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Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on sustainability concepts in architecture and urban design, environmental issues, and natural resources. Today it has become essential to reduce carbon emissions, protect habitats, and preserve the delicate ecosystems of our planet. Accordingly, sustainable development has to be improved by decreasing the consumption of non-renewable resources, in order to help nature replenish itself.
Further, it highlights the efforts that have been made by architects, environmentalists, engineers, students, planners and everyone in between in order to improve sustainability in various developing communities and countries.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Sustainable Design Strategies at the Urban Level

Frontmatter

Toward Resiliency Through Sustainable Urban Formation in Baghdad

Abstract
This research comes in an attempt to develop the present urban patterns toward resiliency in the developing countries’ environment in general and the Baghdad City in particular. This is performed through the looking at the most recent theories designed to extrapolate socio-ecological resilient and sustainable urban formation, viewing their roots and development, by founders and advocates. The aim is to extract the most significant strategies from these perspectives that can serve Baghdad City as a case study. The key finding of this research is the lack of the ideal theory that extrapolated the sustainable urban formation as a structure that can be applied as a prototype of the resilient theory. Each city demonstrates the properties that distinguish it from others, and day after day, applications and indicators are undertaken to serve some cities and not others depending on functionality, stability, and adaptive cycling process, the nature of the city, and the environmental characterization of this city. As a result, this research adopts some integrated strategies as solutions combining the recent theories and includes recent approaches searching for Baghdad urban resiliency, by extrapolating its phases of changing, its flexibility, and its adaptation of the urban fabric according to its master plans. Consequently, some cities might have able to cope with the severe spatiotemporal changes and reach sustainability, and others might fail to achieve urban resiliency.
Zaynab Radi Abaas

An Exploration of the Effects of Urban Block Design on the Outdoor Thermal Environment in Tropical Savannah Climate: Case Study of Nyamirambo Neighborhood of Kigali

Abstract
Urbanization is known to alter the microclimate, thus accelerating the effect of climate change. The built environment can have a positive and negative impact on local microclimates and especially at the neighborhood level. Microclimates at this level are created by items such as building form and geometry, street width, surface material types, soil types, trees, and vegetation types which represent urban block design characteristics. At street level, urban block settings have an impact on the overall air temperature, the surface temperature, the wind distribution, and on the solar radiation, and this will influence the outdoor thermal comfort. In this paper, we explore the impact of urban block design on the microclimate and its impact on the outdoor thermal environment by simulating the microclimate using ENVI-met and by assessing urban thermal comfort using UTCI in a carefully selected urban block fabric of the Nyamirambo neighborhood, which is one of the oldest mixed-used neighborhoods in Kigali presenting a particularly dense urban fabric in the fast-growing city of Kigali. While the region has been experiencing extensively high temperatures during the dry season in the recent past years, this paper tends to highlight urban block design strategies that can help to ease the effects of global warming by providing pedestrians with thermally comfortable conditions. We simulated the microclimate at street level of an urban block model in ENVI-met and analyzed its impact on Ta, Va, MRT, and UTCI at the current state and after introducing urban morphological techniques that have proved to enhance thermal conditions outdoors such as adding trees on the roadside, replacing dark and used concrete pavement with a light concrete pavement with a high albedo, and the creation of a small park to offset the positive impact of cool materials. We also analyzed the results based on the impact of the urban block’s building geometry represented by SVF and street orientation. Both strategies proved to have satisfactory results when treated separately. The addition of trees alone led to a reduction of Ta by 3.89 °C and MRT reduction by 1.1 °C at noon. Results of simulations based on SVF and street orientation impact on Ta, and MRT did not show a big difference in this particular urban fabric; however, SVF and street orientation proved to play an important role in the distribution of wind velocity. The best results, however, were obtained in the combination of all the mentioned strategies where the UTCI went from the state of “moderate thermal heat stress” to a state of “no thermal heat stress;” the highest MRT which corresponds to the high-angle sun between 12:00 and 13:00 went from 68 °C to 60.35 °C, especially in the area with added trees and regardless of the street orientation and SVF.
Elyse de la Joie Horimbere, Hong Chen, Mehdi Makvandi

