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2023 | Buch

Towards Radical Regeneration

Design Modelling Symposium Berlin 2022

herausgegeben von: Christoph Gengnagel, Olivier Baverel, Giovanni Betti, Mariana Popescu, Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen, Jan Wurm

Verlag: Springer International Publishing


Über dieses Buch

This book reflects and expands on the current trends in the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) industries to respond to the unfolding climate and biodiversity crisis. Shifting away from the traditional focus, narrowly centered on efficiency, the book presents a variety of approaches to move the AEC community from an approach that presents new challenges in all areas of the industry, from a linear, extractive paradigm to circular and regenerative one. The book presents contributions including research papers and case studies, providing a comprehensive overview of the field as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science, biology and material science.

The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 8th Design Modelling Symposium “Towards Radical Regeneration”, which took place at the University of the Arts in Berlin in September 2022.



Design between Human and Machine Intelligence

A Flexible Reinforcement Learning Framework to Implement Cradle-to-Cradle in Early Design Stages

Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a paradigm in Machine Learning (ML), along with Supervised Learning and Unsupervised Learning, that aims to create Artificial Intelligence (AI) agents that can take decisions in complex and uncertain environments, with the goal of maximizing their long-term benefit. Although it has not gained as much research interest in the AEC industry in recent years as other ML and optimization techniques, RL has been responsible for recent major scientific breakthroughs, such as Deep Mind’s AlphaGo and AlphaFold algorithms. However, due the singularity of the problems and challenges of the AEC industry in contrast to the reduced number of benchmark environments and games in which new RL algorithms are commonly tested, little progress has been noticed so far towards the implementation of RL in this sector.This paper presents the development of the new Grasshopper plugin “Pug” to implement RL in Grasshopper in order to serve as a flexible framework to efficiently tackle diverse optimization problems in architecture with special focus on cradle-to-cradle problems based on material circularity. The components of the plugin are introduced, the workflows and principles to train AI agents in Grasshopper are explained and components related to material circularity are presented too. This new plugin is used to solve two RL problems related to the circularity and re-use of steel, timber and bamboo elements. The results are discussed and compared to traditional computational approaches such as genetic algorithms and heuristic rules.

Diego Apellániz, Björn Pettersson, Christoph Gengnagel
Hybrid Immediacy: Designing with Artificial Neural Networks Through Physical Concept Modelling

In digital design practice, the connection and feedback between physical and digital modelling is receiving increasing attention and is seen as a source of creativity and design innovation. The authors present a workflow that supports real-time design collaboration between human and machine intelligence through physical model building. The proposed framework is investigated through a case study, where we test the direct connectivity of physical and digital modelling environments with the integration of artificial neural networks. By combining 3D capturing tools and machine learning algorithms, the research creates an instant feedback loop between human and machine, introducing a hybrid immediacy that puts physical model building back at the centre of the digitally focused design process. By fusing physical models and digital workflows, the research aims to create interactivity between data, material and designer already at the early stage of the design.

Mathias Bank, Viktoria Sandor, Robby Kraft, Stephan Antholzer, Martin Berger, Tilman Fabini, Balint Kovacs, Tobias Hell, Stefan Rutzinger, Kristina Schinegger
Structural Form-Finding Enhanced by Graph Neural Networks

Computational form-finding methods hold great potential for enabling resource-efficient structural design. In this context, the Combinatorial Equilibrium Modelling (CEM) allows the design of cross-typological tension-compression structures starting from an input topology diagram in the form of a graph. This paper presents an AI-assisted design workflow in which the graph modelling process required by the CEM is simplified through the application of a Graph Neural Network (GNN). To this end, a GNN model is used for the automatic labelling of edges of unlabelled topology diagrams. A synthetic topology diagram data generator is developed to produce training data for the GNN model. The trained GNN is tested on a dataset of typical bridge topologies based on real structures. The experiments show that the trained GNN generalises well to unseen synthetic data and data from real structures similar to the synthetic data. Hence, further developments of the GNN model have the potential to make the proposed design workflow a valuable tool for the conceptual design of structures.

Lazlo Bleker, Rafael Pastrana, Patrick Ole Ohlbrock, Pierluigi D’Acunto
A Digital, Networked, Adaptive Toolset to Capture and Distribute Organisational Knowledge Speckle CI

This work explores the potential of networked, composable tools as a means to capture and distribute organisational knowledge. To solve a design problem, teams will draw from a collective body of formalised, implicit, and tacit knowledge and synthesise it into a proposal. We argue that tooling can play a part in meeting new challenges for the discipline as well as broader trends in knowledge work.Drawing from the concepts of Version Control and Continuous Integration, a widely adopted collaboration strategy in software development making heavy use of automation, this work proposes an automation platform for AEC workflows as a demonstrator of such a networked tool. The prototype is implemented using Speckle, a data platform for AEC. As a case study, three automation workflows are implemented and their potential to improve planning accuracy and capture and disseminate intra- and inter-organisational knowledge is reflected on. We argue this will ultimately require a renegotiation of the relationship between planners and their tools and we speculate about a culture of toolmaking as a means to capture and evolve organisational knowledge.

Felix Deiters, Giovanni Betti, Christoph Gengnagel
A Design Model for a (Grid)shell Based on a Triply Orthogonal System of Surfaces

We present a design model for a (grid)shell that is an assembly of 3D components (‘rational-voxels’) fabricated from planar/developable faces. This rationalization was achieved thanks to the geometric properties of principal patches arising from a Triply Orthogonal system of Surfaces (TOS). By using such a system we were able to generate a curvilinear coordinate system where the coordinate lines are principal curves on the respective surfaces in the TOS. Next, generate 3D components (voxels) where each voxel is a curvilinear cube where its sides are principal patches, and its edges are principal curves obtained by intersecting two neighboring surfaces from each of the three families in the TOS. These voxels are then rationalized into rational-voxels having planar/developable faces and straight/planar edges. The design model allows for five degrees of design freedom for choosing: (1) the shell-slice type in the TOS, (2) the shell-slice thickness, (3) the voxel-assembly method, (4) the rational-voxel type and (5) being either a solid or a hollow voxel-assembly. A design to build process of a large scale pavilion is presented as a demonstration of the proposed design model.

