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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of four workshops held in conjunction with the Third European Conference, ServiceWave 2010, held in Ghent, Belgium, in December 2010. The book includes 23 reviewed papers from four workshops that were selected from eight high-quality workshop session proposals. They represent diverse aspects of the theory and practice of service computing, ranging from service engineering to service infrastructures. The workshops are: First Workshop on Optimising Cloud Services (OCS 2010), International Workshop on Emergency Management through Service-Oriented Architectures (EMSOA 2010), First International Workshop on Service Modelling and Representation Techniques (SMART 2010), and From Event-Driven Business Process Management to Ubiquitous Complex Event Processing (EDBPM 2010).



1st Workshop on Optimizing Cloud Services (OCS 2010)

Architecturing a Sky Computing Platform

Current Cloud computing solutions force people to be stranded into locked, proprietary systems. In order to overcome this limitation several efforts of the research community are addressing issues such as common programming models, open standard interfaces, adequate service level agreements or portability of applications. In this context, we argue about the need for an open-source Cloud application programming interface and a platform targeted for developing multi-Cloud oriented applications. This paper describes the approach that we propose for a platform that allows the deployment of component-based applications in Cloud environments taking into account multiple Cloud provider offers.
Dana Petcu, Ciprian Crăciun, Marian Neagul, Silviu Panica, Beniamino Di Martino, Salvatore Venticinque, Massimiliano Rak, Rocco Aversa

Optimising Development and Deployment of Enterprise Software Applications on PaaS: The CAST Project

Platform as a Service (PaaS) is a concept whereby a computing platform and a software development stack are being offered as a combined service to prospective application developers. This model has been shown to carry a great number of benefits for developers and PaaS providers alike, and represents an important trend within cloud computing today. However, the design of mature platforms to support this model to its full extent remains a complex and challenging undertaking for enterprise application PaaS providers. The aim of this paper is to present the approach that is being undertaken within research project CAST to realise a platform that pushes the envelope of PaaS facilities and addresses the challenges associated with optimising application reusability, extensibility, configurability, integrability, and manageability. The ultimate aim is to create a software platform that fosters the creation of an ecosystem, thus pursuing the PaaS vision to its fullest extent possible.
Dimitrios Kourtesis, Volker Kuttruff, Iraklis Paraskakis

The Bullwhip Effect and VM Sprawl in the Cloud Supply Chain

The Bullwhip Effect is the result of problems occurring throughout nearly any type of supply chain. Whether it is surges in internal or external defects, every participant in a supply chain need to avoid it. This paper discusses the Bullwhip phenomenon and how it applies to the world of Cloud Computing. Comparisons are made between a traditional supply chain and the Cloud supply chain in order to observe how these relate with each other. This leads to the realisation of the main problem areas within the Cloud supply chain and its main defect, the VM Sprawl. Also we derived indicators for each of the problem areas, which can be seen as a sign of the Bullwhip Effect in a specific Cloud supply chain. Automation and monitoring are also considered, and a prototypical implementation has been developed to support this.
Maik Lindner, Philip Robinson, Barry McLarnon, Fiona McDonald

Using Service Level Agreements for Optimising Cloud Infrastructure Services

Current Cloud environments are offered to their customers in a best effort approach. Instead of guarantees a statistical uptime expectation is communicated to the user with minimal compensations in case of unexpected downtime. In contrast, a service provider intending e.g. to extend his own resources dynamically with Cloud resources in case of peak demands of his customers needs a reliable Service Level Agreement with the Cloud infrastructure provider. This Service Level Agreement must cover aspects like cost, security, legal requirements for data-placement, eco-efficiency and more. The European project OPTIMIS is focussing on optimisation of cloud infrastructure services meeting demands from service providers, e.g. when public and private Clouds are federated in different configurations. This paper describes the approach of OPTIMIS for negotiating and creating Service Level Agreements between infrastructure providers and service providers.
Andy Lawrence, Karim Djemame, Oliver Wäldrich, Wolfgang Ziegler, Csilla Zsigri

International Workshop on Emergency Management Through Service-Oriented Architectures (EMSOA 2010)