Where is Wakanda? Who is T’Challa? The Sustainable African City Re-Imagined as a Livable and Lovable City

Abstract
Where is Wakanda? Is it place? An idea? Who is T’Challa? Who are the African heroes when it comes to the conceptualising of African space and cities? Images of future African cities tend to resemble Wakanda in the movie “Black Panther”. These images are dominated by high-rise glass and steel structures—an aspiration of many cities in emerging African economies. While there is a need to imagine alternatives to current trajectories of development of African cities, it is important to consider images that lead to the creation of inclusive spaces, a scale that is accessible and a relationship with the public realm that is meaningful to the majority of city residents. An anecdotal narrative is combined with an analytical text based on a literature review on some of the themes presented. Based on what emerges from this debate, the African City is re-imagined, through the extraction of some lessons and ideas from the analysis of case studies, as a livable and lovable city. These concepts imply that cities are just, attractive, functional and resonate with many communities over time. In this way, cities become sustainable by accommodating for all people and allowing for diversity, choice and change. The future image of these cities thus also strongly relates to their geographical, social, cultural, economic and historical contexts.
Amira Osman

The Relation Between Walking and Urban Form: Identifying Gaps in Egyptian Literature

Abstract
Walkability is an indicator of how pleasant a walking area is. It has many benefits that include environmental, health, and economic, and it also affects the quality of life. According to international literature, walkability is mainly affected by two of variables; (a) human-related and (b) urban form-related. Human variables include behavior, age, physical activity, safety perception, socioeconomic level, and others, while urban form variables are related to transportation infrastructure, land-use mix, streets configuration/design, and urban density. Internationally, studies in this area focused on multidisciplinary research methods combining public health, transportation, social behavior, and urban form. However, not many studies have simultaneously linked urban form variables with human behavior-related variables in a quantitative manner. On the other hand, in the Egyptian literature, a clear consensus on the advantages of mixed-use and density can be noticed. Nonetheless, empirical evidence or quantified description for these terms is rarely provided. Furthermore, no significant attention is given to the impact of human-related variables on walking. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to investigate the international and local methodologies that focused on walkability and its relation with social behavior and urban form. The study at hand classifies and categorizes the main streams of research internationally and locally. Consequently, define gaps in the Egyptian literature and identify possible topics that need to be quantitatively addressed in the local context.
Farah A. Sami, Omar M. Galal

Utilization of Neural Network-Based Approach in Bike Routes Optimization for Port Said Urban Road Network

Abstract
Transport department of urban cities always need to keep abreast of sustainable developments such as in Port Said city that is an important urban city in Egypt. Bike routes planning mission is not an easy occupation especially in developing countries. Mixed traffic is a main shape of the transportation system in most of their systems that are far away from the sustainable transport policies. One of the most effective solutions, for a modern sustainable transport, is the increasing of bike users. On the other side, a lot of problems and accidents had been occurred according to bike crossing among other transport vehicles; cars, buses, taxis, and others. This paper aims at studying the introduction bike routes effectiveness. It concludes the driver’s reaction to a definite planning scenario and how the objective function is affected by the optimistic impact of the modal modification. The objective function has been supposed by assigning a suitable time saving for bike users using artificial neural network (ANN) approach. It shows the effect of bike speed change on the route using a greedy algorithm of the user’s maximization welfare function. The study designated only four streets from seven selected streets to be suitable routes for bike routes introduction. The average bike speed is predicted to increase from 1.5 km per hour to 2.4 km per hour after introducing the bike routes.
Marwa S. El-Bany

Measuring the Prospects of Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) to Identify the Potential Zones in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh

Abstract
In recent decades, rapid population growth has been a critical issue across the world. Mostly, it is becoming much more alarming in the Asian cities, as the UN (Dept. of economic and social affairs) says by 2050, 90% of the upcoming urban population growth will take place in Asian and African cities. In this situation, transit-oriented development (TOD) offers great opportunities mainly for the Asian cities to face the upcoming challenges. Currently, Bangladesh is the fastest growing country among the Asian cities, and its cities have taken an unparalleled pressure of population with infrastructure growth. So, the concept of TOD can be the ultimate solution for accommodating this ineligible urbanization and motorization happening right now throughout the cities of Bangladesh. This research focuses on evaluating TOD principles in transforming cities like Rajshahi, Bangladesh, where population growth has not yet crossed the red mark and some of its strategic locations which have potentials and opportunities for creating as transit stations.
Md. Asaduzzaman, Sabbir Ahmed Siddique, Z. H. M. Monjur Murshed