Aly Abdelmagid, Ahmed Elshafei, Mohammad Mansouri, Ahmed Hussein
Towards DesignOps Design Development, Delivery and Operations for the AECO Industry

The overwhelming success of companies build on top of cloud computing technologies has been driven by their ability to create systems for processing big data at scale and designing high-quality digital products as well as being agile and capable of handling constant changes in the market. This runs somewhat contrary to the AECO industry, which generates an abundance of multidisciplinary data and faces numerous design challenges but is not as prone to agile management. The entire methodology for designing and delivering projects has historically been oriented toward getting all requirements defined and specified in advance. In that context, “change” of the workflow in AECO is often seen as an exception. Not only this is far from the paradigm or principles of today’s business technologies, but today’s enterprises are characterized by an opposing set of values. Latest software engineering methodologies, like DevOps and its design incarnation – DesignOps were created solely to tackle those issues in the IT industry. This paper will present how those methodologies could be successfully implemented in the AECO industry and increase the efficiency of existing design pipelines. We demonstrate a prototype of a software platform, an entire automated ecosystem where design operations are made in the cloud by a collection of automatic or semi-automatic microservices and where data flows seamlessly between various disciplines. The system leverages the potential of distributed computing, performance-driven design, evolutionary optimization, big data, and modern web design.

Marcin Kosicki, Marios Tsiliakos, Khaled ElAshry, Oscar Borgstrom, Anders Rod, Sherif Tarabishy, Chau Nguyen, Adam Davis, Martha Tsigkari
Introducing Agent-Based Modeling Methods for Designing Architectural Structures with Multiple Mobile Robotic Systems

As technology for multiple robotic systems (MRS) is becoming more and more robust, such systems are beginning to be introduced for various applications, such as within the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. Introducing MRS to construction requires a radical change to the current practices in the AEC industry as there currently exists little to no precedents for small, agile machines working on construction sites. Beyond the physical hardware, sensing communication and coordination strategies necessary to deploy MRS, the methods for designing structures assembled by MRS must be considered as they can influence what is possible with the novelties inherent to construction with such systems. In order to approach the question of design, this paper aims to break away from current standards of top-down design methods by introducing two agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) approaches for designing structures to be assembled with MRS that consider geometric and fabrication constraints in the process of design. Each approach is outlined at a conceptual level, further explained using an existing MRS at the operational level, and then analyzed based on its general workflow, interactivity, and adaptability. By providing the various approaches, we aim to understand how, not only the MRS themselves but, the method for designing structures with such systems can help to achieve the goal of inexpensive, adaptive, and sustainable construction promised by the application of MRS in the AEC industry.

Samuel Leder, Achim Menges
Algorithmic Differentiation for Interactive CAD-Integrated Isogeometric Analysis

Algorithmic differentiation is used to analyse the interaction between input and output parameters of arbitrary computational models. We discuss the application of algorithmic differentiation at the interface between architecture and civil engineering in the field of CAD-integrated structural analysis and form finding.

Thomas Oberbichler, Kai-Uwe Bletzinger
An Open Approach to Robotic Prototyping for Architectural Design and Construction

Emerging from research in computational design and digital fabrication, the use of robot arms in architecture is now making its way in the practice of construction. However, their increasing diffusion has not yet corresponded to the development of shared approaches covering both digital (programming and simulation) and physical (end-effector design, system integration, IO communication) elements of robotic prototyping suited to the unique needs of architectural research. While parallel research streams defined various approaches to robotic programming and simulation, they all either (A) rely on custom combinations of software packages, or (B) are built on top of advanced robotic programming environments requiring a higher skill level in robotics than conventionally available in an architectural context. This paper proposes an alternative open-source toolkit enabling an intuitive approach to the orchestration of various hardware and software components required for robotic fabrication, including robot programming and simulation, end-effector design and actuation, and communication interfaces. The pipeline relies on three components: Robot Components, a plug-in for intuitive robot programming; Funken, a serial protocol toolkit for interactive prototyping with Arduino; and a flexible approach to end-effector design. The paper describes these components and demonstrates their use in a series of case studies, showing how they can be adapted to a variety of project typologies and user skills, while keeping highly complex and specific functionality available as an option, yielding good practices for a more intuitive translation from design to production.

Andrea Rossi, Arjen Deetman, Alexander Stefas, Andreas Göbert, Carl Eppinger, Julian Ochs, Oliver Tessmann, Philipp Eversmann
Augmented Intelligence for Architectural Design with Conditional Autoencoders: Semiramis Case Study

We present a design approach that uses machine learning to enhance architect’s design experience. Nowadays, architects and engineers use software for parametric design to generate, simulate, and evaluate multiple design instances. In this paper, we propose a conditional autoencoder that reverses the parametric modelling process and instead allows architects to define the desired properties in their designs and obtain multiple predictions of designs that fulfil them. The results found by the encoder can oftentimes go beyond what the user expected and thus augment human’s understanding of the design task and stimulate design exploration. Our tool also allows the architect to under-define the desired properties to give additional flexibility to finding interesting solutions. We specifically illustrate this tool for architectural design of a multi-storey structure that has been built in 2022 in Zug, Switzerland.

Luis Salamanca, Aleksandra Anna Apolinarska, Fernando Pérez-Cruz, Matthias Kohler
Reducing Bias for Evidence-Based Decision Making in Design

This paper presents a strategy to help designers confronted with a massive flow of new technologies, exhaustive regulations, and design requirements. It summarises the existing proposals for AI-driven design development strategies, and lists frequent pitfalls like the focus on local optima or the lack of backpropagation. It identifies the main source of bias in generative design as a lack of detail and contextual complexity. The paper introduces an augmented AI process for preparing real-world data and its meta information to be used in design processes (BIM, GIS, external statistics including information such as rental price or spatial cognition). This evidence-based approach for deriving verifiable fitness functions presents a way to create holistic designs that reflect the complexity of today’s built environment by using a posteriori and unbiased statistical models to substitute existing speculative categorisations. Hence, it allows avoiding naïve and overfitted solutions, and it inverts the dominant paradigm of automated generation and manual curation.

Matthias Standfest
Artificiale Rilievo GAN-Generated Architectural Sculptural Relief

This paper describes “Artificiale Rilievo”, the first work of architectural sculptural relief produced by a generative adversarial network (GAN). Technically, the authors present novel methods developed for the generation of three-dimensional sculptural designs using a pseudo-3d description of form based on vector displacement maps (VDMs). Our approach improves on existing methods by expanding the range of possible forms, and suggests broad application in ornamental architectural design. Conceptually, the artistic work described here brings tiling geometries found in contemporary architectural ornament into dialog with forms drawn from the Western architectural canon, and reflects on the dataset as a retrograde influence in the otherwise avant-garde field of creative AI. In contrast with other AI-driven tools that center efficiency at the expense of expressiveness and authorial jurisdiction, the methods described here stand as an alternative approach to the application of machine learning in architectural design. Negotiating the “uncanny” boundary of individually-recognizable forms within a differentiated field, the piece materializes an animated walk through the latent space of a GAN in the solidity of cast bronze.