Process-Aware Information Systems for Emergency Management

Nowadays, Process-aware Information Systems (PAISs) are widely used in many business scenarios, e.g., by government agencies, by insurance companies, and by banks. Despite this widespread usage, the typical application of such systems is predominantly in the context of business scenarios. Nevertheless, emergency management can also benefit from the use of PAISs; for instance, the metaphor of a business process fits very good with the concept of emergency recovery plan. This paper summarizes an invited talk given by the first author for the EMSOA’10 workshop that has been co-located with the ServiceWave 2010 Conference. This paper starts the basic PAIS’ requirements for the domain of emergency management, then it gives an overview of the nowadays’ literature on using PAISs for Emergency Management. Finally, the paper proposes an architecture and a system to support the execution of emergency management processes.
Massimiliano de Leoni, Andrea Marrella, Alessandro Russo

Semantic Services for Information and Management Support in Mass Casualty Incident Scenarios

Operation managers in mass casualty incidents (MCI) are easily overwhelmed by the highly dynamic scenario. Today, they are often supported by paper-based checklists that help ensure that nothing important gets overlooked. In this paper, we present our approach to dramatically increase the support offered by such checklists: We suggest to replace them by IT-based intelligent checklists that will not only display information the manager should collect and tasks he might perform, but directly support semi-automatic information gathering, propagation and task-execution.
Uwe Krüger, Aygul Gabdulkhakova, Birgitta König-Ries, Clemens Beckstein

Information Conceptualization for Emergency Management

Emergency management information systems are increasingly requiring flexibility and interoperability and their design should not be only based on the conceptualization of information provided and accessed during the recovery stage. In fact, analyzing the entire workflow of emergency management, namely, preparedness, response and recovery we can identify a significant intersection of concepts present in on and another stage. In this paper we will focus on the informational function of contingency management workflows proposing a conceptual structure of this domain through the use of ontologies. More than a simple classification of the kinds of information read, produced, modified, memorized and shared, we would like to capture into the emergency management field which are the specific classes of information objects and the relations that exist among them.
Ouejdane Mejri

Simulator for PROSIMOS (PRiority communications for critical SItuations on MObile networkS) Service

Public Mobile Networks (PMN) are at the very heart of nowadays communications. They are not only used by individuals, but also by a large number of Agencies committed to Security and Safety. This will be even more common in near future, when cities become crowded with real time sensors scattered in every corner of our lives. The ability from this data (and others from First Responders teams) to reach its assigned Command and Control Centers in time can be determinant in a large number of incidents. PROSIMOS project aims at researching on business cases for the implementation of a priority communications system on public mobile networks (PMN). The objective of this system is to enable critical users to communicate during emergency situations, in a time when PMN services may be restricted due to damage, congestion or faults. The scope of the project is to identify the best business case to be adopted to cope with this requirement, guaranteeing its short term implementation in Europe. In order to accomplish this goal a Business Model Simulator has been designed including both economical and network performance features. In this paper we present the Simulator that has been designed in order to identify the most suitable business model and technology to be adopted for the implementation of PROSIMOS service. When taking into consideration enabler technologies for EMSOA PROSIMOS is a not to be missed one.
Disclaimer. PROSIMOS project has been funded with the support of the Prevention, Preparedness and Consequence Management of Terrorism and other Security-related Risks Programme of the European Commission - Directorate-General Home Affairs". This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein
Roberto Gimenez, Inmaculada Luengo, Anna Mereu, Diego Gimenez, Rosa Ana Casar, Judith Pertejo, Salvador Díaz, Jose F. Monserrat, Vicente Osa, Javier Herrera, Maria Amor Ortega, Iñigo Arizaga

Active Knowledge Modeling Supporting Emergency Mitigation

We present in this paper a model-oriented approach, Active Knowledge Modeling (AKM) to provide flexible support to emergency mitigation. A case study has been performed on the approach. Although the case was performed in a restricted environment, the feedback from the participants was promising as for the expected needs of flexibility in the process that an AKM solution allows. Further work has to be done, both over a longer term following more of the emergency management process, and following other cases in other settings to support the utility of the approach.
John Krogstie

A JXTA-Based Peer Architecture for Enhanced Service Discovery in SOA-Based P2P Applications

