In recent decades, kinetic theory - originally developed as a field of mathematical physics - has emerged as one of the most prominent fields of modern mathematics. In recent years, there has been an explosion of applications of kinetic theory to other areas of research, such as biology and social sciences. This book collects lecture notes and recent advances in the field of kinetic theory of lecturers and speakers of the School “Trails in Kinetic Theory: Foundational Aspects and Numerical Methods”, hosted at Hausdorff Institute for Mathematics (HIM) of Bonn, Germany, 2019, during the Junior Trimester Program “Kinetic Theory”. Focusing on fundamental questions in both theoretical and numerical aspects, it also presents a broad view of related problems in socioeconomic sciences, pedestrian dynamics and traffic flow management.