Kyle Steinfeld, Titus Tebbecke, Georgieos Grigoriadis, David Zhou
Harnessing Game-Inspired Content Creation for Intuitive Generative Design and Optimization

A generalizable and example-based model for multi-scale generative design is presented. The model adapts the Wave Function Collapse (WFC) algorithm, a procedural approach popularized in game development, to a quality-diversity (QD) framework, a state-of-the-art multi-solution optimization approach. QD enables the search of high-performing solutions not only against objectives, but along a set of qualitative features -- explicitly ensuring diversity within the solutions. We demonstrate the challenges and opportunities in applying these novel methodologies to AEC-focused problems through a real-world residential complex case study.

Lorenzo Villaggi, James Stoddart, Adam Gaier

Design with Digital and Physical Realities

Digitization and Energy Transition of the Built Environment – Towards a Redefinition of Models of Use in Energy Management of Real Estate Assets

Thousands of years of progress in urban development led to complex urban environments that can be considered as complex systems. The management of complex systems must account for uncertainty, unpredictable future states and nonlinear behaviour. In this context, digitalisation can play a key role in the development of innovative tools to support strategic decisions and emergency management. In particular, the management of university building stocks can be facilitated with the creation of digital environments.In the Italian case, university campuses are often complex assets composed of widespread buildings and the management process is still based on fragmented databases handled by different administrative divisions resulting in a lack of information among stakeholders.The integration between Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) is already making some steps towards the creation of a digital model of the city. The combination of BIM-GIS with a platform for the data management is the base to develop an Asset Management System to exploit Business Intelligence (BI) tools for Operation and Maintenance (O&M) in smart campuses.This research aims to integrate BIM, GIS and BI tools in a digital framework for the development of an AMS and web-based application for the improvement of the experience among users and the optimal use of resources. A real case study is proposed for the development of the research project, namely the University of Turin building stock, in Italy.

Daniele Accardo, Silvia Meschini, Lavinia Chiara Tagliabue, Giuseppe Martino Di Giuda
Collective AR-Assisted Assembly of Interlocking Structures

Research on mobile Augmented Reality (AR) technologies has proven many potentials and benefits for assisting craftspeople in various building applications within the AEC domain. However, little research has been done on the use of multi-user mobile AR systems coordinating several people at the same time. This paper examines the potentials of a collective construction process enabled by AR technology that distributes and guides manual assembly tasks for multi-user participation. For this purpose, a custom mobile AR app is developed that uses cloud services and allows multiple people to participate in the construction and be coordinated with each other at the same time. In the proposed setup, digital building instructions for the stepwise assembly of a physical building structure can be retrieved by multiple users via the app. The app positions these building instructions in 3D space, visually superimposed on the building site, where the building structure is being assembled. Methods are proposed for synchronizing the construction progress via user-specific AR content visualization over the app’s user interface (UI). Based on the principle of topologically interlocking structures, the material system developed for this research offers several form-fitting connections with one modular wooden component without the need for mechanical fasteners for their assembly. This principle enables the manual implementation of various complex building structures at full architectural scale, which are reconfigurable and fully disassemblable. The proposed methods were experimentally validated in a 1:1 scale demonstrator. A pavilion was assembled collectively by students and researchers over two days, and the UI was evaluated through a qualitative user study. As an outlook, the paper discusses the potential of such AR systems to make digitally-driven construction processes more tangible and accessible to laypersons and unskilled people and thus encourage community participation.

Lidia Atanasova, Begüm Saral, Ema Krakovská, Joel Schmuck, Sebastian Dietrich, Fadri Furrer, Timothy Sandy, Pierluigi D’Acunto, Kathrin Dörfler
Print-Path Design for Inclined-Plane Robotic 3D Printing of Unreinforced Concrete

The paper details the computational toolkit for print-path synthesis and execution that was used in the physical realisation of an arched, bifurcating, unreinforced masonry footbridge spanning 16 m, composed of 53 3D-printed concrete blocks. The printed concrete filaments of every block were placed in layers that are orthogonal to the expected, compressive force flow, resulting in the need for non-parallel, inclined print-path planes, thus also resulting in non-uniform print-layer heights. In addition, the bridge’s global structural logic of stereotomic masonry necessitated the precise coordination of the interface planes be- tween blocks. Approximately 58 km of print path, distributed over 7800 inclined layers, were generated and coordinated such that the resulting print paths meet printing-related criteria such as good spatial coherence, minimum and maximum layer thickness, infill patterns etc. We describe a schema based on Function Representation (FRep) for inclined-plane print-path generation, and its full implementation for practical and large-batch production. We also implement specific extensions to generate the infill print paths typically needed in 3D concrete printing.

Shajay Bhooshan, Vishu Bhooshan, Johannes Megens, Tommaso Casucci, Tom Van Mele, Philippe Block
Reusable Inflatable Formwork for Complex Shape Concrete Shells

Construction of concrete shells is expensive and generates wastes from the fabrication of formworks. Being non-reusable, these elements have a negative impact on the life-cycle assessment of the construction. The purpose of this research is to design and build a new inexpensive formwork system made of inflatable structures for precast and thin concrete shells construction.By sealing two membranes according to a pattern, this system allows the construction of complex inflated shapes. The sealing pattern is designed such that, once inflated, the planar metric becomes not uniform and generates a 3D surface following Gauss’s Theorema Egregium, a classical result of differential geometry. This design of the seal pattern is guided by a numerical tool capable of accurately predicting the inflated shape. The simulations are compared to physical models made of fabrics, before manufacturing inflatable formwork prototypes in composite membranes from about 1 to three metres wide. Support is set up to pour concrete on the inflatable formwork without damaging it for reuse. The resulting thin concrete shell and its fabrication method are eligible for wider-scale application in the AEC industry.

Camille Boutemy, Arthur Lebée, Mélina Skouras, Marc Mimram, Olivier Baverel
Upcycling Shell: From Scrap to Structure

The reuse of building materials has a long tradition in construction. More recently, the concept of digital materials envisions universal building blocks, that can be reused and reconfigured multiple times, like Lego© bricks, and placed freely in any structurally sound assembly. We continue our investigations along this trajectory, by exploring mass-produced everyday objects, mined from the waste of our consumer society, to produce those reusable and universal building blocks. We investigated the potential of such an approach through a computational design & build case study realized in an educational context: a summer igloo comprised of an aggregated shell structure with 10.000 reused wire hangers. We present design methods, materials selection processes, as well as fabrication and assembly strategies. Lastly, we discuss the impact of a creative and multiple reuse of standardized construction components for the construction industry.