The adoption of a P2P paradigm for implementing software applications based on service oriented architectures (SOA) is gaining momentum as a valid alternative to the classic client-server paradigm. In this context, service providers are strategically interested to describe and manage the quality of service (QoS) characteristics of offered services. The ability to carry out QoS-oriented service discovery activities is an essential issue for effectively managing the QoS of SOA-based P2P applications and as consequence to guarantee an good quality level among collaborating services. To this purpose, this paper introduces a JXTA-based peer architecture for enhanced service discovery in SOA-based P2P applications. The proposed approach builds upon a model-driven framework for predicting, at composition time, and managing, at execution time, the QoS of SOA-based P2P applications.
Paolo Bocciarelli, Andrea D’Ambrogio, Michele Angelaccio

1st International Workshop on Service Modelling and Representation Techniques (SMART 2010)

A Service Portfolio Model for Value Creation in Networked Enterprise Systems

Service science research is increasingly focusing on modeling value co-creation. However, there are concerns about the practical use of service systems-driven approaches to value creation in actual business settings. In this paper, we focus on the provision of knowledge services by a service system, and present an innovative model for clustering and profiling the value co-creation capabilities of such a service system. We then describe how this model drives the development of a new service management framework for managing the development of knowledge services. Finally, we present our early experiences from a practical deployment of our research findings in the development of a service system that offers knowledge services to enterprises for enhancing their collaboration quotient when participating in virtual organizations.
Konstadinos Kutsikos, Gregoris Mentzas

On the Use of Feature Models for Service Design: The Case of Value Representation

Current findings in the field of service science have revealed many specific characteristics of service systems, but these results have not yet been fully adopted by the service engineering discipline. In particular we are now aware that the value proposition of a service is not only vital for its success but also deeply depending on context and co-creation. So far, there is only limited work on considering this fact for the design of service systems. In this paper, we discuss the utilization of feature modeling, which is known from the software engineering domain, for service design. We argue that feature modeling offers considerable potential to not only represent value from diverse perspectives but also to involve service customers in participatory service design.
Erik Wittern, Christian Zirpins

Towards a Hybrid Simulation Modelling Framework for Service Networks

The increasingly globalized service-centric economy has brought much attention on the concept of service networks. Scientific disciplines, such as management and service oriented computing, have commenced studying on how to design, develop, manage, and govern service networks. What is really needed for service networks to be developed, provisioned and managed in practice, however, are disciplined methods and tools that are able to take into account, tune and reconcile both technical and business considerations. This paper may be seen as a first, yet critical step in realizing the above vision. In particular, this paper explores a hybrid service network simulation approach that is able to analyze, optimize and tune the performance of service networks and their resources, including software services and human operated services. Our holistic, hybrid simulation framework will be firmly grounded on pre-existing simulation techniques that have been widely used in process modelling and simulation.
Yan Wang, Willem-Jan van den Heuvel

Empowering Citizens in Public Service Design and Delivery: A Reference Model and Methodology

The importance of public service delivery for improving the relationship between governments and their citizens has been recently recognized as a major challenge for e-Government research. In this paper, we propose a new reference model and an associated governance methodology where citizens’ opinions directly impact the service delivery decision-making process. Our proposal supports iterative development of public services; starting from abstract citizen needs, and subsequently aligning them with the strategy of public bodies, laws and regulations through a stepwise process of reconciliation and refinement until they can be modeled, simulated, and evaluated.
Y. Taher, Willem-Jan van den Heuvel, S. Koussouris, C. Georgousopoulos

A Description Framework for Digital Public Services

Service description frameworks and relevant metadata appear as a key enabler that assists management of resources related to the provision of personalized, efficient and proactive services oriented towards the real citizens’ needs. As different authorities typically use different terms to describe their resources and publish them in various Digital Service Registries that may enhance the access to and delivery of governmental knowledge, but also need to communicate seamlessly at a national and pan-European level, the need for a unified digital public service metadata standard emerges. This paper presents the creation of an ontology-based extended metadata set that embraces services, documents, XML Schemas, code lists, public bodies and information systems. Such a metadata set formalizes the exchange of information between portals and registries and assists the service transformation and simplification efforts, while it can be further taken into consideration when applying Web 2.0 techniques in governance.
Yannis Charalabidis, Fenareti Lampathaki

The Business Service Representation Language: A Preliminary Report

The recent interest in services science has led to research in business service management, using a multi-disciplinary synthesis of thinking from the disciplines of computing, management, marketing and potentially several others. Business services can be of many different kinds. The notion includes within in its ambit business process outsourcing services, clinical services, customer contact services as well as IT-enabled services, to name a few representative examples. A key component of any business service management framework is a service modeling language.
A. K. Ghose, L. S. Lê, K. Hoesch-Klohe, E. Morrison