Heritage Sites: Toward Creative Ambiance in Public Spaces Attached—Impact of Creative Ambiance on Societal Development

Abstract
Nowadays, a lot of challenges are facing the urban development of spaces in cities, especially the heritage public spaces; these urban spaces provide significant ambiances and senses. Most of the cities have a strong well-acknowledged urban ambiance that is derived from its context, especially if the context of the cities is full of heritage sites that have deep, rich senses of knowledge. These public spaces are rich and full of significant heritage which is important to the cultural heritage of the users. This cultural heritage plays an important role in the perception of current and future generations. The main objective of this paper is to explore the senses of the users toward the historic preservation of those public spaces through adding creative ambiance to the existing atmosphere. Researchers will focus on literature review in analyzing the placemaking as its main tool in making successful heritage public space. Consequently, the analysis achieved through different phases, the main goal of the research, is the role of this attached space in the social approach. A qualitative method based on a theoretical analysis is introduced by theorists and practitioners on designing and understanding the principles of those heritage public spaces as well as integration of ambiance dimensions. This framework will be applied to the selected case study as a new proposal for evaluating the attached space in the heritage site to make it more successful. The results include a thorough evaluation and several questionnaires that are provided to the users as an attempt to shed the light implicitly on guidelines and recommendations to the community in the form of approaches, which in turn, could help in the development of those heritage sites and make them more attractive.
Aya Elgobashi, Yasmeen Elsemary

Understanding Challenges/Barriers and the Motivations of Farmers to Adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs): A Case Study of Sumerpur Tehsil of Rajasthan, India

Abstract
State of Rajasthan in India has a semi-arid to the arid climate and is water-stressed with the prevalence of desertification and frequent droughts due to extremely erratic rainfall. This also jeopardizes the sustainability of agriculture and endangers prospects for future generations by affecting the livelihood of the local populace and source of food for livestock. The challenging climate is further negatively augmented with unsustainable agriculture practices such as mono-cropping, extensive use of chemicals, etc. This study builds an understanding of farmers’ challenges/barriers and motivations to achieve sustainability in the agricultural sector in this region. This study analyses farmers’ perspective of shortlisted ten good agricultural practices (GAPs) for this region which are divided into the following four aspects, (1) cropland management, (2) water management, (3) degraded lands restoration, and (4) soil fertility management. Results: There has been as low as 0% of farmers adopting mulching as a GAP and as high as 100% of farmers adopting crop rotation. Koliwara was the only village using advanced micro-irrigation systems; this can be attributed to closeness to the Sumerpur town as well as the engagement of the agriculture department in organising farm field trips to big farms for some farmers. Salodariya has no interaction with the agriculture department as the extension officer rarely visits the farmers hence providing no new technical information to farmers. Chanod has engagement with its extension officer but due to rain-fed agriculture, it does not leave much scope for systems that require irrigation water and technology like mulching, micro-irrigation, etc. Conclusion: This paper tells how tasks that might seem simple and easy to do as researchers can be tough for a farmer in this region as they are not well educated and often get neglected by government officials. When research organisations make policies for sustainable land management (SLM), they are theoretically very helpful. But the on-ground application by farmers is only 50–60% due to many reasons which are explored in this paper. Hence, one of the biggest challenges to SLM is its application by farmers.
Aditi Mali

Improving Sustainability in Indian Cities Through Expansion of Edible Green Spaces: Exploring Million Plus Cities of Bengaluru, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad

Abstract
Current food systems for cities are becoming unsustainable, especially with rapidly increasing population to feed. Food for city dwellers travels long distances to reach while there are empty spaces within the city that can be utilised to grow food. Cities generate gallons of wastewater and tonnes of solid waste that pollutes the environment resulting in climate change. Farming has the potential to create nutritious food from this waste. Urban agriculture provides fresh food to the city and generates employment through this process in multiple sectors like farming, food processing, packaging, etc. This study highlights the innovations in idea and practice of urban agriculture and supports sustainable environmental management, preserving local flavour and essence of culture. This study focuses on improving sustainability through the expansion of edible green spaces in the three million plus cities of India—Bengaluru, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad. The role of all the stakeholders in this process like the municipal corporation, urban development authority, horticulture department, markets, rooftop farmers, urban growers, cooperative societies and others are examined to develop a holistic understanding of the existing practice in food systems. Result: Bengaluru’s urban agriculture movement is people driven; in Hyderabad, it is the horticulture department that has promoted urban agriculture in the city; whereas in Ahmedabad, the urban agriculture movement is mainly through efforts of few individuals and small groups that are engaged in rooftop farming. Conclusion: Sustainability through practice of urban agriculture helps increase edible green spaces in a city. This can be achieved through people-driven movement; government incentives and programmes; and individual efforts. There is a need to create similar green movements in other cities to increase the edible green cover.
Swati Kothary, Aditi Mali

Sustainable Design Strategies at the Building Level

Frontmatter

Potentials of Plant’s Strategies for an Adaptive Building Envelope

Abstract
Architects nowadays use many design approaches to reach a sustainable architecture; one of those rapidly growing approaches in the past few years is the “biomimetic approach” (Benyus, Biomimicry, William Morrow, 1997). This approach seeks solutions inspired by nature; however, some architects could encounter some difficulties in finding the relevant; appropriate solutions that fit their architectural challenge they are trying to solve. Therefore, they need to collaborate with other disciplines like biologists for assistance, consequently consuming more time and effort. There are several methodologies developed to facilitate the translation process from the biological domain to the architectural application. However, the difference in this paper is to generate a methodology tailored specifically for architects. This methodology seeks solutions for building envelope to be adaptive, for the environmental challenges, using solutions and strategies developed by plants. It will offer alternatives for specific environmental challenges at a certain adaptive level, according to the architect preferences and building typology. Consequently, overcoming the need for other disciplines in this translation process: consuming less time. Accelerating the design process is where all the data will be gathered in one platform and categorized according to the aforementioned criteria.
N. Nour ElDin, A. Abdou

Pro-Environmental Behaviors in LEED and Non-LEED-Certified Workplaces: A Comparative Study

Abstract
LEED, a green building rating system, provides a framework for sustainable building and assesses a building’s energy and resource efficiency. LEED prerequisites and credits are achieved by employing sustainable strategies. The efficiency and success of some of these strategies are dependent on future occupant behaviors. As occupant behaviors shape their building's energy-use, resource-use, and waste production, this paper aims to understand whether the achievement of LEED credits shapes occupant pro-environmental behaviors (energy-saving, resource-saving, and sustainable waste management). People spend the majority of their time at work; therefore, this paper takes the work environment as its setting. Further, it explores occupant behaviors in one LEED-certified (CAE) and one non-LEED-certified (ABBE) office building. Occupant surveys extract self-reported energy-saving, resource-saving, and sustainable waste management behaviors of building occupants in both settings. Results reveal a possible impact of LEED credit (SSc4.1) on commute behaviors and (M + R prerequisite) on sustainable waste management behaviors in LEED-certified building occupants. Results showed insignificant differences in both populations in terms of resource-saving behaviors. Further, a negatively significant difference was found in energy-saving behaviors of LEED-certified building occupants which were possibly influenced by limiting building policy.
Mona A. Mohamed, Manal A. S. Abou El-Ela, Hala B. El Naggar