Timo Carl, Sandro Siefert, Andrea Rossi
Modelling and Simulation of Acoustic Metamaterials for Architectural Application

Acoustic metamaterials are novel engineered materials with geometric features of subwavelength size that create highly exotic acoustic behaviors such as negative refractive indexes, perfect sound absorption and sound waveguiding. While these new materials hold much promise to be useful for the architectural engineering and construction sector, there has been little research done on the application of acoustic metamaterials for architectural application. The research presented in this paper investigates acoustic metamaterials for architectural acoustics and demonstrates how architects can leverage parametric design, digital fabrication, and computer performance simulation to develop new metamaterial designs tuned for customized acoustic performance. This paper proposes a new definition of ‘metamaterials for architectural acoustic application’ and provides a brief overview of the history and theory of acoustic metamaterials alongside a discussion of the relevance of such materials for implementation in architectural acoustic applications. A design and simulation workflow is presented that demonstrates the parametric design and iteration of metamaterial geometry, performance evaluation through computer simulation, and digital fabrication of functional prototypes. A set of well-performing metamaterial geometries are presented that can be used to design architectural acoustic surfaces.

Philipp Cop, John Nguyen, Brady Peters
Physical and Digital Prototyping of Smart Textile Sun Shading

The objective of the R&D project ADAPTEX aims at developing a novel sun-shading system that contributes to a building’s performance efficiency without taxing the economy of its subsystems. By utilizing the potentials of textile construction and the integrity of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA), which reduces material weight and operation energy for a dynamic shading system. SMAs are generally suitable for construction applications due to their maintenance free, function through multiple cycles without showing wear, and replacement of complex motor and driving mechanism. The design system is developed to be driven by changes in the environment, that allows autonomous and adaptive reactions to external stimuli like ambient heat or solar radiation. Because SMAs are designed for the accuracy and standards of mechanical engineering rather than for architectural facade applications, ADAPTEX closes the inherent gaps established in systems engineering by integrating SMA wire into large scale architectural surfaces by integrated SMA into light weight material as textile. The potential of a larger scale of ADAPTEX will be explored in the continuation project ADAPTEX KLIMA+ in Muscat, Oman, which also allows the autarkic operation of ADAPTEX to be tested under ambient condition. This article discusses the development process of implementing and exchanging between digital analysis and physical prototype. This includes the process of analyzing the local climate, deeper understanding of SMA performance for a specific project site, and finally the execution of these data into full scale façade prototype and its monitoring plan for cross validations.

Paul-Rouven Denz, Natchai Suwannapruk, Puttakhun Vongsingha, Ebba Fransén Waldhör, Maxie Schneider, Christiane Sauer
Thinking and Designing Reversible Structures with Non-sequential Assemblies

In the face of dwindling resources and to reduce the construction sector’s carbon footprint, it is important to envisage the building’s end of life. It is necessary to consider buildings and their structures as elements that can be dismantled/disassembled for recycling/reuse. To address these issues, this work focuses on non-sequential assemblies that allow reversibility. A full-scale Nexorade prototype has been produced and is used to illustrate the entire article demonstrating the relevance of these assemblies. The first part defines non-sequential assemblies and the multiple possible kinematics for an assembly. The second part focuses on the pavilion’s geometry: the choice of the tessellation and its transposition to a nexorade. The article continues with the mechanical analysis, showing that tilting the beams by 30° reduces the deflection by 35%. The assembly sequence is then chosen to ensure that each node closes non-sequentially. Finally, the pavilion’s construction is detailed, showing the transition from the digital to the physical model and the adjustment needed to switch between these two models. To conclude, the authors discuss the results obtained on non-sequential connections and the inclination of the beams of a nexorade. Possible extensions and improvements for future research are suggested.

Julien Glath, Tristan Gobin, Romain Mesnil, Marc Mimram, Olivier Baverel
Data Based Decisions in Early Design Stages

This paper presents an approach for embedding data-based decisions into early design stages of processes in the AEC industry. In this approach, key performance indicators (KPIs) like life-cycle assessment characteristics (LCA) and recyclability categories are introduced to inform the users about the impact of their decisions. The developed concept establishes a platform-agnostic way using open-source tools and web technology to improve the applicability of LCA-analysis and the creation of multiple building variants. These tools were developed by the author in collaboration with Bollinger+Grohmann and the Bauhaus University Weimar to visualize the influence of design decisions and to provide a new workflow for LCA in the very beginning design stages.

Niklas Haschke, Alexander Hofbeck, Ljuba Tascheva
Robotic Wood Winding for Architectural Structures - Computational Design, Robotic Fabrication and Structural Modeling Methods

Winding processes are known from the fiber composite industry for strength and weight optimized lightweight components. To achieve high resistance and low weight, mainly synthetic materials are used such as carbon or glass fibers, bonded with petrochemical matrices. For the construction industry, these additive processes present a very promising and resource-efficient building technology, yet they are still hardly used with sustainable materials such as natural fibers or timber.The 3DWoodWind research prototype has developed a new generation of additive technologies to wood construction. The modular building system is built with a three-dimensional robotic winding process for material-efficient hollow lightweight components. An AI-controlled design logic enables the intelligent combination and design of modular components into multi-story structures, which may be used in the future to substitute solid wood panels and beams as well as concrete slabs and steel sections.Our current research uses a continuous strip of thin timber veneer, which is a waste product from the plywood industry and therefore, presents a highly sustainable alternative to synthetic fibers usually used in winding, as well as solid timber products known in construction. The veneer’s natural fibers are intact and continuous, and offer high tensile strength. In the presented project, three-dimensional winding processes were developed for material-efficient lightweight components made of wood. The demonstrator presents a modular column and ceiling system, which aims at large scale applications in multi-level structures. Having won an open national design competition for Germany’s ‘ZukunftBau’ Pavilion, a first demonstrator is currently being built to be presented in May 2022, as part of the DigitalBau exhibition. The paper discusses all planning engineering and production processes in detail with particular emphasis on the machine-learning algorithm, which was trained during the design process to facilitate design iterations and future planning with this component-based building system.