From Event-Driven Business Process Management to Ubiquitous Complex Event Processing (EDBPM 2010)

Analysis of Complex Events in Memory Evolutive Systems

Complex Event Processing is studied in the frame of Memory Evolutive Systems, a mathematical model, based on category theory, for evolutionary self-organized hierarchical systems such as biological, social or cognitive systems. Their self-organization depends on the interactions between a net of internal functional subsystems, each operating at its own rhythm. We show how the cooperation/competition between these ’coregulators’ is at the root of ubiquitous complex events. The property leading to the emergence of higher order complex events is characterized: it is the "Multiplicity Principle" (a kind of ’degeneracy’ property) satisfied in particular by neuro-cognitive systems where it allows for the development of higher order cognitive processes, up to consciousness.
Andrée C. Ehresmann, Jean-Paul Vanbremeersch

Business Process Modelling Notation from the Methodical Perspective

This paper evaluates some characteristics of the BPMN language from the perspective of the business system modelling methodology. Firstly the context of the business process management and the importance of standards are discussed. Then the Business System Modelling Methodology is introduced with special attention paid to the Business Process Meta-model as a basis for the evaluation of the language. In the special section particular basic concepts from the Business Process Meta-model are mapped to the usable constructs of the BPMN and related issues are analysed. Finally the basic conclusions are made and the general context is discussed.
Vaclav Repa

A Transformation from SBVR Business Rules into Event Coordinated Rules by Means of SBVR Patterns

SBVR is becoming more and more popular as the metamodel for defining vocabulary based business rules. In an extended form SBVR can be used to declare a whole spectrum of business rules including control-flow and organizational rules. Enforcing the rules of the business in information systems is however not straightforward. SBVR leaves open the gap between defining business rules and actually enforcing them. In this paper, we examine if and how business rules can be expressed in SBVR and translated using patterns into a more uniform event mechanism, such that the event handling could provide an integrated enforcement of the defined business rules.
Willem De Roover, Jan Vanthienen

About Adopting Event Processing in Manufacturing

Manufacturing enterprises strive for improvements in their monitoring and control of enterprise processes to sustain competitive advantages. In this context, enterprise integration (EI) across various enterprise levels and event processing are indispensable. However in reality, enabling EI and employing event processing for online monitoring and control of enterprise processes are elusive goals for many of the manufacturing enterprises. In the contribution, a framework for enabling EI is elaborated, which can be considered as a building block towards realizing the aforementioned goals. The framework encompasses various components: data collection engine, data aggregation engine, event processing engine, performance measurement, and offline analysis. This framework can be exploited in enhancing online monitoring and control of enterprise processes by employing event processing. The framework has been implemented and validated in an industrial scenario.
Manfred Grauer, Bernhard Seeger, Daniel Metz, Sachin Karadgi, Marco Schneider

A New Biology: A Modern Perspective on the Challenge of Closing the Gap between the Islands of Knowledge

This paper discusses the rebirth of the old quest for the principles of biology along the discourse line of machine-organism disanalogy and within the context of biocomputation from a modern perspective. It reviews some new attempts to revise the existing body of research and enhance it with new developments in some promising fields of mathematics and computation. The major challenge is that the latter are expected to also answer the need for a new framework, a new language and a new methodology capable of closing the existing gap between the different levels of complex system organization.
Plamen L. Simeonov, Andrée C. Ehresmann, Leslie S. Smith, Jaime Gomez Ramirez, Vaclav Repa

Events, Neural Systems and Time Series

Different types of events occurring in computer, neural, business, and environmental systems are discussed. Though events in these different domains do differ, there are also important commonalities. We discuss the issues arising from automating complex event handling systems.
Leslie S. Smith, Daniel Metz, Jungpen Bao, Pedro Bizarro

A Text Copy Detection System Based on Complex Event Processing Architecture

The Text Copy Detection plays an important role in the Intellectual Property Protection. It is a typical resource consuming system. The traditional software architecture, in which a single detection process fulfills the whole detection flow, does not release the power of Cloud Computing. The paper introduces a Complex Event Processing based text copy detection system, which will be developed to an open web service. The new architecture is suitable for Cloud Computing, and the other advantages are discussed.
JungPen Bao, Yong Qi, Di Hou, Hui He


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