Evaluation of the Sustainable Building Materials for Economic Housing in Egypt

Abstract
Buildings are considered the national valuable assets need to preserve and maintain, because of their functional, civilizational or historical value. The buildings are suffering from design problems, such as architectural drawings and taking decisions that take many periods of time or implementation and maintenance by the implementation of the structure of buildings and finishes … etc. Sustainable housing development has been become an important issue that needs to be taken into subject to provide adequate housing for families, but methods of work are still inadequate for the needs of users. The importance of this subject is to find suitable solutions to provide adequate housing for low-income families through the availability of appropriate methods and materials that achieve the appropriate cost, quality and sustainability as well. In Egypt, people are suffering from providing suitable housing for the social and making the buildings environmentally friendly and administratively successful. Egypt is characterized by a continental climate with strategic locations distinct from any other location and has the most important natural resources that can be used but quickly can be used badly and the buildings are incompatible with nature and lack of respect for the site and this negatively affects the community. The problem is the failure to take advantage of local materials that help to reduce costs, time and the completion of the implementation period. The research aims to identify the housing projects in Egypt and the extent to the criteria of sustainability are met or not available. Consequently, the focus of this study is not only to look at these projects in problems but also to focus on developing future visions and how to implement sustainability elements, especially the idea of sustainable construction of the construction industry as well as on individuals and construction processes. This paper presents studying and analysis of economic housing projects in Egypt and the evaluation of the elements of sustainability achieved or vice versa, such as using of local building materials and how to apply them to achieve the sustainability of those projects and the requirements of users. The research finds that the lack of use and utilization of local materials leads to high costs of housing units and increasing problems, which need to be maintained periodically because of the inability of those materials of weather conditions.
Bishoy Magdy Tawfeeq, Hossam Eldin Hassan Othman Elborombaly, Ali Kamal Ali Altwanasy

Proposed Systemic Method for Selecting Finishing Materials for Building Flooring Using Building Information Modeling (BIM)

Abstract
Material selection is a crucial factor in decision-making for any construction project and is viewed as a challenging and complex task given the full range of material selections available. When going through the process of material selection, one must consider the environmental, social, and economic impacts that a specific selection may entail on the sustainability of the project at one hand as well as consider and the value engineering components of the selections in terms of functionality, quality, and cost. Floor finishing materials can have a significant impact on the cost, aesthetics, and quality of any construction project. Therefore, it is necessary to find a systemic approach to handle this process efficiently. One such method can be made using modern and sophisticated engineering software such as building information models (BIM) when considering all the factors listed above. The goal of this paper is to develop a framework for selecting finishing materials for building flooring using building information modeling (BIM) and value engineering concepts with considering a sustainable rating system.
Mohamed A. Alrahhal Alorabi, Khalid S. Al-Gahtani, Ibrahim A. Alhammad

Utilizing Wind-Driven Ventilation Force as a Technique in Adaptive Passive Interior Design

Abstract
Sustainability has always been known as the quality of being able to continue over a long time considering environmental, social and economic aspects and its approaches are meant to find solutions not only for the carbon dioxide emissions reduction or facing climate changes that affect the surrounding environment but also to guarantee the interior environment air quality and space thermal comfort. So, wind-driven ventilation considered a natural force that can be used as a technique to respond to climate change in passive spaces for the sake of man health and the society correlation with the surrounding environment. The purpose of this research is to provide empirical study shows how natural ventilation can be used as an interior design solution to save energy and turn the space into a self-sufficient. That can be achieved by following the old examples and discussing how architecture and interior design tried to create the most suitable and useful solutions for users’ needs. It will present an analytical study on some of the closest examples of climate change and natural ventilation challenges to our society in Egypt. Those examples focused on environmental forces and predicted the natural environmental effect. Otherwise, it is important to analyze how they can affect the interior design and architectural form. Finally, the research will try to summarize the main interior architectural implications and find some design solutions that can turn the interior space into a passive one to adapt to climatic changes utilizing wind-driven ventilation force as an “adaptive passive space design” technique.
Eman Ahmed Elsayed Mahmoud AlAkaby

Reflections on the Development of Prefabricated Buildings in China from a Historical and Global Perspective

Abstract
China is experiencing rapid urbanization, which has, and will continue, to yield strong demand for buildings, exerting substantial resource and environmental pressures on the country. Prefabricated overall correlation, parallel design, modular combination, and generalization is the best way to transform the construction industry from a traditional sector to an industrial sector which is of great importance to the sustainability of the whole society. This article firstly analyzes the history of the development of prefabricated buildings in China and then focuses on the different stages of the development of prefabricated buildings in developed countries. With the historical and global perspective, some problems and suggestions for prefabricated buildings in China to achieve sustainability are discussed in the end.
Zhang Junjun, Wang Haining, Zhang Hong