Georgia Margariti, Andreas Göbert, Julian Ochs, Philipp Eversmann, Felita Felita, Ueli Saluz, Philipp Geyer, Julian Lienhard
Extended Reality Collaboration: Virtual and Mixed Reality System for Collaborative Design and Holographic-Assisted On-site Fabrication

Most augmented and virtual applications in architecture, engineering, and construction focus on structured and predictable manual activities and routine cases of information exchange such as quality assurance or design review systems. However, collaborative design activities such as negotiation, task specification, and interaction are not yet sufficiently explored. This paper presents a mixed-reality immersive collaboration system that enables bi-directional communication and data exchange between on-site and off-site users, mutually accessing a digital twin. Extended Reality Collaboration (ERC) allows building site information to inform design decisions and new design iterations to be momentarily visualized and evaluated on-site. Additionally, the system allows the developed design model to be fabricated with holographic instructions. In this paper, we present the concept and workflow of the developed system, as well as its deployment and evaluation through an experimental case study. The outlook questions how such systems could be transferred to current design and building tasks and how such a system could reduce delays, avoid misunderstandings and eventually increase building quality by closing the gap between the digital model and the built architecture.

Daniela Mitterberger, Evgenia-Makrina Angelaki, Foteini Salveridou, Romana Rust, Lauren Vasey, Fabio Gramazio, Matthias Kohler
Hosting Spaces
Encoding and Decoding Adaptive Digital Spaces Within a Reconfigurable Physical Pattern

This paper presents a case study of an interactive and collaborative installation realized within a larger exhibition. The work mediates space and vision between human and machine and speculates on the role that spatial computing can play in architecture design. It explores the encoding and decoding of spatial experiences using a physical relief wall as a medium to encode and transfer data. By collaborating with a robot arm through an augmented layer, the users enable a feedback loop between the robotically assembled relief and a corresponding three-dimensional, digital layer.The research intends to build upon already established relations between human perception and architectural composition and turn them into an operational logic that enables a more immediate experience and understanding of a hybrid space. It is an investigation into how our environments can become embedded with augmented information and how architecture can contribute to our digital future as a “hosting space”.The authors will discuss ideas and concepts related to theory, design, and technological implementations within the framework of the executed case study.

Alexandra Moisi, Nicolas Stephan, Robby Kraft, Mathias Bank Stigsen, Kristina Schinegger, Stefan Rutzinger
Design, Control, Actuation and Modeling Approaches for Large-Scale Transformable Inflatables

Large-scale inflatables have a long history in the arts and architecture as quick, lightweight, and inexpensive means to create structures and environments of monumental scale. While several examples of inflatable installations are interactive, the design, control, actuation, and modeling techniques of transformable inflatables in large scales remains a relatively unexplored area of research. In the fields of human-computer interaction (HCI), design of interactive systems (DIS), and tangible, embodied, and embedded interaction (TEI), transformable inflatables are a more established area of research with applications primarily in object-based scales. Yet, important design, methodological, and technological differences make the direct application of existing research from small to large scales hard. In this paper, we introduce design, control, and actuation strategies for large-scale transformable inflatables for urban and architectural implementations and, through a case study, we discuss computational modeling, simulation, and experimental methods to study their behavior and performance.

Dimitris Papanikolaou
Timber Framing 2.0
An Interdisciplinary Study into Computational Timber Framing

Constructing buildings follow specific sequences and processes, which lends itself well to a combination of parametric workflows and fabrication technologies such as robotics and CNC machines. Architects and researchers have begun to adopt these workflows leading to the design and manufacturing of building systems for the AEC industry. This paper adds to this emerging field by discussing an interdisciplinary workflow and prototypical process developed for a construction system in which an industrial robot arm processes off-the-shelf standardised building components. The workflow combines a structural model with a fabrication model into one unified system, thus improving the manufacturing process from structurally valid building to the fabricated piece.

Jens Pedersen, Lars Olesen, Dagmar Reinhardt
Augmenting Design: Extending Experience of the Design Process with Glaucon, An Experiential Collaborative XR Toolset

Architects are in the business of creating not only buildings but effectively experiences through the built environment. Historically, these experiences were only fully appreciated after the completion of the building or urban space. In the past couple of decades, innovation and technology have helped designers have a stronger understanding of how any built spaces would be occupied and experienced through the use of an array of tools and simulations that facilitated performance-driven design pipelines. Nevertheless, there is something very powerful around the idea of placing future users in the experience itself and allowing them to have a preview of how these spaces would look and feel in relation to themselves and their contexts.To that end, the exponential development of augmented and virtual reality (combined referred to as extended reality (XR) environments) has provided the possibility to designers to do exactly that: create virtual environments, often overlayed on the physical space, that allowed architects, engineers, consultants and stakeholders to be able to experience in real-time how these spaces would look like and experiment in real-time with design changes and their effect they could have to the user’s experience (physically and visually). To that end, this paper presents how technology has enabled a large architectural office to facilitate the experiential side of the design prior to the completion of a project, and how this has culminated in the development of a bespoke collaborative XR toolset called Glaucon. Glaucon’s capabilities allow high fidelity virtual designs to be physically situated on the site and to experience it as if it were built. Implementing a collaborative toolset, Glaucon allows physically present and remote users to engage with design as an experience earlier in the process than has been traditionally possible through conventional means, increasing design participation and engagement.

David Gillespie, Zehao Qin, Martha Tsigkari
Design from Finite Material Libraries: Enabling Project-Confined Re-use in Architectural Design and Construction Through Computational Design Systems

This paper presents two cases of material reuse in architectural practice, employing bespoke computational workflows. The first unpacks a complete cycle of from building demolition of an existing building in Järvsö, Sweden, through the design and fabrication of a temporary and mobile pavilion for use at a series of urban events, to its final destination as a wind shelter not far from the forests where the material was initially harvested. The second presents scaled approaches and methods to respond to the competition brief for the redevelopment of a partial urban block in Berlin, using the material stock from the existing building as a material library. Both cases have been developed in constrained project contexts where the resources of the material libraries have been limited and directly associated to the project – rather than being part of an open market of re-used resources – allowing data on availability, amount, and quality to be readily available. In this sense the approach can be defined as a project-confined re-use workflow, providing the opportunity to target the association between the design modelling environment and the material library.

Jonas Runberger, Vladimir Ondejcik, Hossam Elbrrashi
Constructing Building Layouts and Mass Models with Hand Gestures in Multiple Mixed Reality Modes

This paper presents a Mixed Reality framework for schematically defining building layouts and massing in multiple representations. Non-experts can use the framework to explore possible building configurations alone or in tandem with an architect. Our framework relies on a single-truth voxel matrix to track design changes and construct view-specific representations using the Marching Cubes and Marching Squares algorithms. We use only hand gestures for all design interactions instead of tangible objects or markers, to increase the mobility of users and make the application more accessible. The framework is tested in two prototypes for the HoloLens. The two prototypes have an objective to implement and test a variety of gestures for adding and removing volume, respectively area, from the designed building. The unified model representation across multiple MR views and interaction modes is the main contribution of this work and can be a valuable reference for the community developing applications of Mixed Reality in architecture. Additionally, we present a catalog of gesture-based interactions with the findings from our development process and the feedback from user studies.

