the country. This chapter further identifies the tourism product and service demands of the emerging social class and required policy interventions to promote and manage tourism in the popular destinations.
Muhammad Shoeb-Ur- Rahman, Abrar Faisal, Azizul Hassan, Md Ariful Hoque

Backmatter

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