Toward a Sustainable Design of the Rehabilitation Centers for Addiction

Abstract
The process of applying sustainability in the design of addiction rehabilitation centers is essential. Previous studies can be defined sustainability from two aspects, the first is technical and the second is psychological. Environmental sustainability involves interaction between patients and the surrounding spaces. The literature review reveals that the design of external or internal spaces surrounding the patient has significant influences on the patient’s state. There is a lack of researches that informs architects of the design elements and requirements that significantly influence patients’ state and show that designing spaces from a healing perspective have a positive effect on patients’ state. Those requirements enable the patients to interact with the surrounding environment and do several activities, which improve the healing process and care services for them. This study aims to identify the design requirements from international, national guidelines, and analytical studies of the patient's needs that make them interact with the surrounding environment. It too shows how to apply those requirements in the design process.
Basma Ibrahem, Doaa Abouelmagd, Alia Amer

The Architectural Design of Outdoor Spaces in Oncology Hospitals: Toward Achieving Social Sustainability for Oncology Patients

Abstract
Cancer is one of the most life-threatening diseases that cause significant psychological consequences among the patients that receive treatment. The oncology patients need to do some activities outdoors with their families that improve their psychological state. A sustainable hospital is a corporate, socially responsible organization that strives to provide a healing environment. Literature review reveals that achieving good “health” contributes to the added values increasing patient satisfaction, healing environment, and supporting their activities. The design of the outdoor spaces plays an essential role in providing a healing environment for those patients. The aim of this research paper is double fold. First, it identifies the most critical design variables in outdoor spaces in oncology hospital and attributes, which link to the aspects and characteristics of social sustainability. Second, the research compares the identified variables and aspects of the social sustainability design of outdoor spaces in oncology hospitals and the real oncology patient’s needs. The paper aims at increasing patient satisfaction, efficiency of healing environment, and supporting patient activities.
Menna Allah Omar Ramadan, Doaa Abouelmagd, Alia Amer

Visual Comfort in Elder Care Facilities: Promoting Environmental Gerontology Theory

Abstract
Population aging is an inevitable universal demographic process. Aging exposes people to physical, sensory, and psychological changes that often lead to health declination and cause dependency. In developed countries, elder care facilities emerged widely to ensure the aging perception of home as a safe and comfortable environment when family members are not around to assist. The elderly spend most of their time indoors; thus, indoor lighting design and visual comfort are vital for their safety. Comfort contributes to the well-being of the elderly as a part of the social sustainability context. The aim of this research is to set visual comfort design guidelines for elder care facilities in developing countries. To achieve this, a methodical review was carried out of published literature on lighting, environmental gerontology, and enhancement of visual comfort for the elderly. Then, an analysis of the environmental gerontology approach application in elderly built environments was carried out. Finally, a summarization of preliminary guidelines for visual comfort that can be applied in developing countries to form aging-friendly space was made. The findings establish recommended guidelines and proposed solutions that would improve the daylighting environment in elder care facilities from the gerontology perspective. This research highlights the important role of environmental gerontology in creating an age-friendly environment that fulfills the physical and psychological needs of the elderly, especially in daylighting aspects, thus promoting social sustainability.
Alaa M. Edrees, Shaimaa Kamel, Hanan Sabry, Ashraf Nessim

Sustainable Living Fences (SLF): To Develop the Function and Form of Universities’ Fences. (Based on Value Architecture)

Abstract
Sustainable facilities have a considerable positive impact on the sustainability of universities. So Egyptian universities should strive to become more sustainable by providing sustainable facilities along with a suitable learning environment for students. There are shortages in financial resources for governmental universities; thus, the Egyptian government calls every university for achieving its additional financial resources to provide full support for scientific research. The traditional universities’ fences achieve main physical values as securing the university, ignoring some social and environmental values; therefore, the research presents a solution “added Values” to save universities’ operating expenses due to the efficient use of materials, providing more funding for research, and providing a better environment for students, staff, and other academic endeavors. The research proposes a model for sustainable practices that introduces designing “sustainable living fences (SLF)” instead of the traditional universities’ fences to develop its function and form. This new term seeks to avoid its traditional problems, adding new visual value, promoting its functions, presenting services, and creating more enjoyable spaces for students, staff, and residents of the surrounding areas.
Basma S. Kassem, Essam Eldin Badran, Ibrahim Abdel Rashid, Faysal Abu ElAzm