Anton Savov, Martina Kessler, Lea Reichardt, Viturin Züst, Daniel Hall, Benjamin Dillenburger
Morphology of Kinetic Asymptotic Grids

This paper investigates the kinetic behaviour of asymptotic lamella grids with variable surface topology. The research is situated in the field of semi-compliant grid mechanisms. Novel geometric and structural simulations allow to control and predict the curvature and bending of lamellas, that are positioned either flat (geodesic) or upright (asymptotic) within a curved grid. We build upon existing research of asymptotic gridshells and present new findings on their morphology. We present a digital and physical method to design kinetic asymptotic grids. The physical experiments inform the design, actuation strategy and kinetic boundaries, and become a benchmark for digital results. The kinetic behaviour of each sample is analysed through five stages. The digital models are used to calculate the total curvature at every stage, map the energy stored in the elastic grids and predict equilibrium states. This comparative modelling method is applied to seven asymptotic grids to investigate transformations and the impact of singularities, supports and constraints on the kinetic behaviour. Open grids without singularities are most flexible and require additional, external and internal constraints. The cylindrical typology acts as a constraint and creates symmetric kinetic transformations. Networks with one, two and four singularities cause increasing rigidity and limit the kinetic transformability. Finally, two prototypical architectural applications are introduced, an adaptive shading facade and a kinetic umbrella structure, that show the possible scale and actuation of kinetic designs.

Eike Schling, Jonas Schikore
FibreCast Demonstrator
New Ways of Connecting Timber Elements with Fixed and Detachable Interlocking Connections Made of Reinforced Polymer Concrete

Efforts toward the circular economy necessitate new approaches for the construction industry. Repair and repurposing of structures through easily disassembled connections facilitate maintenance, preservation and concept changes. Decreasing availability of resources requires the efficient, material-conserving use of the materials employed.The decisive factor for the material consumption of timber construction elements are mostly the loads in the nodal area. This is the deciding factor for the required cross-section. As a result, wooden structures are oversized in wide areas in order to withstand the loads that occur in the connection. Inspired by approaches to building in existing structures with polymer concrete, a cast connection is created that can be cast directly against the timber to be joined. The resulting filigree and partially detachable connections are reinforced with different reinforcement concepts, thus increasing the load-bearing capacity to above the level of the timber to be connected.In a pavilion, the performance of the novel connections will be demonstrated for the first time on an architectural scale, showcasing the application potential of the connection method.

Michel Schmeck, Leon Immenga, Christoph Gengnagel, Volker Schmid
Augmented Reuse
A Mobile App to Acquire and Provide Information About Reusable Building Components for the Early Design Phase

Construction materials are one of the main contributors to the global waste production. Compared to other industries, the reusability of building materials and components is hard to implement due to each project’s individual properties and the difficulty of sharing information across the various stakeholders. In order to foster the reuse of building components, the gap between the existing building stock and the design phase of new buildings has to be minimised by bringing suppliers’ data about the existing stock closer to the designers. This research illuminates how to provide relevant information from material passports and integrate them into the design environment. We compared nine passports and extracted relevant variables for the early design phase. Additionally, an augmented reality measurement app enables quick capturing and data exchange of materials and components from existing buildings. Finally, a compression-only design scheme is proposed to simplify the load capacities of the reused concrete components from an existing building. By providing information about existing materials and components in the strategically important role of the designer, reuse could be enhanced for a more sustainable built environment based on circular construction.

Bastian Wibranek, Oliver Tessmann

Design for Biosphere and Technosphere

Self-interlocking 3D Printed Joints for Modular Assembly of Space Frame Structures

This paper presents a novel system of 3D printed self-interlocking space frame structures that are designed to facilitate automatic assembly using robots or drones. The research focuses on fundamental geometrical investigations of connection mechanisms enabled by additive manufacturing (AM) and their computational framework. It seeks to find out in which way AM can advance the design of space frame structures in order to enable automation in the AEC industry.The developed system consists of bespoke 3d printed connections and carbon fiber tubular members harvesting the geometric freedom that AM allows in order to encode multiple details. The novelty of the method lies in the customization of the joints to enable a hybrid scheme of standard and automated assembly. The system operates in a two-step process: humans assemble light rigid modules in a prefabrication facility and later these modules are assembled on-site in a quick fashion using mobile robots.The paper describes multiple investigations of connection mechanisms and joint designs that were tested through physical prototypes. The investigations focus on different self-interlocking mechanisms that address local demands in the structural system. Finally, the prototypes presented are assembled simulating the robotic unit due to the short span of the project.

Pascal Bach, Ilaria Giacomini, Marirena Kladeftira
Matter as Met: Towards a Computational Workflow for Architectural Design with Reused Concrete Components

Over the past decades computational design, digital fabrication and optimisation have become widely adapted in architectural research, contemporary practice as well as in the construction industry. Nevertheless, current design and fabrication process-chains are still stuck in a linear notion of material use: building components are digitally designed, engineered, and ultimately materialised by consumption of raw materials. These can be defined as digital-real process chains. But these parametric design logics based on mass customisation inhibit the reuse of building components. In contrast to these predominant and established digital-real process chains, we propose a real-digital process chain: departing from our real, already materialised built environment. We digitise and catalogue physical concrete components within a component repository for future reuse. Subsequently, these components are reconditioned, enhanced if necessary and transitioned into a modular building system. The modularised components are then recombined to form a new building design and, eventually, a new building by combinatorial optimisation using mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). An accompanying life cycle assessment (LCA) complements the process and quantifies the environmental potential of reused building components. The paper presents research towards a feasible workflow for the reuse of structural concrete components. Furthermore, we suggest a digital repository, storing geometric as well as complementary data on the origin, history, and performances of the components to be reused. Here, we identify core data to be integrated in such a component repository.

