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Über dieses Buch

These Transactions publish research in computer-based methods of computational collective intelligence (CCI) and their applications in a wide range of fields such as the Semantic Web, social networks and multi-agent systems. TCCI strives to cover new methodological, theoretical and practical aspects of CCI understood as the form of intelligence that emerges from the collaboration and competition of many individuals (artificial and/or natural). The application of multiple computational intelligence technologies such as fuzzy systems, evolutionary computation, neural systems, consensus theory, etc., aims to support human and other collective intelligence and to create new forms of CCI in natural and/or artificial systems.

This third issue contains a collection of 10 articles selected from high-quality submissions addressing advances in the foundations and applications of computational collective intelligence.



Cooperation of Agents Based on Methods of DES Supervising and Control

The cooperation of autonomous agents is synthesized in order to satisfy demands imposed on a group of agents or on MAS (multi agent systems). Petri nets (PNs), especially place/transition PNs (P/T PNs), are used for modelling the agents. The modular approach is utilized on that way. PN-based methods of discrete event systems (DES) control and supervising are utilized in order to synthesize the cooperation of the agents. The usefulness and applicability of the approach is demonstrated by examples and case studies.
František Čapkovič

Role of Thesauri in the Information Management in the Web-Based Services and Systems

Information sharing, exchanging and archiving is the backbone of any organized activity, regardless if it is performed in the sphere of business, home or administration. Semantic Web technologies allow controlling the growth and structure of information, and provide search and inference methods. The article touches one of the main problems in the information-based societies. It refers to the problem of information management and sharing in the heterogonous, complex systems, exposing their functions through the web services.
The main axis of the paper is the implementation of remotely accessible knowledge bases in form of thesauri - dynamic, centrally coordinated dictionaries. Thesauri may contain terms and concepts with an indication of their semantic relationships. They can serve as sources of concept definitions used by various registries, may provide additional information to the search engines, and may support multilingual representation. The article provides some examples of such use cases, targeting special concerns on applications of thesauri in the geospatial domain. The aim of this article was also to show practical aspects of thesauri implementation. The article shows the way of applying officially published standards as guidelines in building interoperable thesauri in form of web service. The implementation of such service, involving the use of SKOS specification as a core information model of the thesauri, and SOAP and REST technologies as a base for communication implementation, is presented. The backend of the service is built on SESAME repository supporting SeRQL and RQL query languages. The examples of implemented clients of the service are: Internet enabled desktop application and web control that can be inserted into any web page.
Tomasz Kubik

On Efficiency of Collective Intelligence Phenomena

This paper will attempt to formally analyze the problem of individual existence of a being versus its existence in a social structure, through evaluation of Collective Intelligence efficiency. On the basis of two simulation models of two very distant cases of Collective Intelligence, some results to this problem will be given and discussed. Cases are: survival abilities of a bacterial colony, and hunter and dog versus rabbit. This paper also presents the methodology of identification and translation of the mentioned cases of Collective Intelligence phenomena into simulation models. The results show a strong increase of the social structure ability when the Collective Intelligence is functioning. The problem of the Collective Intelligence is so complex, that the results presented here should be considered as a case study. In general, on the basis of presented results, the paper advertises and advocates the theory of Collective Intelligence based on molecular model of computations.
Tadeusz (Ted) Szuba, Paweł Polański, Paweł Schab, Paweł Wielicki

Enhancing the Computational Collective Intelligence within Communities of Practice Using Trust and Reputation Models

Knowledge assets are a critical resource that can generate a competitive advantage for organizations. Generally, knowledge can be divided in explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge. Organizations focus on managing the explicit knowledge, but also on capturing the tacit knowledge embedded in the individuals’ experiences. Through the interactions in social networks, community-based knowledge development has become a very effective tool. In this context, more and more organizations are developing communities of practice as a strategic tool for knowledge development and sharing within the organization and across organizational boundaries. In the last years numerous contributions and approaches pointed out the importance of communities of practice in the knowledge economy. The most relevant argument is that communities of practice are the core of collective learning and collective intelligence, relaying on a permanent exchange of knowledge and information related to the practice. Communities of practice enhance particular knowledge that exist in the organizations and contribute to its coherence. Communities of practice can provide a social reservoir for practitioners, knowledge producers and policy makers to analyze, address and explore new solutions to their problems. These communities are emerging in knowledge-based organizations. They can enhance the efficiency of production and can improve the innovative processes. The paper addresses the new trends and challenges of knowledge dynamics within communities of practice and examines the emergence of this type of communities. We show how computational techniques enhance collective intelligence within communities of practice and suggest a way to model communities’ dynamics. The main objective of the paper is to simulate computational collective intelligence using agent-based models.
Iulia Maries, Emil Scarlat