Sustainable Development Management, Impact, and Education

Frontmatter

A Procedural Paradigm for Green Project Management of Sustainable Development

Abstract
The author discusses that project managers (PMs) are generally liable for the actualization of the construction management objectives, as they have effective roles in developing a sustainable building process. The project management practices and their performance in the currently on-going Egyptian national housing projects from initiation and planning stage through to construction and operation stages will be analyzed and evaluated in an effort to adopt a paradigm shift of communities’ project management to a sustainable path. The understanding of green building projects should be based on the management of the project life cycle stages as an integrated process. Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), on the contrary, introduces the project management execution process as a repeated process in each of the project life cycle stages. Therefore, the consideration of sustainability fundamentals in project management practices requires a parametric shift. This shift is discussed in this paper as the successful integration of project management aspects through project life cycle stages. Hence, the author utilized the existing knowledge areas in PMBOK with further adjustments, added new knowledge areas and modified project management processes flow to go linear with project life cycle stages (PLC). This has resulted in having sustainability indicators that can be monitored and assessed through the project management processes of housing projects. The paper results in the formation of a guide model that is introduced as a procedural paradigm that helps project managers to plan, monitor and assess sustainable-based housing projects from inception phase to operation stage and involve the appropriate corrective action at the proper time.
Dina Khater

Can Developing Countries Use Global Systems Priorities for Neighborhoods Sustainability Certification? Case Study: Asunción, Paraguay

Abstract
The BREEAM-CM and LEED-ND Neighborhood Sustainability Global Certification Systems have been developed in first world countries, where sustainable construction has been debated and implemented for years. Currently, they are very present in Latin America, even in countries like Paraguay, where there is still no solid framework on which to anchor the sustainable development of cities. Consequently, this paper is the result of the analysis of these global systems priorities in contrast with the most urgent sustainability needs to attend in Asunción, as part of a doctoral thesis research that the author is developing at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. For this purpose, several qualified professionals were consulted in Asunción through interview. As a result, significant discrepancies between these priorities have been identified, as well as some of these global systems weaknesses when contextualized in a developing country. This has led to some recommendations for Paraguayan public institutions in order to develop sustainable urban planning.
P. Argüello Meza, J. Fariña Tojo, E. Román López

Impacts of Inaccessibility to Clean Cooking Fuels: Global Versus Regional Perspective

Abstract
Energy accessibility is fundamental in addressing many of the present universal development issues which impact on people’s physical, socio-economic well-being. However, especially in developing countries where modern energy system accessibility is mostly embryonic, energy poverty remains a severe development problem – despite the amplified attention from numerous agencies and governments. To date, most studies have concentrated only on accessibility to electricity: failing to tackle the fundamental inaccessibility to clean energy for cooking and/or heating. In this paper, we address this gap by reviewing the issue of inaccessibility to clean cooking fuel. In addition, using the fixed effect and random effect methodologies, we present empirical evidence on the impact of inaccessibility to clean fuels for cooking on social development (using education, life expectancy and labour force participation as indicators). We analyse these impacts from both a global and regional perspective: comparing the magnitudes of the impacts. The results obtained show that the household use of solid fuels has a statistically significant negative effect on primary and secondary education, as well as life expectancy. To the best of our knowledge, the results obtained from these analyses are the first available evidences on the dynamics of solid cooking fuels and social development.
Ifeoluwa Garba

Evolution of Optimum Landfill Site for Disposal of Solid Waste Through Geoinformatics: A Case Study of Ahmedabad City