Max Benjamin Eschenbach, Anne-Kristin Wagner, Lukas Ledderose, Tobias Böhret, Denis Wohlfeld, Marc Gille-Sepehri, Christoph Kuhn, Harald Kloft, Oliver Tessmann
Lightweight Reinforced Concrete Slab

Although increased efforts have been made in recent years to reduce the environmental impact in construction, greenhouse gas emissions in this sector are at record levels worldwide. In addition to reducing energy consumption and using environmentally friendly materials, the optimization and further development of conventional construction methods could make a significant contribution to achieving the given climate goals. In this regard, concrete, the most commonly used building material worldwide, plays a major role. Additive fabrication offers promising perspectives to change conventional reinforced concrete construction. 3D concrete printing does not require complex formwork construction and it makes targeted and economical fabrication of small quantities of concrete possible. This raises the question of whether the use of 3D printing technologies can reduce the CO2 emissions of the construction industry and whether the digital planning and production used in the manufacturing process represents an economical alternative on the construction site compared to conventional construction methods [1]. Previous work shows that material savings of 30% to even 70% are possible by using this technology [2]. However, these values do not usually correspond to the CO2eq saved. The calculations often do not take into account the high cement value of the printed concrete. In order to be able to exploit the potential of the technology and enable successful, large-scale use, it is essential to use a print material that meets the ecological and economic requirements [3].This paper investigates the use of this new technology to produce a lightweight concrete slab using printed voids and additional in-situ concrete. It provides information on the design, the entire planning, the construction on site and the implementation in the context of a real construction project - a 100 m2 slab with 130 3D-printed voids. The research project provides information on the functionality, economic efficiency, CO2 savings, practicality and applicability of the new fabrication technology from the digital design to the production of the prefabricated parts in the production facility as well as the reinforcement and concreting of the structure on site. The project in Lunz am See proves that additive fabrication can be applied in construction practice in a timely manner and that the technology is suitable as a supplement to and further development of conventional construction methods. The wide-span slab construction is representative for a sustainable attitude towards the use of reinforced concrete, which, relies on economical, digital fabrication methods for saving resources.

Georg Hansemann, Christoph Holzinger, Robert Schmid, Joshua Paul Tapley, Stefan Peters, Andreas Trummer
Growth-Based Methodology for the Topology Optimisation of Trusses

This paper presents a novel methodology for a growth-based topology optimization of trusses. While most methods of topology optimization are based on voxel grids that result in free-form volumes, the topology optimization of trusses exists as subtractive methods that start with a large number of initial beams. This method instead commences with a minimal amount of beams. The model is iteratively refined by node repositioning and node division according to structural forces to arrive at a complex truss. Case studies of a cantilever and a table show the results and reduction in mass achieved by the algorithm.

Christoph Klemmt
A Continuous Digital Fabrication Framework for Casting Large-Scale Linear Concrete Hollow Elements

The research project RotoColumn aims to produce hollow, vertical concrete elements in various shapes as self-carrying permanent formwork for loadbearing concrete elements. The work is motivated by the urgent need to improve how we build with concrete. The project conceives the digital design simulation, robotic fabrication technologies, and advances in concrete rheology as the drivers for improvements in state of the art in construction industry. This paper unfolds the sequencing of individual methods as a part of the larger research goal, described through the digital simulations and different series of large-scale physical prototypes, in collaboration with the Industry partner. The project RotoColumn is a part of the research trajectory Rotoform, a dynamic robotic casting method for manufacturing hollow concrete building elements.

Samim Mehdizadeh, Adrian Zimmermann, Oliver Tessmann
Statistically Modelling the Curing of Cellulose-Based 3d Printed Components: Methods for Material Dataset Composition, Augmentation and Encoding

The Machine-Learning models thrive on data. The more data available, or creatable, the more defined is the problem representation, and the more accurate is the obtained prediction. This presents a challenge for physical, material datasets, specifically those related to fabrication systems, in which data is tied to physical artefacts which necessitate fabrication, digitisation and formatting to be used as input for predictive models.In this paper we present a design-based methodology to producing a material dataset for statistically modelling the curing of cellulose-based 3d-printed components, as well as associated methods for geometric data encoding, tolerance-informed data augmentation and statistical modelling. The focus of the paper is on the digital workflows and considerations for dataset composition - the material case of 3d-printing cellulose is secondary. We use a built 3d-printed demonstrator wall as a material dataset, through which we generate datapoints that stem from a real design-scenario and inform the fabrication model. Using a feature-engineering approach, select geometrical features are encoded numerically. We perform statistical analysis on the data, and test different shallow models and neural networks. We report on the successful training of a Polynomial Kernel Ridge Regressor to predict the vertical shrinkage of the pieces from wet print to dry element.

Gabriella Rossi, Ruxandra-Stefania Chiujdea, Laura Hochegger, Ayoub Lharchi, John Harding, Paul Nicholas, Martin Tamke, Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen
Design-to-Fabrication Workflow for Bending-Active Gridshells as Stay-in-Place Falsework and Reinforcement for Ribbed Concrete Shell Structures

Facing the challenges of our environmental crisis, the AEC sector must significantly lower its carbon footprint and use of first-use resources. A specific target is the reduction of the amount of concrete used. Funicular structures that base their strength on their structurally-informed geometry allow for material efficiency. However, a bottleneck for their construction lies in their costly and wasteful formworks and complex reinforcement placement.This research presents an alternative flexible formwork system consisting of a bending-active gridshell falsework and fabric shuttering for ribbed funicular concrete shells. The falsework becomes structurally integrated as reinforcement and is designed as two connected layers offering shape control and sufficient stiffness to support the wet-concrete load.The paper focuses on the development of a design-to-fabrication workflow and a graph-based data structure for gridshell falsework and reinforcement in the computational framework COMPAS. The implementation utilises, customises and creates packages for the form finding of the ribbed shell with TNA and the gridshell with FEA.The research is based on a demonstrator realised in the context of the Technoscape exhibition at the Maxxi Museum in Rome, Italy. The computational workflow was used to design this system and translate it for materialisation. The demonstrator serves as proof-of-concept for the novel material-efficient construction system. Its key to efficiency lies in the structurally-informed geometry for both the formwork and the resulting ribbed concrete shell.

Lotte Scheder-Bieschin (Aldinger), Kerstin Spiekermann, Mariana Popescu, Serban Bodea, Tom Van Mele, Philippe Block
Redefining Material Efficiency
Computational Design, Optimization and Robotic Fabrication Methods for Planar Timber Slabs

Available building materials are scarcer than ever before. The shortage of materials influences also timber construction, which has been experiencing a revival in the last decades, due to the material’s excellent reputation as a sustainable resource. The rising motivation to build more sustainably demands large material quantities that the market can hardly supply. Hence, strategies to increase the efficiency of material usage are needed. Conventionally, material efficiency is equated exclusively with the reduction of the total amount of material used. However, a more holistic approach that considers not only the total quantities but also the dimensions and material grading could offer novel strategies to improve material usage and reduce waste. A fundamental shift in the design and construction of timber building elements is required with a particular focus on strategies enabling the reuse and recycling of small-scale timber components and on joining methods that enable the elimination of adhesives and thus allow for disassembly. This research, therefore, proposes a novel system of hollow timber slabs comprised of multiple layers consisting of an internal layer of small-scale beams in optimized locations connected to two outer plates through wood dowels. To design and fabricate these pure timber slabs the application of computational design and optimization methods to identify ideal material layouts and the use of automated robotic assembly processes to simplify production are required.