Loki – Semantic Wiki with Logical Knowledge Representation

To fulfill its ambitious promises, Semantic Web needs practical and accessible tools for collective knowledge engineering. Recent developments in the area of semantic wikis show how such tools can be built. However, existing semantic wikis implementations have both conceptual and technological limitations. These limitations are in the areas of knowledge representation, strong reasoning as well as appropriate user interfaces. In this paper a proposal of a new semantic wiki is presented. Loki uses a coherent logic-based representation for semantic annotations of the content. The same representation is used for implementing reasoning procedures. The representation uses the logic programming paradigm and the Prolog programming language. The proposed architecture allows for rule-based reasoning in the wiki. It also provides a compatibility layer with the popular Semantic MediaWiki (SMW) platform, directly parsing its annotations. In the paper a prototype implementation called PlWiki is described, and a practical use case is given.
Grzegorz J. Nalepa

Rule Extraction Based on Rough Fuzzy Sets in Fuzzy Information Systems

Rough fuzzy sets are an effective mathematical analysis tool to deal with vagueness and uncertainty in the area of machine learning and decision analysis. Fuzzy information systems and fuzzy objective information systems exit in many applications and knowledge reduction in them can’t be implemented by reduction methods in Pawlak information systems. Therefore, this paper provides a model for rule extraction in fuzzy information systems and fuzzy objective information systems.
This approach uses inclusion degree to propose and represent a new and low computation complexity way for knowledge discovery and rough fuzzy concept classifier in fuzzy information systems and fuzzy objective information systems. Also, an illustration example in the construction sector is presented.
This approach is a generalization of rough set model for fuzzy information system. Theory and method of attribute reduction under inclusion degree are suggested in this paper. This approach extends the classical rough set theory from complete information to fuzzy information system.
This proposed model is useful for rule extraction in fuzzy information systems and fuzzy objective information systems to figure our knowledge reduction in fuzzy decision systems.
Ming-Chang Lee, To Chang

Patterns in World Dynamics Indicating Agency

In this paper, the question is addressed which patterns in world dynamics are an indication for a conceptualisation of a world’s process as an agent. Six criteria are discussed that provide an indication for the world to show a form agency, and allows for suitable agent-based conceptualisation. The criteria take the form of relationships between the occurrence of certain patterns in the world’s dynamics, and are expressed as second-order properties of world dynamics. They are formalised in a reified temporal predicate (meta-)logical language and their use is illustrated in a case study, supported by automated support in the form of simulation and verification.
Tibor Bosse, Jan Treur

Agent-Based Modelling of the Emergence of Collective States Based on Contagion of Individual States in Groups

This paper introduces a neurologically inspired computational model for the dynamics and diffusion of agent states within groups. The model combines an individual model based on Damasio’s Somatic Marker Hypothesis with mutual effects of group members on each other via mirroring of individual states such as emotions, beliefs and intentions. The obtained model shows how this combination of assumed neural mechanisms can form an adequate basis for the emergence of common group beliefs and intentions, while, in addition there is a positive feeling with these common states amongst the group members. A particular issue addressed is how certain types of states may affect other types of states, for example, emotions have an effect on beliefs and intentions, and beliefs may effect emotions.
Mark Hoogendoorn, Jan Treur, C. Natalie van der Wal, Arlette van Wissen

Head-On Collision Avoidance by Knowledge Exchange under RAF Control of Autonomous Decentralized FMS

The author past studies on production planning include agent systems where agents act independently under the real-time control of Reasoning to Anticipate the Future (RAF) in order to realize an autonomous decentralized flexible manufacturing systems (AD-FMS) and achieve high production efficiency. However, RAF did not solve the automated guided vehicles (AGVs) colliding problem. This paper describes the method of cooperation by knowledge exchange in AGVs moving autonomously under the real-time control of RAF in AD-FMSs to avoid AGVs collisions. The method gives the AGV an individual knowledge called AGV-knowledge, and by the exchange of which, each AGV can avoid collisions. This method does not use the conventional control by a host computer but applies communication among AGVs. Head-on collisions were prevented by applying this method to 9 types of FMSs constructed in a computer.
Hidehiko Yamamoto, Takayoshi Yamada, Katsutoshi Ootsubo

Quality Assessment of an Expert System: An Instrument of Regular Feedback from Users

One of the possible solutions to ensure software quality is to involve users in its development and gradual improvement. In the described approach users provide regular feedback on the considered expert system in a survey by questionnaire. In the presented paper there are given guidelines on how to design and conduct such survey. The devised quality tree reflects the users’ point of view. Specifications formulated on the basis of the feedback allow software designers to develop improved versions of the considered intelligent system. The reported empirical research refers to an expert system applied in civil engineering. After six iterations of its assessment and then its related improvements the level of users’ satisfaction from the product is currently much better than that at the beginning.
Barbara Begier


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