Abstract
Solid waste management is one of the essential responsibilities of local government agencies, which is a primary goal to maintain the personal satisfaction of individuals and ensuring acceptable standards of well-being and sanitation. It is estimated that the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation generates nearly 2200 tons of solid waste daily. Most of this solid waste will find its way to the Piranha landfill, which is to the southeast of the city of Ahmedabad. The city has seen the un-point of population growth over the last few years, and the inclusion of many new areas that are possible, there is an increasing demand that the current framework has to be sufficient to meet. The alternative landfill site thus uses geomatics methods based on physical, environmental, and socio-economic parameters and the multivariate index approach. Thematic maps, i.e., Land use/land dispersal, surface waters, groundwater potential, drainage, infrastructure, were prepared using Indian Remote Sensing satellite data. Census records and the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation provided socio-economic data and other relevant environmental data. Multivariate index analysis was performed using the analytical hierarchy process, taking into account the seventeen parameters. These parameters were weighted using a pair-wise comparison technique to calculate the matrix of the weight-dependent Satty's matrix. The landfill site suitability index is processed using a weighted index strategy. All exclusion criteria were then masked, and the rest were classified into four compatibility classes. The appropriate site was identified as a consequence and proposed for development as a sanitary landfill. This paper demonstrates the value of following the right geomatic and analytical hierarchy method in order not only to identify ideal landfill sites for the removal of solid waste but also to decide the best routes to bring the waste from the city to the landfill site in Ahmedabad (India).
Zalak Bhavsar, Gaurav Jain

The Spatial Intercorrelation of Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Empirical Verification of China’s Impacts by Spatial Durbin Panel Data Model

Abstract
As the “Going Out” strategy has been introduced after WTO accession and post-crisis era, besides the economic effects, outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from China has been boomed, along with its boosted foreign trade during industrial upgrading. However, these efforts have been found to cause significant global environmental issues, which have been rarely mentioned and discussed systematically, especially from the perspective of spatial intercorrelation between environment and cross-border investment, international trade, institutional factors, and rising environmental impacts from China. On that basis, this study is conducted by the spatial econometric models in a macroeconomic panel of 146 countries and regions in 2003–2016 to empirically delve into the spatial intercorrelation and third-country effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita among the observed areas, under China's impacts. The empirical results first confirm the existence of spatial autocorrelation for CO2 emissions per capita by Moran's I statistic, suggesting that an interregional prevention system is supposed to be implemented to sufficiently reduce global CO2 emissions. Furthermore, as suggested by the spatial Durbin model, local government should show a close economic relationship with neighboring countries to attract spatial spillover effects of China's OFDI and then develop a multinational economic partnership that enables the high level of technology and human capital to move freely, as an attempt to lower the level of CO2 emissions in a whole range. Moreover, political and resource and energy purposes in the foreign investment and trade activities of Chinese government and multinationals should be progressively limited, and economic cooperation with more developed markets in a higher degree of environmental regulations and standards involved in a coordinated multilateral agreement should be conducted for sustainability and global emission reduction
Zhiguang Song

Strategic Shift from Transmissive to Transformative Higher Education for Sustainable Development

Abstract
Education for sustainable development (ESD) is a global initiative toward transforming education for sustainability. The integration of SDGs into the education is an essential approach that ensures strategic alignment of higher education (HE) with SDGs. Document reviews were employed to explore and discuss the difference between transmissive and transformative education. In this trajectory, it is expected that the concept of transformative education is likely to become more common to meet the emerging social, economic, and environmental issues. Nonetheless, practical challenges remain in Somaliland HE sector, ranging from quality of education and relevance. The roadmap toward addressing transformative education for sustainability is not included in Somaliland’s education philosophy; mainly, ESD has not been presented in all policy documents. However, this paper proposed a generic framework that spotlights the integration of education and SDGs. Meanwhile, many countries are now prioritizing structural transformation in their HEIs that are tailored to the national, regional development programs, and beyond. Consistent with the Rio+ 20 outcomes, this paper analyzed the concept of the “sustainable university” and identified that it is divided into three interrelated and complementary categories: social, environmental, and economic-oriented universities in pursuit of actualizing sustainable development (SD). This paper recommends the need for significant reforms in the education system in terms of strategies, structures, and functions. The HEIs in Somaliland need to upgrade their capacities by changing the ways they are operating and shifting into a position that helps them contribute to localization and implementation of the SDGs at the grassroots levels.
Mohamed Jama Madar
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