Kristina Schramm, Carl Eppinger, Andrea Rossi, Max Braun, Matthias Brieden, Werner Seim, Philipp Eversmann
Strategies for Encoding Multi-dimensional Grading of Architectural Knitted Membranes

This paper introduces the knit as a special case of functionally graded materials. The ability to specify knitted material both structurally and materially allows for multi-dimensional grading of the knit. This ability to functionally grade knit is defining for knitted material’s relevance to architecture and construction, as it allows for combining performance multiple criteria in one material by smoothly transitioning between the properties in a single manufacturing act. However, the scaling of knit to architectural scale brings computational challenges for automating material specifications. This paper investigates the methods for solving these computational challenges when operating with multi-dimensional material gradings that increase the scale and resolution of knitted textiles and therefore increase the complexity of their encoding.The method for multi-dimensional material grading of CNC-knitted membranes is developed through the project of Zoirotia, a large-scale textile installation (Fig. 1). Zoirotia is made of 88 unique membranes, where each is uniquely graded at the levels of both material structure and yarn composition. This results in surfaces of varied expansion properties and color transitions across the entire structure, achieved by changing yarn morphology and material. The project is understood as a testing ground for solving the challenge of large volume material graded specification through simplified numerical data and the process of binarisation. A dithering technique is used to translate rich design-driven gradients for material specification into binary gradients for CNC fabrication. This paper presents the gradient numerical map as a solution for handling the material specification spanning across the multi-element structures.

Yuliya Sinke, Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen, Martin Tamke, Martynas Seskas
Deep Sight - A Toolkit for Design-Focused Analysis of Volumetric Datasets

In response to global challenges of resource scarcity, increasing attention is being paid to bio-based materials - a domain that covers familiar materials such as timber and emerging materials such as bio-plastics and mycelium composites. The ability to observe, analyse, simulate, and design with their interior heterogeneity and behaviour over time is a necessity for a bio-based and cyclical material practice and opens a deep reservoir of creative and technical innovation potentials within architecture and aligned design practices.This paper describes a research inquiry which seeks to integrate volumetric material data acquired through non-intrusive methods into materially-led digital design workflows. The inquiry is developed as a set of computational tools and approaches to architectural modelling, and demonstrated through three main material tracks: structural glue-laminated timber assemblies, mycelium composites, and bio-luminescent bacteria substrates. Each addresses the acquisition, analysis, and simulation of deep volumetric material data at different scales and in different deployment contexts. In doing so, we demonstrate a novel shift in the digital modelling of bio-based architectural materials and set out its implications for new design practices that deeply embed the individuality and temporality of materials.We contribute a perspective on the possibilities afforded by a volumetric modelling approach to bio-architecture and a computational framework for operating with volume data of heterogeneous materials.

Tom Svilans, Sebastian Gatz, Guro Tyse, Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen, Phil Ayres, Martin Tamke
Spatial Lacing: A Novel Composite Material System for Fibrous Networks

This paper presents a fibre composite material system, Spatial Lacing, inspired by the traditional craft of Bobbin Lace. The system utilises parallelised, coordinated fibre-fibre interactions to create nodes in a spatial network, combining the design space of lattice- and surface-based structures. The nodes retain topology during transformation between flat-packed and tensioned states, thus enhancing logistical flexibility for curing and deployment. The system is developed from the micro (fibre nodes and local structural behaviours), meso (fibre topologies and component types) and macro (global design and computational workflow) levels. A notation system defined based on elementary lacing actions informs a graph-based modelling method to represent fibre geometries and integrate fabrication information. The design and construction of a 2.4 m physical artefact demonstrate the Spatial Lacing system, which showcases unique fibre tectonics unachievable by existing production methods. Through the transfer of a craft process into the realm of computational design and spatial fibre composites, this work aims to expand the design and fabrication space of fibre systems in architecture.

Xiliu Yang, August Lehrecke, Cody Tucker, Rebeca Duque Estrada, Mathias Maierhofer, Achim Menges

Design for Humans and Non-Humans

Investigating a Design and Construction Approach for Fungal Architectures

The design research presented in this paper grounds itself in a tradition of seeking new architectural form from the affordances and proclivities of new materials. We report on the developmental stages of a construction concept that involves the growing of mycelium-based composites within stay-in-place scaffolds produced using Kagome weaving techniques. We demonstrate how speculative design is used to generate hypotheses - testable design statements - for directing empirical investigation, and how results drive the progression of the design inquiry and its associated digital design tools. Our core contribution is to expose new design pathways that operate reciprocally between material, tectonic and spatial exploration. We argue that such reciprocity is a prerequisite for supporting the invention of new architectural forms, vocabularies and systems.

Phil Ayres, Adrien Rigobello, Ji You-Wen, Claudia Colmo, Jack Young, Karl-Johan Sørensen
Demonstrating Material Impact
A Computational Design Framework Promoting Environmental Justice

As designers normalise the practice of BIM-LCA, connecting models to environmental impact data, their interaction with the underlying datasets presents an opportunity to evaluate building materials through an environmental justice (EJ) lens. This proof-of-concept method demonstrates the potential importance in reviewing environmental impact data for the local impacts, such as Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (POCP). When the method is applied to a building project case study, an identical product manufactured at two or more sites is shown to have vastly different impacts on the local communities, illustrating the need for a closer look at manufacturer-provided environmental impact data.

Elizabeth Escott, Sabrina Naumovski, Brandon M. Cuffy, Ryan Welch, Michael B. Schwebel, Billie Faircloth
A Framework for Managing Data in Multi-actor Fabrication Processes

This research proposes a design to fabrication data framework for multi-actor fabrication environments with robotic and human actors. The framework generates and exchanges fabrication data between the design elements and the fabrication environment. It features a uniform task data model to represent all processes in the fabrication procedure and link them to the design elements. The framework is demonstrated with a timber slab case study that shows the fabrication data generation, assignment to actors and ordering for execution with a multi-actor fabrication environment involving industrial robots and human workers. This framework opens new opportunities for continuous digital data exchange and feedback between the design and fabrication and allows for rapid changes in both the fabrication environment and the design.

Lior Skoury, Felix Amtsberg, Xiliu Yang, Hans Jakob Wagner, Achim Menges, Thomas Wortmann
Towards Radical Regeneration
herausgegeben von
Christoph Gengnagel
Olivier Baverel
Giovanni Betti
Mariana Popescu
Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen
Jan Wurm
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